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Essay in the form

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The Essay as Form | Chris Marker

Essay in the form

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The Essay as Form | Chris Marker

argument in essay Sure, you’re a lover not a fighter. Form? I am too. But that doesn’t mean that you can avoid writing your argumentative essay! Since you have to write an argumentative essay, you might as well learn how to write it well, right? I’ve said it time and time again—there’s nothing worse than staring at a blank page. Putting together an argumentative essay outline is the perfect way to turn your blank document into a ready-to-use template. All you have to internet, do is fill in the blanks! In this blog post, I’m going to share with you how to create an argumentative essay outline. At the end, I’ll give you a downloadable skeleton outline you can use to get started.

Structure of the Argumentative Essay Outline. Essay In The Form? That’s not so bad! There’s really nothing to be afraid of. Here’s how your argumentative essay outline would look if you turned it into a pretty picture: Each of these four sections requires some important elements. Let’s break those down now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 1: Your Intro. Your introduction is honors thesis cornell, where you lay the essay form foundation for your impenetrable argument. It’s made up of rap ghostwriters a hook, background information, and form, a thesis statement. 1. Hook. Your first sentence is comprised of is thesis a “hook.” Don’t know what a hook is?

A hook is a sentence that grabs your reader’s attention just like a good Jackie Chan movie grabs the attention of a martial arts fan. Let’s say I’m writing an argumentative essay about why American people should start eating insects. My hook could be, “For those interested in improving their diets and the environment, say ‘goodbye’ to eating chicken, fish, and beef and ‘hello’ to in the, eating silk worms, crickets, and caterpillars.” If you’re having trouble coming up with a good hook, I recommend reading my blog post How to Write Good Hook Sentences. 2. Background information. The next part of your intro is dedicated to offering some detailed background information on rap ghostwriters your topic. Try answering the following questions: What is the issue at hand? Who cares? Where is essay, this issue prevalent?

Why is it important? For example, “Insects are abundant, nutritious, and environmentally sustainable. Currently, people in studies the United States shun the idea of eating insects as part of their diets, favoring instead less nutritious and environmentally destructive food options, such as beef and pork. The UN recently issued a statement calling for more world citizens to embrace the many benefits of eating insects.” 3. Thesis. Your thesis typically makes up the last sentence of your intro paragraph. This is where you clearly state your position on the topic and give a reason for your stance. For example, “A diet of insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and climate change, and therefore, United States citizens should learn to in the form, rely on victorian a variety of essay in the insects over chicken, beef, and fish as their main source of protein and nutrition.” Notice the word “should” in my thesis statement?

Using this word makes it clear I’m taking a stance on the argument. You’ll also notice that my thesis statement sets up the three claims I’m going to where is thesis, expand on essay in the form later: a diet of insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and climate change. Where? Let’s talk about essay in the form adding those claims to our argumentative essay outline now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 2: Developing Your Argument. Now that you have filled in the general points of your topic and outlined your stance in rap ghostwriters the introduction, it’s time to develop your argument. In my sample outline, I show three claims, each backed by form three points of victorian internet evidence. Offering three claims is just a suggestion; you may find that you only have two claims to make, or four. In The Form? The exact number of claims you choose to include doesn’t matter (unless, of course, your teacher has given you a specific requirement).

What matters is that you develop your argument as thoroughly as possible. 1. Management? What is a claim? A claim is in the form, a statement you make to support your argument. For example, “Bugs are highly nutritious and eating them can fix the problem of hunger and malnutrition in essays finance the United States.” Great!

So I’ve made my claim. But who’s going to in the, believe me? This is where evidence comes into play. 2. What is evidence? For each claim you make, you need to famous, provide supporting evidence. Essay In The? Evidence is factual information from reliable sources. It is not personal knowledge or anecdotal. For example, “Researchers at the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United States state that ‘Termites are rich in protein, fatty acids, and other micronutrients. Fried or dried termites contain 32–38 percent proteins.’“ My outline shows three pieces of essays evidence to support each claim, but you may find that each claim doesn’t necessarily have three pieces of evidence to back it. Once again, the form exact number doesn’t necessarily matter (unless your teacher has given you instructions), but you need enough evidence to make your claim believable.

Once you have gathered your evidence to support your claims, it’s time to add the next important element of your argumentative essay outline: refuting your opponents’ arguments. Let’s talk about that now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 3: Refuting Opponents’ Arguments. In this section, you state your opponents’ views and essays management, then offer a rebuttal. For example, “Opponents of in the form insect eating from the rap ghostwriters Beef Council of America say that it is too difficult and essay in the form, time consuming to catch crickets, so it is not easy to case studies, gather enough food for a meal, whereas a cow is essay, large and contains a lot of meat for many meals.” Oh diss! We know the Beef Council just wants us to keep eating McD’s hamburgers and skip the cricket soup. (By the way—I just made that up. Famous? The Beef Council did not say that. In your essay, make sure to use real facts.) Now it’s time to essay in the form, set the opponents straight with a refutation that is full of hard evidence and that will bring them to their knees. For example, “According to researchers Cerritos and Cano-Santana, the best time to harvest crickets is to catch them in the hour just before sunrise when they are least active. What’s more, it is is thesis statement, easy to develop the infrastructure to farm crickets in a way that is more sustainable than cattle farming.”

Booyah! The Beef Council has been served (crickets). In The? Once you have refuted your opponents’ viewpoints, it’s time to sail to the finish line with your conclusion. Victorian Essay? Argumentative Essay Outline Section 4: Conclusion. In your conclusion, you are going to in the, accomplish two important tasks. 1. Studies? Restate the importance of in the form your issue. Honors Thesis Kerr? Similar to what you did in essay in the form your introduction, you want to restate why this topic is victorian internet essay, critical. For example, “Simply by incorporating insects into their diets, U.S. citizens can improve the sustainability and nutrition of the American diet.” 2. In The? Paint a picture of the world if your argument is (or is not) implemented. In the final part of your conclusion, make your audience think about the ramifications of your argument. Honors Thesis? What would happen if people started eating insects as a staple of their diets? For example, “The world would be a better place if more people ate insects as a part of their diets.

Fewer people would go hungry, more people would get the vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients they need to live healthy lifestyles, and our planet would be relieved of the form burden of an unsustainable food system. Closing with a clear picture of the world as you would like it to be can leave your reader convinced that your argument is valid. Download the Argumentative Essay Outline Template. Honors Thesis Cornell Kerr? Download this skeleton Argumentative Essay Outline to get started. Before you go off into the sunset and use my outline template, make sure that you are following the guidelines specific to your course. While this is in the, a pretty standard outline, there are other ways to outline your argumentative essay. If you’re interested in learning more about argumentative essays, I suggest reading The Secrets of a Strong Argumentative Essay. Want even more knowledge?

Check out this argumentative essay infographic! If you’re looking for some ideas, check out these argumentative essay examples. When you have your argumentative essay and outline ready to go, you can always have one of our awesome editors give it a second look. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd. wow this was really help full.

Super! I#8217;m really happy to help. Rap Ghostwriters? #128578; Hi I have a 20 minute presentation to do on the history of cognitive-behaviour therapy. Essay In The Form? Don#8217;t know where to begin. Is this the same as doing an argument. This sounds more like an expository essay. An expository essay (or presentation in where located your case) has the goal of informing the audience on a specific topic. Essay? Usually you don#8217;t take an argumentative stance for classical essays, or against these topics. For more information on expository writing visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-expository-essay/ hi i need some help on an argument . The topic is internet a guide or a distraction. i hope u can help.

Do you think the internet is a guide or a distraction? I would suggest writing a thesis statement like this: You could focus on arguing for the internet: #8220;The internet is a useful guide as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR you could focus on arguing against the internet: #8220;The internet is an annoying distraction as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR, and this is the best option, you could focus on essay in the form arguing how to best use the internet: #8220;The internet can be both a useful guide as shown by evidence 1 and evidence 2, but it can also be an honors, annoying distraction as shown by evidence 3 and evidence 4. It is important to set personal limits on web use including solution 1, solution 2, and solution 3.#8221; Personal limits could include things such as limiting yourself to viewing only specific websites during work/study hours, limiting overall time online, and other things like that! Hi Liz, well first you need to pick a side. What do you think? Should they have their licenses revoked? Then you need to come up with a few reasons for why you think this. Can you find any examples of how this tactic has worked (or hasn#8217;t worked).

What about essay in the form people who lose their licenses for studies ocd, other (criminal) reasons, is this type of form punishment effective? Why or why not? Come up with approx three claims to support your side. Find some evidence to support your claims. Lay out how each of the two authors approach the topic of the Crusades. Essays Finance Management? What do they have in common? What is different?

Super happy to help! thank you so much for this! You are welcome so much! Thanks for form, reading. #128578; Hi, I am writing an essay, argumentative essay on freedom of speech rights and the 1st amendment and I have two sides of the argument. Essay In The Form? I am for freedom of speech if it doesn#8217;t harm other people and rap ghostwriters, I have some cases where the form supreme court are avoiding the where located laws stated in the amendment but I#8217;m on the court#8217;s side of restricting inappropriate speech in a school environment. How should I start out essay form, my argument? I think you need to psychology case, combine your two perspectives into one focused argument. Do you, perhaps, want to argue that inappropriate speech in a school environment is actually harmful to other people?

That way, it falls into essay, your first argument (pro-free speech as long as it#8217;s not harmful) quite nicely. Good luck! it has helped a lot #8230;#8230; great work. Thanks! Glad you liked it. #128578; Thank you very much :)) You are welcome! Thanks for reading #128578; HI, I am writing an argumentative essay on how different governments should provide additional funding to increase awareness of famous essays human trafficking, prevent human trafficking, and help victims who have been trafficked. Form? I am not sure where to start from. Hisome of these example essays on human trafficking may give you ideas on how to get started: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/human%20trafficking. Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on how is social media like Facebook or Twitter beneficial or harmful to its users? I am not sure how to start from there.

Hi Rosie you might find inspiration on how to get started by reviewing some of these example essays on social media: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/social%20media. Hi, i was wondering if in the conclusion of the essay you need to end it with a question, something for the reader to continue to internet, think about after reading or is form, it unnecessary? Great question! Asking a larger question is definitely one great conclusion technique. Some teachers/profs really like this, while others prefer that you tie everything up with a neat little bow. I recommend you check out this post on the topic of conclusions: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ This helped a lot! Thanks, love how its broken down.

I have a question though. Should the conclusion have its own paragraph or can I include the conclusion with opponents argument? I definitely recommend giving your conclusion its own paragraph. You don#8217;t want to leave your readers hanging on where is thesis located to just your opponent#8217;s argument! You can learn more about writing conclusions in this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ Helped me to help my students #128578; I was wondering if you can show a sample essay with these elements in use? Thank you #128578; Awesome!

I love to hear that. That#8217;s a really great idea#8230; and one that I intend to implement in upcoming blog posts. However, at this time I don#8217;t readily have access to a knock out example. Naomi. HELP.

I am having a hard time with my argumentative research essay on drug testing to form, receive state benefits a.e. T.A.N.F, food stamps.. I#8217;m getting so frustrated and famous classical, I dont have any idea where to begin.. I found it very useful! Thanks a lot #128512; You#8217;re welcome a lot! Thanks for reading. #128578; thanks helped me a lot luv your work 3. can u do a website on in the form argumentiv wtiting starters plz im a begener. OMG. THX so much this helped a ton. You are so welcome! Thanks for reading. #128578; You#8217;re welcome!

Wow that#8217;s a great idea for an essay. Very intriguing. is this guide ok for an eight grader test. Yasss#8230;This blog is reliable#8230;Thanks ? Woot! Glad you like it. #128578; I#8217;m happy to hear it. Thesis? #128578; Thanks for essay form, your comment. Classical Essays? I have to write an argumentative. Essay? research essay about the rap ghostwriters career of my choice, which is sports marketing. I#8217;m not sure what type of arguments I need to make. Am I defending my choice of careers?

Am I talking about it#8217;s importance in the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in in the form so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about it. I have to write an argumentative research essay about the career of my choice, which is sports marketing. I#8217;m not sure what type of arguments I need to make. Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about it#8217;s importance in the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about it. Hi thereI#8217;d double check your assignment for clues on how to approach this.

If there really aren#8217;t any additional clues, I would go with your first instinct to defend your choice of careers. Finance? Why are you interested? Is the pay worth it? What makes you cut out for this career in particular? A thesis statement might look like: Sports marketing is the perfect career choice for me as it will allow me to use my strengths in XYZ, make a decent income, all while keeping me interested and engaged. Then use the rest of essay in the form your essay to fill out those key points. Thanks!

That#8217;s helpful. Here#8217;s what the assignment says: #8220;In your argumentative research essay, you will a) conduct research about a successful and realistic career of cornell kerr your choice, b) use this research and accompanying commentary and rhetoric to create an argument that you will eventually present and in the, defend to psychology case, a group of peers. This assignment serves to create a foundation for in the form, personal statements, resumes and CVs, and even interviews in thesis cornell which you will be asked about your chosen career path and its significance to you. The evidence you collect during your research should support and justify your pursuit of any given career.#8221; Do you think I will be on track if I use your suggested thesis? YesI do. You#8217;ll also want to find some hard facts and essay, statistics to support your claims. For example, dig up how much it will cost for you to classical, get your degree and weigh that against your potential income. You#8217;ll want to in the, start with a clear thesis statement.

I assume that when you say you are pro-Hungary this means that you feel the country shouldn#8217;t be required to where statement located, accept refugees? If so, your thesis statement might look something like this: Hungary should not be required to accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Form? Orif you think the country should help. Ocd? You would start with a thesis like this: Hungary should be required to essay in the, accept Syrian refugees because of classical essays reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Glad to form, help! Thanks for essays management, your comment. Hi ! I need help in writing a good thesis statement on the advantages and disadvantages of using a cell phone.

Please help. I need to submit it on thursday. Plz Plz help. This one is pretty straightforward. You can frame it like this: Cell phone use has many advantages such as A, and B, but some disadvantages such as C. Or you could flip it: Cell phone use has many disadvantages such as A, and in the form, B, but some advantages such as C. Fill in A, B, and where statement, C with your actual research. Essay Form? Thank you so much Naomi. Essay? This is a great help. Hi ! I need to in the, write a thesis statement on victorian internet essay the topic, #8216;Element of hamartia in Hamlet, Love song of essay form J Alfred and Agamemnon. I need a thesis statement on this. I have written Unable to take the correct decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end.

To be able to make that correct decision one must have the psychology case studies confidence otherwise it can have a tragic end as it happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon and The Love song of J. Alfred. Do you think this is ok, if not can you help me please in writing a good thesis statement. Thank you. I think you have the right idea, but your version is unclear and a bit repetitive. How about this edit? Being unable to make the right decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end, which is exactly what happened to the protagonists in essay in the form Hamlet, Agamemnon, and The Love song of J. Alfred.

Thank you Naomi so very much. This is great. I can go ahead now. You#8217;re welcome, Rachel! First you#8217;ll need to come up with a thesis statement. For example: Public schools should be divided by sex because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Then choose reasons that you can support with evidence from essays finance management your research. this really works thanks.

Glad it worked for essay form, you, Rose! Thanks for your comment. Thanks but I#8217;m having trouble coming up with a good topic that is strong and worthy to be argued but not boring. I want to famous essays, do something that isn#8217;t a popular topic like is texting and essay form, driving bad anu advice. thank you so much. I have to write an argumentative essay on Poverty and cornell kerr, Illiteracy. I have already looked up my citations. Essay Form? But I don#8217;t know how to break down my citations. Essays Finance Management? Could you help me please? I#8217;m not sure whether you need to write APA, MLA, or some other type of essay form citation, but I have some blog posts that can help: MLA is how I need to write it. Oh lordy this blog is ammmaaazzzinnnng.

Why thank you! I appreciate you readinnnnnng! can you send me your project on my email [emailprotected] Ikr like wowww #8230;I am so grateful to reach up on it. can u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] . I#8217;m supposed to create an argumentative essay that Rome was a superior society to Han China. Thank you so much. I think this is super helpful. Now my next problem is honors cornell kerr, if I can fit it all onto one page. (That#8217;s the limit our teacher gave us. he wants to see if we can make brief statements that speak many words with little words written) Funnyis that a common assignment this month? You#8217;re not the first student to ask me about this Romans v Hans. A topic that large is going to be very difficult to explore in a single pagebut hey, it#8217;s a good exercise in concision. Essay? In any caseat the risk of finance sounding sales-ythe Kibin editing team is really good at meticulously cutting an in the, essay down to size if you end up going over that one-page limit. Rap Ghostwriters? You can learn more about our editing service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. I really don#8217;t understand the refuting part. When you refute something, you take your opponent#8217;s argument and rip it to essay in the, shreds.

So for essays finance management, example, say your opponent#8217;s biggest argument is that Donald Trump is the essay in the best candidate for U.S. president, you could counter that argument by pointing out that he has zero experience in politics. hello again. I don#8217;t know if you got my resent reply but I was trying to ask and see if you could give me a little advice on some good resources involving work laws for teens. Thesis Kerr? This is really helped a lot. I was able to do my argumentative essay after reading this. It also explained clearly what I was looking for. Essay? Thank you! 3. Is Thesis Statement Located? You are so welcome! Glad to help. In The Form? #128578; thanks a lot! this helped me create my english paper! Sweet! Love to psychology case ocd, hear that. #128578; Thank you so much.

You saved my last semester of college! (From a French canadian currently having English Classes) Hey! Thanks for the great comment. You really made my day! I wish you the very best in your English classes. Woot! Happy to essay in the form, help. #128578; Fantastic! So happy to honors cornell kerr, hear it. Essay In The Form? #128578; I#8217;m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to internet essay, the knowledge of in the form health practitioners. Please hook me up!!

Love this blog. What email address I can sent my essay to get fix? And how long do I have to wait to get it back. Thank you. Hi Trinh Le, I love that you love it. #128578; Thanks for the comment. To have an essay edited, please visit us here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. Our editors can have your essay back in as few as 3 hours (depending on word count). I#8217;m in love with this blog. I was totally dreading the argumentative essay outline but now I#8217;m kind of is thesis pumped thanks to your (absolutely hilarious) examples!

Awesome! I love hearing this. Writing can be fun as long as you don#8217;t actively dread it. #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH PLEASE WISH ME LUCK FOR MY ENGLISH EXAM TOMORROW SINCE ARGUMENTATIVE IS GOING TO BE INCLUDED IN THE EXAM TOMORROW I SHOULD#8217;VE ADD THE EVIDENCE FOR THE CLAIM HAHAHAHA O??? Thanks for in the form, reading! #128578; This saved my life. Thesis Kerr? Thank you so much! Sweet! Happy to be a lifesaver. I need this argumentative essay for tmm#8230; if crickets should be added to lunch school I need a sting essay I#8217;m in essay in the 11 grade my opinion is yes crickets should be added. Psychology Case Ocd? Hi there, the outline in this post should help you a lot! As for your thesis statement, you could write something like: Crickets should be added to the school lunch menu because they are both nutritious and inexpensive. Form? For the internet essay rest of your essay, talk about how you know they are nutritious and inexpensive (hint, do your research!).

I never understood the way my teacher taught this until I found this blog. It has helped me write a better argumentative essay. Thanks. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for essay form, reading. #128578; Awesome! I love to essay, hear feedback like this. Thanks for reading! Thanks a lot mate helped me so much. Super! Happy to help. You#8217;re super welcome!

Happy to help. Thank You sooo much for this blog. This has given me a chance to essay in the, structure my assignment even better. THANKS xx. Rap Ghostwriters? Thanks so much for reading! Happy to in the, help. Rap Ghostwriters? I#8217;m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners. Please hook me up!! Your topic is form, a bit over my head, but you may be able to get the creative juices flowing by using our compare/contrast thesis statement generator: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder/compare-contrast-topic. You#8217;re welcome!

Thanks for reading. My name is Haley and i have to do an argumentative essay for LA and my topic is#8230;#8230;..In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? what should i put as a hook? The hook you choose will definitely depend on your stance on the topic. Psychology Studies Ocd? If your paper is pro-choice, you could start with a shocking statistic about the number of women who go through illegal/dangerous abortions during times and places where abortion is in the form, illegal. If your paper is pro-life, you might start with an emotional appeal about the life of an unborn fetus being cut short. This is very helpful. I was having trouble getting started on famous classical essays writing but now I feel a lot more confident in my subject. Thanks for in the form, the breakdown. Happy you found it useful.

Thanks for reading! Glad to internet essay, hear that! M hving trouble with introduction on smoking restriction. Can you help me with introducing on smoking restriction topic and thesis as well. Essay? I#8217;m going to honors thesis, assume that you are taking a stance in favor of essay in the form smoking restriction. A hook would be a shocking statistic about the health risks of secondhand smoke to non-smokers. Here is a good source to get you started: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/secondhand_smoke/general_facts/ A thesis statement framework might look like this: Smoking restrictions are critical to public health due to psychology, reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. You might also try our thesis statement builder: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder.

Naomi! youre amazing! this has really clarified this topic for me. Form? thank you! Well, thank you, Neil! This comment was a great way to start my Friday. #128578; Wow, this is really good. I have been reading about academic reading and writing every day for 9 wks.

I have to write a 1200-1500 word argumentative essay for essays, my 1st university assessment. This is by essay in the far the most helpful article I have read. Well done and thanks. Heaps. Fantastic! Happy to help. Honors Thesis Cornell Kerr? I have to write a argumentative essay and essay in the, the topic is: Should Homeland security and the CIA treat terrorist better? Aren#8217;t they people too? I#8217;m not sure what exactly im suppose to do or how to rap ghostwriters, start it. thank you ms.Naomi that was really helpful. Do you add in essay a rebuttal for each of thesis your points?? That is essay, certainly one way to approach an argumentative essay.

Take an opponent#8217;s view on classical essays each of your arguments and essay in the, then crush it with your rebuttal. Or, if you follow the outline I gave you in where statement this post, just include a section to essay, crush one or two common opponent arguments. Thank you, this was very helpful and in case ocd the same time funny! good way to make interesting!! This was very helpful, but I still have some hesitation, my last important paper is an Argumentative Research, and essay in the form, this will be my first one. Management? I already have a thesis chosen and I#8217;m just kinda confuse about what facts I need to essay in the, collect, but its just getting information that will back up my thesis,correct? Hi thereyes, as long as you have a good defendable thesis, you should be able to honors kerr, find sources to support your stance. Here is essay form, a blog post about making sure your sources are credible: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/apply-craap-test-essay-sources/ Thanks for ocd, answering but I#8217;m having a difficult time trying to find and essay, discern what will be helpful in my paper. My paper being about Human Rights specifically Minority/Indigenous Rights. This was so helpful!

But, I do have a couple of questions. Is there a secret to writing a killer hook? What is the case studies ocd best way to state your claim in the introduction? You might need to also read these posts: Thank you so much for the helpful info. I definitely owe a get out of in the jail free card. Awesome, I could definitely use it. #128578; Seriously very usefull tips i like it #128578; How many paragraphs is this?

The argumentative essay outline is where located, 6 paragraphs as it stands, but you can definitely alter it to suit your purposes by adding or subtracting body paragraphs as needed. Usually your hook sentence is in the form, separate from classical your thesis statement. Essay In The? The hook is the first sentence in is thesis statement the intro paragraph, while your thesis statement is essay in the form, typically the famous classical essays last sentence in this paragraph. Sometimes you will add some background information too. Essay Form? So an intro is Hook-background info-thesis statement.

Here#8217;s a revision of your sentence: ADD A HOOK SENTENCE OR TWO HERE. We live in 21st century, and many gender roles are outdated and shouldn#8217;t affect our lives in the ways they did before. One of where is thesis statement these outdated gender roles is the idea that only boys can ask girls outgirls should be able to ask boys out in the form, too. this is very useful#8230; but I can not write argument for my research paper (my topic is the famous classical essays racism in america and how effect to people ) can you help me , please. Essay Form? Racism in kerr America is a huge problem and essay in the, a huge topic. I think your first step is to narrow your research focus. First, which specific problem of honors racism will you be looking at? Racism against form, a particular minority group? In a specific region or city? Are there studies that show the effects in these groups and regions?

What are some common findings/themes? Here is another post specifically about writing a research paper: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-research-paper/ This blog is Amazing! Very helpful! But my question is that did you really have to rap ghostwriters, use #8220;eating insects#8221; example? I was having a hot n sour soup while reading this.

Ha! I#8217;m so sorry to have ruined your supper. #128578; I think I was inspired to write this post after a bug flew into my mouth while I was riding my bike to work#8230; nutty and a bit bitter. Thanks for reading! This is absolutely incredible! I greatly admire your work and accomplishment! I am a teacher that is writing a textbook with Creative Commons licensing for my school district using CK-12 as the platform.

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Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation? More comfortable online than out partying, post-Millennials are safer, physically, than adolescents have ever been. But they’re on the brink of a mental-health crisis. Trump's Puerto Rico Visit Is a Political Disaster. Civil-Rights Protests Have Never Been Popular. Sterilizing a Child, for a Better Life. The Absurdity of the form, Nobel Prizes in Science. O ne day last summer, around noon, I called Athena, a 13-year-old who lives in Houston, Texas. She answered her phone—she’s had an iPhone since she was 11—sounding as if she’d just woken up.

We chatted about her favorite songs and famous classical essays TV shows, and I asked her what she likes to do with her friends. “We go to the mall,” she said. “Do your parents drop you off?,” I asked, recalling my own middle-school days, in the 1980s, when I’d enjoy a few parent-free hours shopping with my friends. “No—I go with my family,” she replied. “We’ll go with my mom and brothers and walk a little behind them. I just have to tell my mom where we’re going. I have to check in every hour or every 30 minutes.” Those mall trips are infrequent—about once a month. More often, Athena and her friends spend time together on their phones, unchaperoned. Unlike the teens of essay in the form my generation, who might have spent an evening tying up the family landline with gossip, they talk on Snapchat, the smartphone app that allows users to send pictures and victorian videos that quickly disappear.

They make sure to keep up their Snapstreaks, which show how many days in a row they have Snapchatted with each other. Sometimes they save screenshots of particularly ridiculous pictures of friends. In The? “It’s good blackmail,” Athena said. (Because she’s a minor, I’m not using her real name.) She told me she’d spent most of the summer hanging out psychology case, alone in her room with her phone. That’s just the way her generation is, she said. “We didn’t have a choice to know any life without iPads or iPhones. Essay Form? I think we like our phones more than we like actual people.” I’ve been researching generational differences for is thesis statement, 25 years, starting when I was a 22-year-old doctoral student in psychology. Typically, the in the form, characteristics that come to define a generation appear gradually, and along a continuum. Famous Classical? Beliefs and behaviors that were already rising simply continue to do so.

Millennials, for instance, are a highly individualistic generation, but individualism had been increasing since the Baby Boomers turned on, tuned in, and dropped out. I had grown accustomed to line graphs of essay trends that looked like modest hills and valleys. Then I began studying Athena’s generation. Around 2012, I noticed abrupt shifts in teen behaviors and emotional states. The gentle slopes of the line graphs became steep mountains and sheer cliffs, and many of the distinctive characteristics of the Millennial generation began to disappear.

In all my analyses of generational data—some reaching back to essays, the 1930s—I had never seen anything like it. The allure of essay form independence, so powerful to previous generations, holds less sway over today’s teens. At first I presumed these might be blips, but the essays, trends persisted, across several years and a series of national surveys. The changes weren’t just in degree, but in kind. The biggest difference between the Millennials and their predecessors was in how they viewed the world; teens today differ from the Millennials not just in their views but in how they spend their time. The experiences they have every day are radically different from those of the generation that came of age just a few years before them. What happened in 2012 to cause such dramatic shifts in behavior? It was after the Great Recession, which officially lasted from 2007 to 2009 and essay had a starker effect on Millennials trying to find a place in cornell, a sputtering economy. But it was exactly the moment when the proportion of in the form Americans who owned a smartphone surpassed 50 percent. T he more I pored over yearly surveys of teen attitudes and behaviors, and the more I talked with young people like Athena, the clearer it became that theirs is a generation shaped by thesis cornell the smartphone and by the concomitant rise of social media.

I call them iGen. Born between 1995 and 2012, members of this generation are growing up with smartphones, have an Instagram account before they start high school, and in the do not remember a time before the internet. The Millennials grew up with the web as well, but it wasn’t ever-present in their lives, at hand at all times, day and night. iGen’s oldest members were early adolescents when the essays, iPhone was introduced, in in the, 2007, and high-school students when the iPad entered the scene, in 2010. A 2017 survey of more than 5,000 American teens found that three out of four owned an iPhone. The advent of the smartphone and its cousin the classical, tablet was followed quickly by hand-wringing about the deleterious effects of “screen time.” But the impact of these devices has not been fully appreciated, and goes far beyond the essay in the form, usual concerns about rap ghostwriters curtailed attention spans. The arrival of the smartphone has radically changed every aspect of teenagers’ lives, from the nature of their social interactions to their mental health. These changes have affected young people in every corner of the essay, nation and in every type of household. The trends appear among teens poor and rich; of every ethnic background; in cities, suburbs, and small towns.

Where there are cell towers, there are teens living their lives on essays their smartphone. To those of us who fondly recall a more analog adolescence, this may seem foreign and troubling. The aim of generational study, however, is not to succumb to nostalgia for the way things used to essay form, be; it’s to understand how they are now. Some generational changes are positive, some are negative, and many are both. More comfortable in their bedrooms than in a car or at a party, today’s teens are physically safer than teens have ever been. They’re markedly less likely to classical essays, get into a car accident and, having less of a taste for alcohol than their predecessors, are less susceptible to drinking’s attendant ills.

Psychologically, however, they are more vulnerable than Millennials were: Rates of teen depression and suicide have skyrocketed since 2011. It’s not an exaggeration to describe iGen as being on the brink of the worst mental-health crisis in decades. Much of essay in the form this deterioration can be traced to their phones. Even when a seismic event—a war, a technological leap, a free concert in internet essay, the mud—plays an essay, outsize role in shaping a group of young people, no single factor ever defines a generation. Parenting styles continue to change, as do school curricula and culture, and these things matter.

But the twin rise of the finance management, smartphone and social media has caused an essay in the, earthquake of a magnitude we’ve not seen in a very long time, if ever. There is compelling evidence that the devices we’ve placed in young people’s hands are having profound effects on their lives—and making them seriously unhappy. I n the early 1970s, the photographer Bill Yates shot a series of rap ghostwriters portraits at the Sweetheart Roller Skating Rink in Tampa, Florida. In one, a shirtless teen stands with a large bottle of form peppermint schnapps stuck in the waistband of rap ghostwriters his jeans. In another, a boy who looks no older than 12 poses with a cigarette in essay, his mouth. The rink was a place where kids could get away from their parents and inhabit a world of their own, a world where they could drink, smoke, and make out in the backs of their cars. In stark black-and-white, the adolescent Boomers gaze at Yates’s camera with the self-confidence born of making your own choices—even if, perhaps especially if, your parents wouldn’t think they were the right ones. Fifteen years later, during my own teenage years as a member of Generation X, smoking had lost some of its romance, but independence was definitely still in. Psychology Studies Ocd? My friends and I plotted to get our driver’s license as soon as we could, making DMV appointments for the day we turned 16 and using our newfound freedom to escape the confines of in the our suburban neighborhood. Asked by our parents, “When will you be home?,” we replied, “When do I have to be?”

But the allure of case studies ocd independence, so powerful to previous generations, holds less sway over today’s teens, who are less likely to essay, leave the house without their parents. The shift is stunning: 12th-graders in 2015 were going out less often than eighth-graders did as recently as 2009. Today’s teens are also less likely to date. The initial stage of courtship, which Gen Xers called “liking” (as in internet essay, “Ooh, he likes you!”), kids now call “talking”—an ironic choice for a generation that prefers texting to actual conversation. After two teens have “talked” for a while, they might start dating. But only about 56 percent of high-school seniors in 2015 went out on essay dates; for Boomers and Gen Xers, the number was about 85 percent. The decline in dating tracks with a decline in sexual activity. The drop is the sharpest for ninth-graders, among whom the number of sexually active teens has been cut by almost 40 percent since 1991. The average teen now has had sex for victorian essay, the first time by the spring of 11th grade, a full year later than the average Gen Xer. Fewer teens having sex has contributed to what many see as one of the most positive youth trends in recent years: The teen birth rate hit an all-time low in 2016, down 67 percent since its modern peak, in 1991.

Even driving, a symbol of in the adolescent freedom inscribed in American popular culture, from Rebel Without a Cause to Ferris Bueller’s Day Off , has lost its appeal for today’s teens. Nearly all Boomer high-school students had their driver’s license by psychology case the spring of essay their senior year; more than one in four teens today still lack one at the end of where is thesis statement located high school. For some, Mom and form Dad are such good chauffeurs that there’s no urgent need to drive. “My parents drove me everywhere and never complained, so I always had rides,” a 21-year-old student in San Diego told me. “I didn’t get my license until my mom told me I had to because she could not keep driving me to school.” She finally got her license six months after her 18th birthday. Essays Management? In conversation after conversation, teens described getting their license as something to be nagged into by their parents—a notion that would have been unthinkable to previous generations. Independence isn’t free—you need some money in your pocket to pay for in the form, gas, or for that bottle of schnapps. In earlier eras, kids worked in great numbers, eager to finance their freedom or prodded by their parents to learn the management, value of a dollar. But iGen teens aren’t working (or managing their own money) as much.

In the late 1970s, 77 percent of high-school seniors worked for form, pay during the rap ghostwriters, school year; by essay form the mid-2010s, only 55 percent did. The number of eighth-graders who work for thesis kerr, pay has been cut in half. In The Form? These declines accelerated during the finance, Great Recession, but teen employment has not bounced back, even though job availability has. Of course, putting off the responsibilities of adulthood is not an iGen innovation. Essay Form? Gen Xers, in the 1990s, were the first to postpone the traditional markers of adulthood. Young Gen Xers were just about as likely to drive, drink alcohol, and date as young Boomers had been, and more likely to have sex and get pregnant as teens. But as they left their teenage years behind, Gen Xers married and started careers later than their Boomer predecessors had. Gen X managed to stretch adolescence beyond all previous limits: Its members started becoming adults earlier and finished becoming adults later. Where Statement? Beginning with Millennials and continuing with iGen, adolescence is contracting again—but only because its onset is form being delayed. Across a range of behaviors—drinking, dating, spending time unsupervised— 18-year-olds now act more like 15-year-olds used to, and statement located 15-year-olds more like 13-year-olds.

Childhood now stretches well into high school. Why are today’s teens waiting longer to take on essay in the form both the responsibilities and essays finance the pleasures of adulthood? Shifts in form, the economy, and parenting, certainly play a role. In an information economy that rewards higher education more than early work history, parents may be inclined to encourage their kids to stay home and famous essays study rather than to get a part-time job. Teens, in turn, seem to be content with this homebody arrangement—not because they’re so studious, but because their social life is lived on essay in the their phone.

They don’t need to leave home to spend time with their friends. If today’s teens were a generation of grinds, we’d see that in psychology case studies ocd, the data. But eighth-, 10th-, and 12th-graders in the 2010s actually spend less time on homework than Gen X teens did in the early 1990s. (High-school seniors headed for four-year colleges spend about the same amount of in the form time on homework as their predecessors did.) The time that seniors spend on activities such as student clubs and sports and management exercise has changed little in recent years. Combined with the decline in working for pay, this means iGen teens have more leisure time than Gen X teens did, not less. So what are they doing with all that time? They are on their phone, in their room, alone and often distressed. O ne of the essay, ironies of iGen life is that despite spending far more time under the same roof as their parents, today’s teens can hardly be said to be closer to their mothers and fathers than their predecessors were. Classical? “I’ve seen my friends with their families—they don’t talk to them,” Athena told me. “They just say ‘Okay, okay, whatever’ while they’re on form their phones. They don’t pay attention to thesis cornell, their family.” Like her peers, Athena is an expert at tuning out her parents so she can focus on her phone. Essay Form? She spent much of her summer keeping up with friends, but nearly all of it was over text or Snapchat. “I’ve been on my phone more than I’ve been with actual people,” she said. “My bed has, like, an imprint of famous classical my body.” In this, too, she is in the typical. The number of teens who get together with their friends nearly every day dropped by more than 40 percent from 2000 to 2015; the decline has been especially steep recently.

It’s not only rap ghostwriters a matter of essay in the form fewer kids partying; fewer kids are spending time simply hanging out. That’s something most teens used to do: nerds and jocks, poor kids and essays finance management rich kids, C students and A students. The roller rink, the basketball court, the town pool, the local necking spot—they’ve all been replaced by virtual spaces accessed through apps and the web. You might expect that teens spend so much time in these new spaces because it makes them happy, but most data suggest that it does not. The Monitoring the Future survey, funded by essay form the National Institute on Drug Abuse and statement designed to be nationally representative, has asked 12th-graders more than 1,000 questions every year since 1975 and queried eighth- and 10th-graders since 1991. The survey asks teens how happy they are and also how much of essay form their leisure time they spend on various activities, including nonscreen activities such as in-person social interaction and statement exercise, and, in essay, recent years, screen activities such as using social media, texting, and browsing the web. The results could not be clearer: Teens who spend more time than average on screen activities are more likely to internet essay, be unhappy, and those who spend more time than average on essay nonscreen activities are more likely to be happy. There’s not a single exception.

All screen activities are linked to finance management, less happiness, and all nonscreen activities are linked to form, more happiness. Eighth-graders who spend 10 or more hours a week on social media are 56 percent more likely to say they’re unhappy than those who devote less time to social media. Admittedly, 10 hours a week is famous a lot. But those who spend six to nine hours a week on essay form social media are still 47 percent more likely to where is thesis, say they are unhappy than those who use social media even less. In The? The opposite is true of essays finance management in-person interactions. Those who spend an above-average amount of time with their friends in person are 20 percent less likely to essay, say they’re unhappy than those who hang out for a below-average amount of time. The more time teens spend looking at rap ghostwriters screens, the essay in the form, more likely they are to report symptoms of depression.

If you were going to give advice for a happy adolescence based on rap ghostwriters this survey, it would be straightforward: Put down the phone, turn off the laptop, and do something—anything—that does not involve a screen. Of course, these analyses don’t unequivocally prove that screen time causes unhappiness; it’s possible that unhappy teens spend more time online. But recent research suggests that screen time, in particular social-media use, does indeed cause unhappiness. Essay In The? One study asked college students with a Facebook page to where is thesis located, complete short surveys on their phone over in the form the course of two weeks. They’d get a text message with a link five times a day, and victorian essay report on their mood and how much they’d used Facebook.

The more they’d used Facebook, the unhappier they felt, but feeling unhappy did not subsequently lead to more Facebook use. Social-networking sites like Facebook promise to connect us to friends. But the portrait of iGen teens emerging from the data is one of a lonely, dislocated generation. Teens who visit social-networking sites every day but see their friends in person less frequently are the most likely to agree with the statements “A lot of times I feel lonely,” “I often feel left out of things,” and “I often wish I had more good friends.” Teens’ feelings of loneliness spiked in 2013 and have remained high since. This doesn’t always mean that, on an individual level, kids who spend more time online are lonelier than kids who spend less time online.

Teens who spend more time on essay form social media also spend more time with their friends in person, on average—highly social teens are more social in both venues, and less social teens are less so. But at the generational level, when teens spend more time on rap ghostwriters smartphones and less time on in-person social interactions, loneliness is more common. So is depression. Once again, the effect of screen activities is unmistakable: The more time teens spend looking at screens, the more likely they are to report symptoms of depression. Eighth-graders who are heavy users of social media increase their risk of essay in the depression by 27 percent, while those who play sports, go to religious services, or even do homework more than the average teen cut their risk significantly. Teens who spend three hours a day or more on electronic devices are 35 percent more likely to rap ghostwriters, have a risk factor for suicide, such as making a suicide plan. (That’s much more than the essay, risk related to, say, watching TV.) One piece of data that indirectly but stunningly captures kids’ growing isolation, for good and for bad: Since 2007, the where is thesis located, homicide rate among teens has declined, but the suicide rate has increased.

As teens have started spending less time together, they have become less likely to kill one another, and more likely to kill themselves. In 2011, for the first time in 24 years, the teen suicide rate was higher than the essay form, teen homicide rate. Depression and suicide have many causes; too much technology is clearly not the only one. And the teen suicide rate was even higher in the 1990s, long before smartphones existed. Then again, about four times as many Americans now take antidepressants, which are often effective in treating severe depression, the type most strongly linked to suicide. W hat’s the connection between smartphones and the apparent psychological distress this generation is experiencing? For all their power to link kids day and night, social media also exacerbate the age-old teen concern about being left out. Essays Finance Management? Today’s teens may go to fewer parties and spend less time together in person, but when they do congregate, they document their hangouts relentlessly—on Snapchat, Instagram, Facebook. Those not invited to come along are keenly aware of it.

Accordingly, the number of teens who feel left out has reached all-time highs across age groups. Essay In The Form? Like the increase in psychology studies, loneliness, the upswing in feeling left out has been swift and significant. This trend has been especially steep among girls. Essay In The? Forty-eight percent more girls said they often felt left out in 2015 than in 2010, compared with 27 percent more boys. Girls use social media more often, giving them additional opportunities to feel excluded and famous lonely when they see their friends or classmates getting together without them. Social media levy a psychic tax on the teen doing the posting as well, as she anxiously awaits the affirmation of comments and likes. When Athena posts pictures to Instagram, she told me, “I’m nervous about what people think and are going to in the form, say. It sometimes bugs me when I don’t get a certain amount of likes on a picture.” Girls have also borne the essays, brunt of the rise in essay form, depressive symptoms among today’s teens.

Boys’ depressive symptoms increased by 21 percent from 2012 to honors cornell kerr, 2015, while girls’ increased by 50 percent—more than twice as much. The rise in suicide, too, is more pronounced among girls. Although the essay form, rate increased for both sexes, three times as many 12-to-14-year-old girls killed themselves in cornell, 2015 as in essay form, 2007, compared with twice as many boys. The suicide rate is still higher for boys, in essays finance, part because they use more-lethal methods, but girls are beginning to close the gap. These more dire consequences for teenage girls could also be rooted in in the form, the fact that they’re more likely to experience cyberbullying.

Boys tend to honors, bully one another physically, while girls are more likely to do so by undermining a victim’s social status or relationships. Social media give middle- and high-school girls a platform on which to carry out the style of aggression they favor, ostracizing and excluding other girls around the clock. Social-media companies are of course aware of these problems, and to one degree or another have endeavored to essay in the form, prevent cyberbullying. Rap Ghostwriters? But their various motivations are, to say the least, complex. In The? A recently leaked Facebook document indicated that the company had been touting to advertisers its ability to determine teens’ emotional state based on their on-site behavior, and even to pinpoint “moments when young people need a confidence boost.” Facebook acknowledged that the document was real, but denied that it offers “tools to target people based on their emotional state.” I n July 2014, a 13-year-old girl in North Texas woke to the smell of essay something burning. Her phone had overheated and in the melted into the sheets. Classical Essays? National news outlets picked up the story, stoking readers’ fears that their cellphone might spontaneously combust.

To me, however, the flaming cellphone wasn’t the only surprising aspect of the story. Essay Form? Why , I wondered, would anyone sleep with her phone beside her in bed? It’s not as though you can surf the web while you’re sleeping. And who could slumber deeply inches from a buzzing phone? Curious, I asked my undergraduate students at San Diego State University what they do with their phone while they sleep. Psychology Case Studies? Their answers were a profile in obsession. Essay Form? Nearly all slept with their phone, putting it under their pillow, on the mattress, or at the very least within arm’s reach of the bed. They checked social media right before they went to sleep, and reached for their phone as soon as they woke up in essays, the morning (they had to—all of them used it as their alarm clock). Their phone was the in the form, last thing they saw before they went to sleep and honors thesis cornell kerr the first thing they saw when they woke up. In The Form? If they woke in the middle of the night, they often ended up looking at famous essays their phone. Some used the language of addiction. “I know I shouldn’t, but I just can’t help it,” one said about looking at her phone while in bed.

Others saw their phone as an extension of their body—or even like a lover: “Having my phone closer to me while I’m sleeping is a comfort.” It may be a comfort, but the smartphone is essay in the form cutting into teens’ sleep: Many now sleep less than seven hours most nights. Sleep experts say that teens should get about famous classical nine hours of sleep a night; a teen who is getting less than seven hours a night is significantly sleep deprived. Fifty-seven percent more teens were sleep deprived in in the, 2015 than in 1991. In just the essays finance, four years from essay in the form, 2012 to 2015, 22 percent more teens failed to management, get seven hours of sleep. The increase is suspiciously timed, once again starting around when most teens got a smartphone. Two national surveys show that teens who spend three or more hours a day on electronic devices are 28 percent more likely to get less than seven hours of sleep than those who spend fewer than three hours, and teens who visit social-media sites every day are 19 percent more likely to in the form, be sleep deprived. Where? A meta-analysis of studies on electronic-device use among children found similar results: Children who use a media device right before bed are more likely to sleep less than they should, more likely to sleep poorly, and more than twice as likely to be sleepy during the day. I’ve observed my toddler, barely old enough to walk, confidently swiping her way through an iPad.

Electronic devices and in the social media seem to have an especially strong ability to disrupt sleep. Teens who read books and magazines more often than the average are actually slightly less likely to rap ghostwriters, be sleep deprived—either reading lulls them to essay in the, sleep, or they can put the book down at bedtime. Watching TV for several hours a day is only weakly linked to sleeping less. But the allure of the smartphone is often too much to resist. Sleep deprivation is linked to myriad issues, including compromised thinking and reasoning, susceptibility to illness, weight gain, and high blood pressure. Famous Classical? It also affects mood: People who don’t sleep enough are prone to depression and in the anxiety.

Again, it’s difficult to trace the precise paths of causation. Smartphones could be causing lack of essays finance sleep, which leads to depression, or the phones could be causing depression, which leads to lack of sleep. Or some other factor could be causing both depression and sleep deprivation to rise. But the smartphone, its blue light glowing in the dark, is likely playing a nefarious role. T he correlations between depression and smartphone use are strong enough to suggest that more parents should be telling their kids to put down their phone.

As the technology writer Nick Bilton has reported, it’s a policy some Silicon Valley executives follow. Even Steve Jobs limited his kids’ use of the devices he brought into the world. What’s at stake isn’t just how kids experience adolescence. The constant presence of smartphones is likely to affect them well into adulthood. Among people who suffer an episode of form depression, at kerr least half become depressed again later in life. Adolescence is a key time for developing social skills; as teens spend less time with their friends face-to-face, they have fewer opportunities to practice them. In the in the, next decade, we may see more adults who know just the right emoji for a situation, but not the classical essays, right facial expression. I realize that restricting technology might be an unrealistic demand to impose on a generation of kids so accustomed to being wired at all times. Form? My three daughters were born in 2006, 2009, and 2012. Studies? They’re not yet old enough to display the traits of iGen teens, but I have already witnessed firsthand just how ingrained new media are in essay in the, their young lives.

I’ve observed my toddler, barely old enough to walk, confidently swiping her way through an iPad. I’ve experienced my 6-year-old asking for her own cellphone. Essays Management? I’ve overheard my 9-year-old discussing the latest app to sweep the fourth grade. Prying the phone out of essay form our kids’ hands will be difficult, even more so than the quixotic efforts of my parents’ generation to get their kids to turn off MTV and get some fresh air. But more seems to be at stake in urging teens to use their phone responsibly, and victorian essay there are benefits to be gained even if all we instill in our children is the importance of moderation. Form? Significant effects on both mental health and sleep time appear after two or more hours a day on electronic devices. The average teen spends about two and a half hours a day on rap ghostwriters electronic devices. Essay? Some mild boundary-setting could keep kids from falling into harmful habits. In my conversations with teens, I saw hopeful signs that kids themselves are beginning to link some of their troubles to their ever-present phone.

Athena told me that when she does spend time with her friends in person, they are often looking at their device instead of at victorian internet essay her. “I’m trying to talk to essay form, them about something, and classical they don’t actually look at my face,” she said. “They’re looking at essay their phone, or they’re looking at their Apple Watch.” “What does that feel like, when you’re trying to talk to studies, somebody face-to-face and they’re not looking at essay in the form you?,” I asked. “It kind of hurts,” she said. Where? “It hurts. I know my parents’ generation didn’t do that. I could be talking about essay something super important to me, and they wouldn’t even be listening.” Once, she told me, she was hanging out with a friend who was texting her boyfriend. “I was trying to talk to essays, her about my family, and in the what was going on, and she was like, ‘Uh-huh, yeah, whatever.’ So I took her phone out of her hands and I threw it at rap ghostwriters my wall.” I couldn’t help laughing. “You play volleyball,” I said. “Do you have a pretty good arm?” “Yep,” she replied. The Harrowing Personal Stories of Syrian Refugees, in Their Own Words. A documentary film crew travels to Greece to essay form, capture the perspectives of new arrivals. Trump's Puerto Rico Visit Is a Political Disaster. The president told residents to be “very proud” they hadn’t endured a “real catastrophe” like Katrina, doing little to erase the impression that he sees hurricane relief more as a political story than a human one. Making his first appearance in essays, hurricane-ravaged Puerto Rico since Maria’s landfall, President Trump offered a hearty round of congratulations to federal relief efforts and thanked the island’s governor.

But the president also suggested Maria was not a “real catastrophe,” made an odd and misleading comparison to essay, the death toll from Hurricane Katrina, and joked about how the hurricane would affect the victorian internet, federal budget. It was a typically strange, disjointed appearance by the president, and it came just days after Trump spent much of the weekend picking fights with the mayor of San Juan and insisting that, against all evidence, the in the, recovery effort had largely responded to Puerto Rico’s needs. At Muniz Air Force Base, Trump was eager to praise the is thesis statement, work of form federal agencies, including FEMA, the Air Force, the Navy, and rap ghostwriters the Coast Guard, amid a chorus of criticism that Washington’s response has been too slow and too small. But that praise led him in strange directions. A small group of in the form programmers wants to change how we code—before catastrophe strikes.

T here were six hours during the night of April 10, 2014, when the honors thesis cornell, entire population of Washington State had no 911 service. Form? People who called for help got a busy signal. One Seattle woman dialed 911 at least 37 times while a stranger was trying to break into her house. When he finally crawled into her living room through a window, she picked up a kitchen knife. The man fled.

The 911 outage, at the time the essay, largest ever reported, was traced to software running on a server in Englewood, Colorado. Operated by a systems provider named Intrado, the server kept a running counter of how many calls it had routed to 911 dispatchers around the country. Intrado programmers had set a threshold for how high the counter could go. They picked a number in the millions. Civil-Rights Protests Have Never Been Popular. Activists can’t persuade their contemporaries—they’re aiming at in the form the next generation.

One common response to the national anthem protests originated by Colin Kaepernick is to disparage them as polarizing. Joe Scarborough, host of Morning Joe , summed up this particular critique in a tweet last weekend: This may be unpopular but it is a political reality: The idea here is essays that kneeling NFL players are committing an act of such blatant disrespect that they hand Trump an easy image with which to demagogue. Essay In The? Often attendant to the idea that protesting players are shooting themselves in the foot is the notion that in some other era, black protest proved to be a unifying force that altered the psychology of some critical mass of open-minded whites. Sterilizing a Child, for a Better Life. Though it can tread dangerously close to eugenics, some parents argue that sterilization improves quality of essays finance life for their disabled children, and themselves. When Sophie Carter entered puberty, her parents had more to dread than just a temperamental adolescent. Sophie is now 31 but still has the intellectual capacity of a three-year-old. There were no concerns about drugs or boyfriends and no chance of having “the talk” about sex with her. The hardest part for Sophie’s Sydney-based parents was managing her periods.

“She has an older sister and a younger sister and essay form we tried to get her to use pads, but it just didn’t work,” said Merren Carter, Sophie’s mother. “People talk about stigma associated with menstruation but there was none of that at our house. I will always remember a dinner party where [Sophie] proudly showed her pad to all of our visitors.” The Absurdity of the Nobel Prizes in Science. They distort the nature of the scientific enterprise, rewrite its history, and honors thesis cornell kerr overlook many of essay form its most important contributors. This morning, physicists Rainer Weiss, Kip Thorne, and Barry Barish received the Nobel Prize for Physics, for rap ghostwriters, their discovery of gravitational waves—distortions in essay in the, the fabric of space and cornell kerr time. The trio, who led the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) project that recorded these waves, will split the 9-million-Swedish-krona prize between them.

Perhaps more importantly, they will carry the status of “Nobel laureate” for the rest of their lives. But what of the essay in the, other scientists who contributed to case ocd, the LIGO project, and whose names grace the three-page-long author list in the paper that describes the in the, discoveries? “LIGO’s success was owed to hundreds of researchers,” astrophysicist Martin Rees told BBC News. “The fact that the Nobel Prize 2017 committee refuses to make group awards is causing increasingly frequent problems and rap ghostwriters giving a misleading impression of how a lot of science is actually done.” A New History of the form, First Peoples in the Americas. The miracle of modern genetics has revolutionized the story anthropologists tell about how humans spread out psychology, across the Earth. Europeans arriving in the New World met people all the way from the frozen north to the frozen south. All had rich and mature cultures and established languages. The Skraeling were probably a people we now call Thule, who were the ancestors of the Inuit in essay in the, Greenland and Canada and the In?upiat in Alaska. Rap Ghostwriters? The Tai?no were a people spread across multiple chiefdoms around the in the form, Caribbean and Florida. Essays Finance? Based on cultural and language similarities, we think that they had probably separated from earlier populations from South American lands, now Guyana and form Trinidad. The Spanish brought no women with them in 1492, and raped the Tai?no women, resulting in finance, the first generation of “mestizo”—mixed ancestry people.

Mass Shootings Don't Lead to form, Inaction—They Lead to essays management, Loosening Gun Restrictions. The most probable policy response to essay, the atrocity in Las Vegas will be new laws allowing more guns to be carried into classical, more places. “After Newtown, nothing changed, so don’t expect anything to change after Las Vegas.” How often have you heard that said? Yet it’s not true. The five years since a gunman killed 26 at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, have seen one of the most intense bursts of gun legislation in U.S. history—almost all of it intended to in the, ensure that more guns can be carried into classical, more places. In the aftermath of the Newtown massacre, gun-rights activists assertively carried openly displayed weapons into more and more places.

Many national chain stores banned weapons, but at essay form least one—Starbucks—did not. Famous Classical? In August 2013, gun-rights activists declared a “Starbucks Appreciation Day.” They made a special point that day of carrying weapons in Starbucks outlets nationwide, including the in the, Starbucks in Newtown itself. Honors Thesis Cornell Kerr? (The store closed for the day to avert the demonstration.) The Needless Complexity of Academic Writing. A new movement strives for simplicity. “Persistence is one of the great characteristics of essay in the form a pitbull, and I guess owners take after their dogs,” says Annetta Cheek, the co-founder of the D.C.-based nonprofit Center for Plain Language. Cheek, an anthropologist by training who left academia in the early 1980s to victorian, work for the Federal Aviation Commission, is responsible for something few people realize exists: the 2010 Plain Writing Act. Essay In The? In fact, Cheek was among the first government employees to finance management, champion the use of form clear, concise language. Once she retired in 2007 from the FAA and gained the freedom to lobby, she leveraged her hatred for gobbledygook to psychology case studies ocd, create an actual law. Essay? Take a look at recent information put out by many government agencies such as the Department of Veterans Affairs , the Department of Health and Human Services, and essays the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau—if it lacks needlessly complex sentences or bizarre bureaucratic jargon, it’s largely because of Cheek and in the form her colleagues.

Two Dark American Truths From Las Vegas. On the certainty of more shootings. Beyond the finance, scores of people who have been killed and the hundreds who have been wounded in in the form, Las Vegas today, thousands of other people, though not visibly or directly injured, have had their lives changed forever. Famous Essays? Children and parents. Husbands and wives. Brothers and sisters. Something is in the form instantly and permanently gone from psychology ocd, their lives. Co-workers and friends. Members of churches or sports leagues or the essay in the, PTA.

Customers and clients and students. Neighbors and casual acquaintances at the coffee shop or the bar. The rest of their days will be different and shadowed because of this massacre. “Children, I want to explain why Coach Franklin won’t be leading our soccer team any more. Honors Thesis Kerr? Something bad happened, and essay form . ” The foundation of Donald Trump’s presidency is the negation of Barack Obama’s legacy. It is insufficient to psychology, state the obvious of Donald Trump: that he is a white man who would not be president were it not for this fact. Form? With one immediate exception, Trump’s predecessors made their way to statement located, high office through the in the, passive power of whiteness—that bloody heirloom which cannot ensure mastery of rap ghostwriters all events but can conjure a tailwind for most of them. Land theft and human plunder cleared the grounds for Trump’s forefathers and barred others from it.

Once upon essay form, the field, these men became soldiers, statesmen, and scholars; held court in psychology studies, Paris; presided at essay form Princeton; advanced into the Wilderness and then into the White House. Their individual triumphs made this exclusive party seem above America’s founding sins, and internet it was forgotten that the in the, former was in fact bound to the latter, that all their victories had transpired on cleared grounds. No such elegant detachment can be attributed to rap ghostwriters, Donald Trump—a president who, more than any other, has made the awful inheritance explicit. What If Everyone Ate Beans Instead of Beef? What can an individual do about climate change? The easiest answer: make this one dietary switch. Research shows that using curse words can persuade everyone from essay in the, voters to your co-workers. Depression, anxiety, overeating, addiction, and all other mental disorders share a common mechanism.

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Moral Reflective Essay Introduction Youflyforless. For the former , you lack a thorough explanation of the essay in the form concept and its various facets , instead latching onto one aspect only market gaps. Scarcity means unlimited human wants can never be fulfilled by the market , which is something I believe my company will be able to exploit. For a minimum 1000 word essay you needed to consult at least 5 highquality , rigorous academic sources , e. For the latter , you mention relevant concepts early but do not explain their relevance I know it but am looking for a demonstration of your understanding. In future I would advise you to finance management consult the Librarys guides on essay in the reflective writing on the Research and Learning Online website. This will all enable me to run my company with expertise and a sound understanding of theory and how it might apply in practice. From an academic , university writing perspective , your business idea needs a stronger basis in economic theory. Engaging with academic literature in this way would have demonstrated that your business ideas are grounded in essays management a sound understanding of form, relevant theory.

A useful analogy is that of the decline in the success of travel agency businesses over the past decade. Finally , your conclusion seems to be a collection of essay, afterthoughts and ideas that came to you while you wrote. Your excitement is infectious but the previous two sentences do not seem relevant to the task on which you are being assessed. As more and more people move from subsistence or lowincome status into a selfsustained middle class economic status , a larger percentage of the Australian population will need to form manage their more substantial finances themselves. In much the same way , people wishing to manage their own financial affairs will perceive the need for experts charging high rates for their expertise to manage their finances as less necessary. You must reflect on your experience and really outline how you have changed as a person and how your life has been affected or impacted. This is not recommended for conclusions that is not their purpose. Victorian! Maintained by We acknowledge and essay form pay respects to rap ghostwriters the Elders and Traditional Owners of the in the land on kerr which our five Australian campuses stand. Detention Reflective Essay Introduction. You discuss two of the four economic concepts you identified earlier as relevant to your plans why only two.

You discuss two of the four economic concepts you identified earlier as relevant to your plans why only two. In The Form! Statements such as Looking back , I can see now can all start the reflective thinking process. Where is the depth of understanding of finance, these concepts as discussed in lectures and required reading. Families which benefit from financial advice from the government and my apps will have better educated children who are more likely to be successful and less of a burden on the economic system. Read the following example of a students reflective essay. This benefits society by increasing government income through taxation of higher incomes , leading to better infrastructure and federal economic and in the banking The ideas about taxation , banking security , public goods , etc. 3 Jan 2017. 2017 ADL Student Essay Contest: A Tribute to Moral Courage: Standing Up. Studies! 17 Feb 2017.

Read the following example of essay in the form, a student’s reflective essay. Click the icons next to each paragraph to show the essay lecturer’s comments. Click again . This can only happen , however , if an easy and cheap alternative is available hence my financial selfmanagement apps exploit the disequilibrium in essay form the Your analogy is insightful. You will be writing about your memories of an event or experience which you had significant feelings about before , during and afterwards. A better world is the If this is your conclusion it really lacks clear structure and purpose. The other relevant concepts from the ECF5555 unit , scarcity , elasticity , monopoliescompetition and externalitiespublic goods are also pertinent to my entrepreneurial career. I embark on my entrepreneurial career , it is disequilibrium that is the key concept of relevance for me.

You should have cited secondary sources of adequate scholarly quality and essay of sufficient number to support your ideas. While knowledge and understanding of scarcity , elasticity , monopolies and competition , and externalities and public goods Yes , these are all covered in the unit and I know they are relevant. Click the icons next to in the each paragraph to show the lecturers comments. When reflecting you really need to think about yourself and honors thesis cornell kerr how the personal experience changed you. You are reflecting on memories of your feelings , expressing them , reflecting on them with thoughts and opinions , and considering them with the form power of hindsight looking back. However , you do not explain their relevance briefly to your future career as the topic requires and in doing so , prove your understanding. A reflective essay deviates from case studies, typical academic writing because it invites you to use your own experiences and essay perceptions as evidence. Please consult the essays Library Guide to citing and referencing and the Q Manual. As is the case with any assessment task , I am looking for evidence you have learned something from the lectures , tutes and essay in the required reading.

While some of the unit content was not directly relevant to victorian my personal goals , it still made me more knowledgeable about economics in general and entrepreneurship in particular. It motivated me to pay full attention to essay form learning as much as I could in ECF5555 a case of intrinsic motivation. Throughout the lectures , tutorials and studies ocd required reading for ECF5555 I learned about the in the form basics of economic theory in relation to entrepreneurship , and found that there were several of these concepts I could utilise specifically in my mission to begin a career developing financial selfmanagement applications. You make a promising start , but the more you write , the less evidence there is of a planned piece of reflective writing. This page is best viewed in an uptodate web browser with style sheets CSS enabled. Famous Essays! This is writing about essay in the, something that has happened in your life and rap ghostwriters has really impacted on you for good or bad. Public goods like the essay form financial advice the Australian Government and ATO provide to the general public has some minor relevance to my entrepreneurial venture , as it can be seen as competition with the advantage of famous classical essays, being at no cost to essay in the the consumer. An effective reflective essay would have a description what happened. What theories might help explain what happened. What would you do differently next time or how might it apply to your future practice. Use the knowledge you have accrued in this unit to write a reflective essay on the following topic What , in your opinion , is the importance of disequilibrium and honors thesis cornell kerr how would the essay form knowledge you have gained about disequilibrium and other key concepts in rap ghostwriters this unit help you in your career as an entrepreneur.

Disequilibrium is a concept I was unfamiliar with until I studied the ECF5555 Entrepreneurship and Economics unit at Monash University. A collection of resources from in the form, Education Scotland to victorian internet help you prepare for your exams. Ultius reviews glassdoor co uk. When revising your assignments , editing out offtopic sentences such as these can build the cohesion of your writing. You should have at least consulted economics , business management or financial textbooks or a reliable subject specific dictionaryencyclopedia. Realising this and discovering that expert minds have predicted a gap in the market that my future company can exploit to great gain was a Eureka moment for me. As more and essay more online travel and tourism providers enable the average consumer to research and book flights and accommodation themselves , the need for experts with access to airlines and hotel booking systems has diminished. The imbalance between demand in the market and supply means I have a readymade target clientele and a short pathway to expansion and success. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets CSS if you are able to classical essays do so. Your conclusion would have had greater impact if you discussed more focused and realistic potential business outcomes , and more clearly linked these in specific ways to the concept of disequilibrium. While you will be able to view the content of this page in essay in the form your current browser , you will not be able to get the full visual experience moral reflective essay introduction youflyforless . This can be a shortterm byproduct of a change in variable factors or a result of longterm While it is a good place to include a definition , this sounds a great deal like something that has been borrowed directly from a source that has not been identified according to the required conventions.

If there is one criticism I have of the disequilibrium concept , its what happens when you deconstruct it. I expect other startups to quickly follow my lead when I begin to build my business developing financial selfmanagement apps , so I will need a sound business plan , reliable and trusted employees and honors clearly established legal rights to my intellectual property. You have also not mentioned the key challenges you need to overcome in essay order to succeed. However , the case ocd externality of essay form, this public good also applies to my future business , as the famous result of both will be financial success for the consumer. This is not referencing in the required APA style or indeed , any style. Disequilibrium seems to posit that there is a situation perhaps even the norm where the in the market is in balance , with supply more or less equalling demand. If disequilibrium is the key to your future , as you wrote in the first paragraph , surely it covers more than this. Its an ocd, example of theory that never truly applies in practice. However , your focus when explaining the importance of form, disequilibrium seems to lie entirely on one aspect only a gap in the market moral reflective essay introduction youflyforless . In this type of writing , your purpose is to engage your reader with more than just a retelling of a story. I advise you to consult the Librarys quick study guide on essay structure here httpwww. Also , this reference is inappropriate in an academic context.

One main idea per paragraph please. Disequilibrium is the key concept that I can exploit my knowledge of in rap ghostwriters order to in the form begin a successful entrepreneurial career. Aspects of it do apply , though , so it is not without Robert Triffin 1940 , one of the first economists to directly discuss how disequilibrium affects markets , has some interesting and relevant thoughts about psychology ocd, this phenomenon. Essay Form! Business startups require a plangoal of what they want to psychology studies achieve within a specified time frame , e. My employees will respect my choices and decisions because of my learning and related business acumen. The task requires two main things 1 your view on the importance of disequilibrium and 2 an explanation of how key concepts from the unit will assist in your career as an entrepreneur. The main reason for essay form this is because of a gap I perceive in the market. Where is the APA intext citation. As my career goal is to become a successful entrepreneur in the technology field , combining my passions for moneymaking innovation and technology , I soon learned that an victorian internet essay, understanding of the disequilibrium concept would be key to essay form my future A statement indicating your purpose for writing and the structure you intend to essays use to achieve the tasks aims is form, needed here. With constant developments in management technology , volatile worldwide markets and innumerable other factors affecting consumers , this seems to lack a basis in reality. My point is that the lack of essay, support from the finance management literature weakens your assignment.

Again , this content deserves a body paragraph , not an addendum to your conclusion. Disequilibrium is a situation where internal andor external forces prevent market equilibrium from being reached or cause the market to essay fall out of balance. However , this reflective task still requires you to select and interpret evidence according to academic standards. Try to maintain focus on case studies the central idea of this paragraph the importance of disequilibrium as a concept in your future entrepreneurial career. To combat religious extremism and sectarian violence, Pakistan must reform its education sector by boosting resources to public schools and updating the school . . . Sample Business And Economics Reflective Essay | Reflective writing a basic introduction. Sample Business And Economics Reflective Essay. Detention Reflective Essay Introduction. If not redirected click here.

Reflective writing or a Reflective Essay critically discusses personal experience and in the form opinion in light of broader literature , theories or subject materials. A Reflective Essay Example Introduction. A BBC Bitesize secondary school revision resource for rap ghostwriters Intermediate 2 English. Read the following example of in the, a students reflective essay. Click the icons next to statement located each paragraph to show the lecturers comments.

Moral Norms and Values in essay in the the XXI Century On the Slight Shift in Ideas. Different models of reflection and it is vital that you follow any guidelines offered. Rap Ghostwriters! RE How t write Introduction reflective essay. The first phrase should be powerful to allow people to become. Education Reform in Pakistan Language English Themes . . Essay Form! . INEE consists of honors cornell kerr, more than 13,000 individuals and 130 organizations who promote education in in the form crisis contexts. . . . 4.6 / 3. A BBC Bitesize secondary school revision resource for famous essays Intermediate 2 English. Different models of essay, reflection and it is vital that you follow any guidelines offered.

The aim of this handout is to model some basic ideas about rap ghostwriters, reflective writing. Purpose. Essay Form! Reflective writing or a Reflective Essay critically discusses personal experience and opinion in light of broader literature, theories or subject materials.

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SBN 12, Mil 30, Bea 7) Jump to: Display: Printed for A. Millar , in the Strand. I t was the studies ocd practice of the antients to address their compositions only to friends and equals, and to render their dedications monuments of regard and affection, not of servility and flattery. In The! In those days of ingenious and candid liberty, a dedication did honour to the person to whom it was addressed, without degrading the author. If any particular appeared towards the patron, it was at least the partiality of friendship and affection. Another instance of true liberty, of which antient times can alone afford us an example, is the liberty of thought, which engaged men of letters, however different in their abstract opinions, to maintain a mutual friendship and regard; and never to famous classical essays, quarrel about principles, while they agreed in inclinations and manners. In The! Science was often the subject of disputation, never of animosity. Cicero , an academic, addressed his philosophical treatises, sometimes to Brutus , a stoic; sometimes to Atticus , an epicurean. I have been seized with a strong desire of renewing these laudable practices of antiquity, by addressing the following dissertations to you, my good friend: For such I will ever call and esteem you, notwithstanding the opposition, which prevails between us, with regard to many of our speculative tenets. These differences of opinion I have only essays found to enliven our conversation; while our common passion for science and letters served as a cement to essay in the form, our friendship.

I still admired your genius, even when I imagined, that you lay under the influence of rap ghostwriters prejudice; and you sometimes told me, that you excused my errors, on account of the candor and sincerity, which, you thought, accompanied them. But to tell truth, it is less my admiration of your fine genius, which has engaged me to make this address to you, than my esteem of your character and my affection to your person. That generosity of mind which ever accompanies you; that cordiality of friendship, that spirited honour and integrity, have long interested me strongly in your behalf, and have made me desirous, that a monument of our mutual amity should be publicly erected, and, if possible, be preserved to essay in the form, posterity. I own too, that I have the ambition to be the first who shall in public express his admiration of your noble tragedy of Douglas ; one of the most interesting and pathetic pieces, that was ever exhibited on any theatre. Should I give it preference to the Merope of Maffei , and to that of Voltaire , which it resembles in its subject; should I affirm, that it contained more fire and spirit than the former, more tenderness and simplicity than the latter; I might be accused of partiality: And how could I entirely acquit myself, after the professions of friendship, which I have made you? But the unfeigned tears which flowed from every eye, in the numerous representations which were made of it on is thesis, this theatre; the unparalleled command, which you appeared to have over essay, every affection of the human breast: These are incontestible proofs, that you possess the true theatric genius of Shakespear and Otway , refined from the unhappy barbarism of the one, and licentiousness of the other. My enemies, you know, and, I own, even sometimes my friends, have reproached me with the love of honors cornell paradoxes and singular opinions; and in the form, I expect to famous classical, be exposed to the same imputation, on account of the character, which I have here given of your Douglas . I shall be told, no doubt, that I had artfully chosen the only time, when this high esteem of that piece could be regarded as a paradox, to wit, before its publication; and that not being able to contradict in this particular the sentiments of the public, I have, at least, resolved to go before them. But I shall be amply compensated for all these pleasantries, if you accept this testimony of my regard, and believe me to be, with the greatest sincerity, Your most affectionate Friend, and humble servant,

A s every enquiry, which regards religion, is in the, of the utmost importance, there are two questions in particular, which challenge our attention, to essays, wit, that concerning its foundation in reason, and that concerning its origin in human nature. Happily, the first question, which is the most important, admits of the most obvious, at least, the clearest solution. The whole frame of nature bespeaks an in the, intelligent author; and no rational enquirer can, after serious reflection, suspend his belief a moment with regard to the primary principles of genuine Theism and Religion. But the other question, concerning the origin of religion in thesis cornell, human nature, is exposed to some more difficulty. The belief of invisible, intelligent power has been very generally diffused over the human race, in all places and in all ages; but it has neither perhaps been so universal as to admit of no exception, nor has it been, in any degree, uniform in the ideas, which it has suggested. Some nations have been discovered, who entertained no sentiments of Religion, if travellers and historians may be credited; and in the form, no two nations, and scarce any two men, have ever agreed precisely in the same sentiments. It would appear, therefore, that this preconception springs not from an original instinct or primary impression of nature, such as gives rise to honors kerr, self-love, affection between the in the form sexes, love of progeny, gratitude, resentment; since every instinct of this kind has been found absolutely universal in all nations and ages, and has always a precise determinate object, which it inflexibly pursues. The first religious principles must be secondary; such as may easily be perverted by various accidents and causes, and whose operation too, in some cases, may, by rap ghostwriters an extraordinary concurrence of circumstances, be altogether prevented. What those principles are, which give rise to the original belief, and what those accidents and causes are, which direct its operation, is the subject of our present enquiry. Sect. I. That Polytheism was the primary Religion of Men.

It appears to form, me, that, if we consider the improvement of human society, from rude beginnings to a state of greater perfection, polytheism or idolatry was, and finance, necessarily must have been, the first and most ancient religion of mankind. This opinion I shall endeavour to confirm by the following arguments. It is a matter of fact incontestable, that about 1700 years ago all mankind were polytheists. Essay! The doubtful and sceptical principles of a few philosophers, or the victorian internet essay theism, and that too not entirely pure, of one or two nations, form no objection worth regarding. Behold then the clear testimony of history. The farther we mount up into antiquity, the more do we find mankind plunged into polytheism. No marks, no symptoms of essay form any more perfect religion. The most ancient records of essay human race still present us with that system as the popular and essay in the form, established creed. Victorian Essay! The north, the south, the east, the in the west, give their unanimous testimony to classical, the same fact.

What can be opposed to essay in the form, so full an evidence? As far as writing or history reaches, mankind, in ancient times, appear universally to have been polytheists. Shall we assert, that, in more ancient times, before the statement knowledge of letters, or the discovery of any art or science, men entertained the principles of pure theism? That is, while they were ignorant and barbarous, they discovered truth: But fell into error, as soon as they acquired learning and politeness. But in this assertion you not only contradict all appearance of probability, but also our present experience concerning the principles and opinions of barbarous nations. The savage tribes of America , Africa , and Asia are all idolaters. Not a single exception to this rule. Insomuch, that, were a traveller to essay in the, transport himself into any unknown region; if he found inhabitants cultivated with arts and science, though even upon that supposition there are odds against honors cornell, their being theists, yet could he not safely, till farther inquiry, pronounce any thing on that head: But if he found them ignorant and barbarous, he might beforehand declare them idolaters; and there scarcely is a possibility of his being mistaken. It seems certain, that, according to the natural progress of human thought, the ignorant multitude must first entertain some groveling and. familiar notion of superior powers, before they stretch their conception to essay form, that perfect Being, who bestowed order on the whole frame of nature.

We may as reasonably imagine, that men inhabited palaces before huts and cottages, or studied geometry before agriculture; as assert that the Deity appeared to case studies ocd, them a pure spirit, omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent, before he was apprehended to be a powerful, though limited being, with human passions and appetites, limbs and organs. The mind rises gradually, from inferior to essay in the form, superior: By abstracting from what is imperfect, it forms an idea of perfection: And slowly distinguishing the case studies nobler parts of its own frame from the grosser, it learns to transfer only the former, much elevated and refined, to essay in the form, its divinity. Nothing could disturb this natural progress of famous classical essays thought, but some obvious and invincible argument, which might immediately lead the mind into the pure principles of theism, and make it overleap, at one bound, the essay in the vast interval which is interposed between the human and the divine nature. But though I allow, that the order and frame of the universe, when accurately examined, affords such an argument; yet I can never think, that this consideration could have an influence on mankind, when they formed their first rude notions of religion. The causes of such objects, as are quite familiar to us, never strike our attention or curiosity; and however extraordinary or surprising these objects in themselves, they are passed over, by the raw and ignorant multitude, without much examination or enquiry. Adam , rising at famous essays once, in paradise, and in essay in the, the full perfection of his faculties, would naturally, as represented by Milton , be astonished at the glorious appearances of nature, the heavens, the air, the earth, his own organs and members; and classical, would be led to form, ask, whence this wonderful scene arose. But a barbarous, necessitous animal (such as a man is on internet, the first origin of society), pressed by such numerous wants and passions, has no leisure to admire the regular face of nature, or make enquiries concerning the cause of those objects, to which from his infancy he has been gradually accustomed. On the contrary, the more regular and essay form, uniform, that is, the more perfect nature appears, the more is he familiarized to it, and the less inclined to scrutinize and is thesis, examine it. A monstrous birth excites his curiosity, and is deemed a prodigy. It alarms him from its novelty; and immediately sets him a trembling, and sacrificing, and praying. But an in the form, animal, compleat in all its limbs and organs, is to him an rap ghostwriters, ordinary spectacle, and produces no religious opinion or affection.

Ask him, whence that animal arose; he will tell you, from the copulation of essay form its parents. And these, whence? From the copulation of theirs. Rap Ghostwriters! A few removes satisfy his curiosity, and set the objects at such a distance, that he entirely loses sight of them. Imagine not, that he will so much as start the. question, whence the essay in the first animal; much less, whence the rap ghostwriters whole system or united fabric of the universe arose. Or, if you start such a question to him, expect not, that he will employ his mind with any anxiety about a subject, so remote, so uninteresting, and which so much exceeds the bounds of his capacity. But farther, if men were at first led into form the belief of one Supreme Being, by victorian internet essay reasoning from the frame of nature, they could never possibly leave that belief, in order to embrace polytheism; but the same principles of reason, which at first produced and diffused over mankind, so magnificent an opinion, must be able, with greater facility, to preserve it.

The first invention and proof of any doctrine is much more difficult than the supporting and retaining of it. There is a great difference between historical facts and speculative opinions; nor is the knowledge of the one propagated in the same manner with that of the other. An historical fact, while it passes by form oral tradition from eye-witnesses and contemporaries, is where located, disguised in every successive narration, and may at last retain but very small, if any, resemblance of the original truth, on which it was founded. In The Form! The frail memories of men, their love of rap ghostwriters exaggeration, their supine carelessness; these principles, if not corrected by books and essay in the form, writing, soon pervert the account of historical events; where argument or reasoning has little or no place, nor can ever recal the honors cornell kerr truth, which has once escaped those narrations. It is thus the fables of essay form Hercules , Theseus , Bacchus are supposed to have been originally founded in true history, corrupted by tradition.

But with regard to speculative opinions, the case is far otherwise. If these opinions be founded on arguments so clear and obvious as to carry conviction with the generality of mankind, the same arguments, which at first diffused the opinions, will still preserve them in their original purity. If the arguments be more abstruse, and more remote from vulgar apprehension, the opinions will always be confined to a few persons; and as soon as men leave the contemplation of the arguments, the opinions will immediately be lost and be buried in oblivion. Whichever side of this dilemma we take, it must appear impossible, that theism could, from reasoning, have been the finance primary religion of human race, and have afterwards, by its corruption, given birth to polytheism and to all the various superstitions of the heathen world. Reason, when obvious, prevents these corruptions: When abstruse, it keeps the principles entirely from the knowledge of the vulgar, who are alone liable to corrupt any principle or opinion. If we would, therefore, indulge our curiosity, in enquiring concerning the essay origin of religion, we must turn our thoughts towards polytheism, the primitive religion of uninstructed mankind. Were men led into the apprehension of invisible, intelligent power by a contemplation of the essays finance works of nature, they could never possibly entertain any conception but of one single being, who bestowed existence and order on in the form, this vast machine, and adjusted all its parts, according to one regular plan or connected system. For though, to honors thesis kerr, persons of a certain turn of essay in the form mind, it may not appear altogether absurd, that several independent beings, endowed with superior wisdom, might conspire in the contrivance and execution of one regular plan; yet is where is thesis, this a merely arbitrary supposition, which, even if allowed possible, must be confessed neither to be supported by probability nor necessity. All things in the universe are evidently of a piece. Every thing is adjusted to essay in the, every thing.

One design prevails throughout the whole. And this uniformity leads the mind to acknowledge one author; because the conception of different authors, without any distinction of attributes or operations, serves only to cornell, give perplexity to the imagination, without bestowing any satisfaction on in the form, the understanding. Internet! The statue of Laocoon , as we learn from Pliny , was the work of three artists: But it is certain, that, were we not told so, we should never have imagined, that a groupe of figures, cut from one stone, and united in one plan, was not the work and contrivance of one statuary. To ascribe any single effect to the combination of several causes, is not surely a natural and obvious supposition. On the other hand, if, leaving the works of nature, we trace the footsteps of in the invisible power in finance, the various and contrary events of human life, we are necessarily led into form polytheism and to the acknowledgment of several limited and imperfect deities. Famous! Storms and tempests ruin what is nourished by the sun. The sun destroys what is fostered by the moisture of dews and essay form, rains. War may be favourable to a nation, whom the rap ghostwriters inclemency of the seasons afflicts with famine. Sickness and in the, pestilence may depopulate a kingdom, amidst the most profuse plenty. The same nation is not, at the same time, equally successful by essays management sea and by essay form land. And a nation, which now triumphs over its enemies, may anon submit to their more prosperous arms.

In short, the conduct of events, or what we call the plan of statement a particular providence, is so full of variety and uncertainty, that, if we suppose it immediately ordered by any intelligent beings, we must acknowledge a contrariety in their designs and intentions, a constant combat of opposite powers, and essay in the, a repentance or change of intention in essay, the same power, from impotence or levity. Each nation has its tutelar deity. Form! Each element is subjected to its invisible power or agent. The province of each god is separate from that of honors cornell another. Essay In The Form! Nor are the honors cornell operations of the same god always certain and invariable. To-day he protects: To-morrow he abandons us. Prayers and sacrifices, rites and ceremonies, well or ill performed, are the in the sources of his favour or enmity, and produce all the good or ill fortune, which are to be found amongst mankind.

We may conclude, therefore, that, in all nations, which have embraced polytheism, the first ideas of religion arose not from a contemplation of the works of nature, but from honors a concern with regard to the events of life, and from the incessant hopes and fears, which actuate the human mind. Accordingly, we find, that all idolaters, having separated the provinces of their deities, have recourse to that invisible agent, to in the, whose authority they are immediately subjected, and whose province it is to superintend that course of victorian internet actions, in which they are, at any time, engaged. Essay! Juno is invoked at marriages; Lucina at births. Neptune receives the essays finance prayers of in the seamen; and Mars of warriors. The husbandman cultivates his field under the classical protection of Ceres ; and the merchant acknowledges the authority of Mercury . Each natural event is supposed to be governed by some intelligent agent; and nothing prosperous or adverse can happen in life, which may not be the subject of essay in the form peculiar prayers or thanksgivings0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of rap ghostwriters reference 1 * . It must necessarily, indeed, be allowed, that, in order to carry men’s attention beyond the present course of things, or lead them into in the any inference concerning invisible intelligent power, they must be actuated by some passion, which prompts their thought and famous classical, reflection; some motive, which urges their first enquiry. In The! But what passion shall we here have recourse to, for explaining an effect of famous classical such mighty consequence? Not speculative curiosity surely, or the pure love of truth. That motive is too refined for such gross apprehensions; and would lead men into enquiries concerning. the frame of nature, a subject too large and essay form, comprehensive for famous classical essays their narrow capacities. No passions, therefore, can be supposed to work upon such barbarians, but the essay in the form ordinary affections of human life; the anxious concern for happiness, the dread of future misery, the terror of death, the thirst of revenge, the appetite for food and other necessaries.

Agitated by hopes and victorian internet, fears of this nature, especially the latter, men scrutinize, with a trembling curiosity, the in the course of future causes, and examine the where statement located various and contrary events of human life. And in form, this disordered scene, with eyes still more disordered and essays management, astonished, they see the first obscure traces of divinity. Sect. In The Form! III. The same subject continued. We are placed in this world, as in a great theatre, where the true springs and causes of every event are entirely concealed from us; nor have we either sufficient wisdom to foresee, or power to prevent those ills, with which we are continually threatened. We hang in finance, perpetual suspence between life and death, health and sickness, plenty and want; which are distributed amongst the human species by secret and unknown causes, whose operation is oft unexpected, and essay, always unaccountable.

These unknown causes , then, become the constant object of psychology studies ocd our hope and fear; and while the passions are kept in perpetual alarm by an anxious expectation of the in the events, the imagination is rap ghostwriters, equally employed in forming ideas of those powers, on which we have so entire a dependance. Could men anatomize nature, according to the most probable, at least the most intelligible philosophy, they would find, that these causes are nothing but the particular fabric and structure of the minute parts of form their own bodies and of external objects; and rap ghostwriters, that, by a regular and constant machinery, all the events are produced, about which they are so much concerned. But this philosophy exceeds the in the form comprehension of the ignorant multitude, who can only conceive the unknown causes in a general and confused manner; though their imagination, perpetually employed on statement, the same subject, must labour to form some particular and distinct idea of them. The more they consider these causes themselves, and the uncertainty of their operation, the less satisfaction do they meet with in their researches; and, however unwilling, they must at last have abandoned so arduous an attempt, were it not for a propensity in human nature, which leads into a system, that gives them some satisfaction. There is an universal tendency among mankind to conceive all beings like themselves, and to transfer to every object, those qualities, with which they are familiarly acquainted, and of which they are intimately conscious. We find human faces in in the, the moon, armies in the clouds; and by a natural propensity, if not corrected by experience and thesis cornell kerr, reflection, ascribe malice or good-will to every thing, that hurts or pleases us. Hence the essay form frequency and kerr, beauty of the prosopop ? oe originally '#x153;'; separated to make searching the text easier ia in poetry; where trees, mountains and streams are personified, and the inanimate parts of nature acquire sentiment and passion. And though these poetical figures and expressions gain not on. the belief, they may serve, at least, to prove a certain tendency in the imagination, without which they could neither be beautiful nor natural. Nor is a river-god or hamadryad always taken for a mere poetical or imaginary personage; but may sometimes enter into the real creed of the ignorant vulgar; while each grove or field is represented as possessed of a particular genius or invisible power, which inhabits and protects it. Nay, philosophers cannot entirely exempt themselves from this natural frailty; but have oft ascribed to inanimate matter the horror of a vacuum , sympathies, antipathies, and other affections of human nature.

The absurdity is not less, while we cast our eyes upwards; and essay form, transferring, as is too usual, human passions and infirmities to the deity, represent him as jealous and revengeful, capricious and partial, and, in short, a wicked and foolish man, in every respect but his superior power and authority. No wonder, then, that mankind, being placed in such an absolute ignorance of causes, and psychology case, being at the same time so anxious concerning their future fortune, should immediately acknowledge a dependence on invisible powers, possessed of sentiment and intelligence. The unknown causes , which continually employ their thought, appearing always in the same aspect, are all apprehended to in the, be of the same kind or species. Essays Management! Nor is it long before we ascribe to them thought and reason and passion, and sometimes even the limbs and figures of men, in order to bring them nearer to a resemblance with ourselves. In proportion as any man’s course of life is governed by accident, we always find, that he encreases in superstition; as may particularly be observed of gamesters and sailors, who, though, of all mankind, the least capable of serious reflection, abound most in frivolous and superstitious apprehensions.

The gods, says Coriolanus in Dionysius 0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for in the form ease of reference 2 * , have an influence in every affair; but above all, in is thesis statement, war; where the event is so uncertain. All human life, especially before the institution of form order and good government, being subject to fortuitous accidents; it is natural, that superstition should prevail every where in barbarous ages, and put men on the most earnest enquiry concerning those invisible powers, who dispose of psychology case ocd their happiness or misery. Ignorant of astronomy and the anatomy of plants and animals, and too little curious to observe the admirable adjustment of final causes; they remain still unacquainted with a first and supreme creator, and with that infinitely perfect spirit, who alone, by his almighty will, bestowed order on the whole frame of nature. Such a magnificent idea is too big for their narrow conceptions, which can neither observe the beauty of the work, nor comprehend the essay in the form grandeur of its author. They suppose their deities, however potent and invisible, to be nothing but a species of human creatures, perhaps raised from among mankind, and retaining all human passions and appetites, together with corporeal limbs and organs. Such limited beings, though masters of human fate, being, each of them, incapable of extending his influence every where, must be vastly multiplied, in order to famous essays, answer that variety of events, which happen over the whole face of nature. Thus every place is stored with a crowd of local deities; and essay in the form, thus polytheism has prevailed, and where is thesis statement located, still prevails, among the greatest part of essay form uninstructed mankind0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 3 * . Any of the human affections may lead us into the notion of is thesis invisible, intelligent power; hope as well as fear, gratitude as well as affliction: But if we examine our own hearts, or observe what passes around us, we shall find, that men are much oftener thrown on their knees by the melancholy than by the agreeable passions.

Prosperity is easily received as our due, and few questions are asked concerning its cause or author. It begets cheerfulness and activity and alacrity and a lively enjoyment of every social and sensual pleasure: And during this state of mind, men have little leisure or inclination to think of the unknown invisible regions. On the other hand, every disastrous accident alarms us, and sets us on essay, enquiries concerning the principles whence it arose: Apprehensions spring up with regard to futurity: And the mind, sunk into diffidence, terror, and melancholy, has recourse to every method of appeasing those secret intelligent powers, on internet, whom our fortune is supposed entirely to depend. No topic is more usual with all popular divines than to display the advantages of affliction, in bringing men to a due sense of religion; by subduing their confidence and sensuality, which, in in the, times of prosperity, make them forgetful of a divine providence. Nor is this topic confined merely to modern religions.

The ancients have also employed it. Essays Finance Management! Fortune has never liberally, without envy, says a Greek historian0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 4 * , bestowed an. unmixed happiness on mankind; but with all her gifts has ever conjoined some disastrous circumstance, in order to chastize men into essay in the form a reverence for the gods, whom, in a continued course of prosperity, they are apt to neglect and forget . What age or period of life is the most addicted to superstition? The weakest and most timid. What sex? The same answer must be given. The leaders and examples of every kind of superstition, says Strabo 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 5 #x2020; , are the women. These excite the internet essay men to in the, devotion and psychology, supplications, and the observance of essay in the religious days. Cornell Kerr! It is rare to meet with one that lives apart from the in the females, and studies, yet is addicted to such practices. And nothing can, for this reason, be more improbable, than the account given of an order of men among the Getes , who practised celibacy, and were notwithstanding the form most religious fanatics.

A method of reasoning, which would lead us to psychology, entertain a bad idea of the devotion of monks; did we not know by an experience, not so common, perhaps, in Strabo ’s days, that one may practise celibacy, and profess chastity; and yet maintain the closest connexions and most entire sympathy with that timorous and pious sex. Sect. IV. Deities not considered as creators or formers of the world. The only point of theology, in which we shall find a consent of mankind almost universal, is, that there is invisible, intelligent power in the world: But whether this power be supreme or subordinate, whether confined to one being, or distributed among several, what attributes, qualities, connexions, or principles of action ought to be ascribed to those beings; concerning all these points, there is the widest difference in the popular systems of essay theology. Our ancestors in Europe , before the revival of victorian internet essay letters, believed, as we do at present, that there was one supreme God, the essay in the author of nature, whose power, though in rap ghostwriters, itself uncontroulable, was yet often exerted by the interposition of his angels and subordinate ministers, who executed his sacred purposes. But they also believed, that all nature was full of essay in the form other invisible powers; fairies, goblins, elves, sprights; beings, stronger and mightier than men, but much inferior to victorian internet, the celestial natures, who surround the essay in the throne of God. Psychology Case Studies Ocd! Now, suppose, that any one, in those ages, had denied the existence of God and of his angels; would not his impiety justly have deserved the appellation of atheism, even though he had still allowed, by in the form some odd capricious reasoning, that the popular stories of elves and fairies were just and classical, well-grounded?

The difference, on in the, the one hand, between such a person and a genuine theist is rap ghostwriters, infinitely greater than that, on the other, between him and one that absolutely excludes all invisible intelligent power. And it is a fallacy, merely from the casual resemblance of names, without any conformity of meaning, to in the form, rank such opposite cornell kerr, opinions under the same denomination. To any one, who considers justly of the matter, it will appear, that the gods of all polytheists are no better than the in the form elves or fairies of our ancestors, and merit as little any pious worship or veneration. These pretended religionists are really a kind of superstitious atheists, and acknowledge no being, that corresponds to rap ghostwriters, our idea of a deity. No first principle of mind or thought: No supreme government and administration: No divine contrivance or intention in the fabric of the world. The Chinese , when0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for form ease of reference 6 * their prayers are not answered, beat their idols. The deities of the Laplanders are any large stone which they meet with of an rap ghostwriters, extraordinary shape0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 7 #x2020; . The Egyptian mythologists, in order to account for form animal worship, said, that the gods, pursued by the violence of earth-born men, who were their enemies, had formerly been obliged to disguise themselves under the semblance of beasts0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 8 #x2021; . The Caunii , a nation in the Lesser Asia , resolving to admit no strange gods among them, regularly, at certain seasons, assembled themselves compleatly armed, beat the air with their lances, and proceeded in that manner to their frontiers; in order, as they said, to management, expel the foreign deities0 originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 9 #x1C1; . Not even the immortal gods, said some German nations to C ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the in the text easier sar , are a match for the Suevi 0 originally '#xA7;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 10 #xA7; . Many ills, says Dione in Homer to Venus wounded by Diomede , many ills, my daughter, have the gods inflicted on men: And many ills, in return, have men inflicted on the gods0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 11 * . We need but open any classic author to meet with these gross representations of the deities; and Longinus 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 12 #x2020; with reason observes, that such ideas of the divine nature, if literally taken, contain a true atheism. Some writers0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 13 #x2021; have been surprized, that the impieties of Aristophanes should have been tolerated, nay publicly acted and applauded by the Athenians ; a people so superstitious and so jealous of the public religion, that, at that very time, they put Socrates to psychology case studies, death for form his imagined incredulity. But these writers do not consider, that the ludicrous, familiar images, under which the gods are represented by that comic poet, instead of appearing impious, were the genuine lights in which the ancients conceived their divinities. What conduct can be more criminal or mean, than that of essays Jupiter in the Amphitrion ? Yet that play, which represented his gallante exploits, was supposed so agreeable to him, that it was always acted in essay form, Rome by public authority, when the state was threatened with pestilence, famine, or any general calamity0 originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 14 #x1C1; . The Romans supposed, that, like all old letchers, he would be highly pleased with the recital of his former feats of prowess and vigour, and that no topic was so proper, upon which to flatter his vanity.

The Lacedemonians , says Xenophon 0 originally '#xA7;'; footnotes have been numbered for rap ghostwriters ease of reference 15 #xA7; , always, during war, put up their petitions very early in the morning, in order to be beforehand with their enemies, and, by essay being the first solicitors, pre-engage the gods in their. favour. We may gather from Seneca 0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 16 * , that it was usual, for the votaries in the temples, to case studies, make interest with the beadle or sexton, that they might have a seat near the image of the deity, in form, order to be the best heard in their prayers and applications to him. The Tyrians , when besieged by Alexander , threw chains on the statue of Hercules , to prevent that deity from deserting to the enemy0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 17 #x2020; . Augustus , having twice lost his fleet by storms, forbad Neptune to be carried in procession along with the other gods; and fancied, that he had sufficiently revenged himself by that expedient0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for psychology ocd ease of reference 18 #x2021; . Essay! After Germanicus ’s death, the people were so enraged at their gods, that they stoned them in essays management, their temples; and openly renounced all allegiance to them0 originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 19 #x1C1; . To ascribe the origin and in the, fabric of the universe to these imperfect beings never enters into the imagination of any polytheist or idolater. Hesiod , whose writings, with those of Homer , contained the canonical system of the victorian heathens0 originally '#xA7;'; footnotes have been numbered for essay ease of reference 20 #xA7; ; Hesiod , I say, supposes gods and men to have sprung equally from the unknown powers of famous essays nature0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 21 #x2020; . And throughout the whole theogony of that author, Pandora is the only instance of creation or a voluntary production; and she too was formed by the gods merely from in the despight to Prometheus , who had furnished men with stolen fire from the celestial regions0 originally '#x2020;#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 22 #x2020;#x2020; . The ancient mythologists, indeed, seem throughout to have rather embraced the idea of generation than that of creation or formation; and to have thence accounted for famous classical essays the origin of this universe. Ovid , who lived in a learned age, and had been instructed by philosophers in the principles of a divine creation or formation of the world; finding, that such an idea would not agree with the popular mythology, which he delivers, leaves it, in a manner, loose and detached from essay form his system. Quisquis fuit ille Deorum0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 23 * ? Whichever of the gods it was, says he, that dissipated the chaos, and introduced order into the universe. It could neither be Saturn , he knew, nor Jupiter , nor Neptune , nor any of the received deities of paganism. His theological system had taught him nothing upon that head; and he leaves the matter equally undetermined. Diodorus Siculus 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 24 #x2020; , beginning his work with an enumeration of the most reasonable opinions concerning the origin of the world, makes no mention of a deity or intelligent mind; though it is evident from his history, that he was much more prone to superstition than to irreligion. And in another passage0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 25 #x2021; , talking of the Ichthyophagi , a nation in India , he says, that, there being so great difficulty in accounting for their descent, we must conclude them to be aborigines , without any beginning of their generation, propagating their race from where all eternity; as some of the in the form physiologers, in treating of the origin of studies nature, have justly observed. “But in such subjects as these,” adds the historian, “which exceed all human capacity, it may well happen, that those, who discourse the most, know the least; reaching a specious appearance of truth in their reasonings, while extremely wide of the real truth and matter of fact.”

A strange sentiment in our eyes, to be embraced by a professed and zealous religionist0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 26 * ! But it was merely by form accident, that the question concerning the finance origin of the form world did ever in ancient times enter into religious systems, or was treated of by rap ghostwriters theologers. The philosophers alone made profession of delivering systems of this kind; and it was pretty late too before these bethought themselves of having recourse to a mind or supreme intelligence, as the first cause of form all. So far was it from being esteemed profane in those days to account for the origin of things without a deity, that Thales , Anaximenes , Heraclitus , and rap ghostwriters, others, who embraced that system of cosmogony, past unquestioned; while Anaxagoras , the essay in the first undoubted theist among the philosophers, was perhaps the first that ever was accused of thesis kerr atheism0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 27 #x2020; . We are told by Sextus Empiricus 0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 28 #x2021; , that Epicurus , when a boy, reading with his preceptor these verses of Hesiod , Eldest of beings, chaos first arose; Next earth , wide-stretch’d, the seat of all: the young scholar first betrayed his inquisitive genius, by asking, And chaos whence? But was told by his preceptor, that he must have recourse to the philosophers for a solution of such questions. And from this hint Epicurus left philology and all other studies, in order to betake himself to that science, whence alone he expected satisfaction with regard to these sublime subjects. The common people were never likely to push their researches so far, or derive from reasoning their systems of religion; when philologers and mythologists, we see, scarcely ever discovered so much penetration. And even the form philosophers, who discoursed of such topics, readily assented to the grossest theory, and admitted the joint origin of gods and famous essays, men from night and chaos; from fire, water, air, or whatever they established to be the ruling element. Nor was it only on their first origin, that the gods were supposed dependent on the powers of nature. In The! Throughout the whole period of their existence they were subjected to honors thesis, the dominion of fate or destiny.

Think of the force of necessity, says Agrippa to the Roman people, that force, to which even the gods must submit0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 29 * . And the Younger Pliny 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 30 #x2020; , agreeably to this way of thinking, tells us, that amidst the darkness, horror, and confusion, which ensued upon the first eruption of Vesuvius , several concluded, that all nature was going to wrack, and that gods and men were perishing in one common ruin. It is great complaisance, indeed, if we dignify with the name of essay in the form religion such an honors cornell kerr, imperfect system of theology, and essay, put it on a level with later systems, which are founded on principles more just and more sublime. For my part, I can scarcely allow the is thesis statement principles even of Marcus Aurelius , Plutarch , and some other Stoics and Academics , though much more refined than the pagan superstition, to be worthy of the honourable appellation of theism. For if the mythology of the essay form heathens resemble the rap ghostwriters ancient European system of spiritual beings, excluding God and angels, and leaving only fairies and sprights; the creed of these philosophers may justly be said to exclude a deity, and to leave only angels and essay in the, fairies. Sect. V. Various Forms of Polytheism: Allegory, Hero-Worship. But it is honors thesis kerr, chiefly our present business to consider the gross polytheism of the vulgar, and to trace all its various appearances, in the principles of human nature, whence they are derived. Whoever learns by argument, the existence of invisible intelligent power, must reason from the admirable contrivance of natural objects, and must suppose the essay in the form world to be the rap ghostwriters workmanship of essay in the form that divine being, the original cause of all things. But the vulgar polytheist, so far from admitting that idea, deifies every part of the universe, and conceives all the case conspicuous productions of nature, to be themselves so many real divinities.

The sun, moon, and essay in the, stars, are all gods according to his system: Fountains are inhabited by nymphs, and trees by hamadryads: Even monkies, dogs, cats, and other animals often become sacred in his eyes, and strike him with a religious veneration. And thus, however strong men’s propensity to believe invisible, intelligent power in honors thesis kerr, nature, their propensity is equally strong to essay, rest their attention on victorian internet, sensible, visible objects; and in order to reconcile these opposite inclinations, they are led to essay form, unite the invisible power with some visible object. The distribution also of distinct provinces to the several deities is apt to cause some allegory, both physical and moral, to enter into the vulgar systems of polytheism. The god of war will naturally be represented as furious, cruel, and impetuous: The god of poetry as elegant, polite, and internet, amiable: The god of merchandise, especially in form, early times, as thievish and deceitful. The allegories, supposed in Homer and other mythologists, I allow, have often been so strained, that men of sense are apt entirely to kerr, reject them, and to consider them as the production merely of the fancy and conceit of critics and commentators. But that allegory really has place in essay in the form, the heathen mythology is undeniable even on the least reflection. Cupid the son of Venus ; the classical Muses the daughters of Memory; Prometheus , the wise brother, and Epimetheus the form foolish; Hygieia or the goddess of health descended from ? AE originally '#xC6;'; separated to make searching the text easier sculapius or the god of physic: Who sees not, in cornell kerr, these, and in many other instances, the plain traces of essay in the allegory? When a god is rap ghostwriters, supposed to preside over form, any passion, event, or system of actions, it is almost. unavoidable to give him a genealogy, attributes, and adventures, suitable to his supposed powers and influence; and to carry on finance, that similitude and comparison, which is naturally so agreeable to the mind of man. Allegories, indeed, entirely perfect, we ought not to expect as the productions of ignorance and form, superstition; there being no work of genius that requires a nicer hand, or has been more rarely executed with success. That Fear and Terror are the psychology case studies sons of Mars is just; but why by Venus 0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 31 * ? That Harmony is the daughter of Venus is regular; but why by Mars 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 32 #x2020; ? That Sleep is the brother of Death is suitable; but why describe him as enamoured of one of the Graces0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for in the ease of reference 33 #x2021; ? And since the rap ghostwriters ancient mythologists fall into mistakes so gross and palpable, we have no reason surely to expect such refined and long-spun allegories, as some have endeavoured to deduce from their fictions.

Lucretius was plainly seduced by the strong appearance of allegory, which is essay in the, observable in the pagan fictions. He first addresses himself to Venus as to that generating power, which animates, renews, and beautifies the universe: But is rap ghostwriters, soon betrayed by the mythology into incoherencies, while he prays to that allegorical personage to appease the furies of her lover Mars : An idea not drawn from allegory, but from the form popular religion, and which Lucretius , as an Epicurean , could not consistently admit of. The deities of the vulgar are so little superior to human creatures, that, where men are affected with strong sentiments of veneration or gratitude for studies any hero or public benefactor, nothing can be more natural than to convert him into form a god, and famous classical, fill the heavens, after this manner, with continual recruits from among mankind. Most of the divinities of the ancient world are supposed to have once been men, and to have been beholden for their apotheosis to the admiration and affection of the people. The real history of their adventures, corrupted by tradition, and elevated by the marvellous, become a plentiful source of fable; especially in passing through the hands of poets, allegorists, and priests, who successively improved upon the wonder and astonishment of the essay in the ignorant multitude. Painters too and sculptors came in for rap ghostwriters their share of profit in the sacred mysteries; and furnishing men with sensible representations of their divinities, whom they cloathed in essay in the form, human figures, gave great encrease to the public devotion, and determined its object.

It was probably for want of these arts in rude and barbarous ages, that men deified plants, animals, and even brute, unorganized matter; and rather than be without a sensible object of worship, affixed divinity to such ungainly forms. Could any statuary of Syria , in early times, have formed a just figure of Apollo , the conic stone, Heliogabalus , had never become the object of such profound adoration, and cornell, been received as a representation of the essay in the form solar deity0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 34 * . Stilpo was banished by the council of honors thesis cornell Areopagus , for affirming that the Minerva in the citadel was no divinity; but the workmanship of Phidias , the essay in the form sculptor0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 35 #x2020; . What degree of reason must we expect in the religious belief of the vulgar in other nations; when Athenians and Areopagites could entertain such gross conceptions? These then are the general principles of polytheism, founded in human nature, and little or nothing dependent on caprice and accident. As the causes , which bestow happiness or misery, are, in general, very little known and very uncertain, our anxious concern endeavours to attain a determinate idea of them; and victorian internet, finds no better expedient than to in the form, represent them as intelligent voluntary agents, like ourselves; only somewhat superior in power and wisdom. The limited influence of these agents, and their great proximity to human weakness, introduce the various distribution and division of their authority; and thereby give rise to allegory. Internet! The same principles naturally deify mortals, superior in power, courage, or understanding, and produce hero-worship; together with fabulous history and mythological tradition, in all its wild and unaccountable forms. And as an in the form, invisible spiritual intelligence is an object too refined for vulgar apprehension, men naturally affix it to some sensible representation; such as either the more conspicuous parts of nature, or the statues, images, and pictures, which a more refined age forms of its divinities. Almost all idolaters, of whatever age or country, concur in these general principles and where is thesis located, conceptions; and even the particular characters and provinces, which they assign to their deities, are not extremely different0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 36 * . The Greek and essay in the form, Roman travellers and essays, conquerors, without much difficulty, found their own deities every where; and said, This is Mercury , that Venus ; this Mars , that Neptune ; by whatever title the strange gods might be denominated.

The goddess Hertha of our Saxon ancestors seems to be no other, according to essay in the form, Tacitus 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 37 #x2020; , than the Mater Tellus of the Romans ; and essays management, his conjecture was evidently just. Sect. VI. Origin of Theism from essay in the Polytheism. The doctrine of essays management one supreme deity, the in the author of nature, is very ancient, has spread itself over psychology studies ocd, great and populous nations, and among them has been embraced by all ranks and conditions of form men: But whoever thinks that it has owed its success to the prevalent force of those invincible reasons, on essays, which it is undoubtedly founded, would show himself little acquainted with the ignorance and stupidity of the people, and in the, their incurable prejudices in favour of their particular superstitions. Even at this day, and in Europe , ask any of the rap ghostwriters vulgar, why he believes in an omnipotent creator of the world; he will never mention the beauty of final causes, of which he is wholly ignorant: He will not hold out his hand, and form, bid you contemplate the suppleness and internet, variety of joints in his fingers, their bending all one way, the counterpoise which they receive from the thumb, the softness and in the form, fleshy parts of the inside of his hand, with all the other circumstances, which render that member fit for the use, to which it was destined.

To these he has been long accustomed; and he beholds them with listlessness and unconcern. He will tell you of the sudden and unexpected death of such a one: The fall and bruise of such another: The excessive drought of this season: The cold and rains of another. These he ascribes to the immediate operation of providence: And such events, as, with good reasoners, are the chief difficulties in admitting a supreme intelligence, are with him the sole arguments for it. Many theists, even the rap ghostwriters most zealous and refined, have denied a particular providence, and essay, have asserted, that the Sovereign mind or first principle of all things, having fixed general laws, by which nature is case ocd, governed, gives free and uninterrupted course to these laws, and disturbs not, at every turn, the settled order of form events by particular volitions. Victorian Essay! From the in the form beautiful connexion, say they, and rigid observance of is thesis statement located established rules, we draw the chief argument for theism; and from the same principles are enabled to answer the principal objections against it. But so little is form, this understood by the generality of mankind, that, wherever they observe any one to ascribe all events to natural causes, and to remove the particular interposition of a deity, they are apt to suspect him of the grossest infidelity.

A little philosophy , says lord Bacon , makes men atheists: A great deal reconciles them to. religion. For men, being taught, by superstitious prejudices, to lay the psychology case ocd stress on a wrong place; when that fails them, and they discover, by a little reflection, that the course of nature is regular and uniform, their whole faith totters, and essay in the form, falls to ruin. But being taught, by more reflection, that this very regularity and uniformity is the strongest proof of design and of a supreme intelligence, they return to that belief, which they had deserted; and they are now able to establish it on a firmer and more durable foundation. Convulsions in nature, disorders, prodigies, miracles, though the most opposite to the plan of a wise superintendent, impress mankind with the strongest sentiments of religion; the causes of famous classical essays events seeming then the most unknown and unaccountable. Madness, fury, rage, and an inflamed imagination, though they sink men nearest to the level of beasts, are, for a like reason, often supposed to in the form, be the only dispositions, in which we can have any immediate communication with the internet Deity. We may conclude, therefore, upon the whole, that, since the vulgar, in nations, which have embraced the doctrine of in the theism, still build it upon irrational and superstitious principles, they are never led into that opinion by victorian any process of argument, but by a certain train of thinking, more suitable to their genius and essay, capacity. It may readily happen, in an idolatrous nation, that though men admit the psychology case ocd existence of several limited deities, yet is there some one God, whom, in a particular manner, they make the object of their worship and adoration. They may either suppose, that, in the distribution of power and territory among the gods, their nation was subjected to the jurisdiction of that particular deity; or reducing heavenly objects to the model of things below, they may represent one god as the prince or supreme magistrate of the in the form rest, who, though of the same nature, rules them with an honors thesis, authority, like that which an earthly sovereign exercises over his subjects and vassals.

Whether this god, therefore, be considered as their peculiar patron, or as the general sovereign of heaven, his votaries will endeavour, by every art, to insinuate themselves into his favour; and supposing him to be pleased, like themselves, with praise and flattery, there is no eulogy or exaggeration, which will be spared in their addresses to him. Essay Form! In proportion as men’s fears or distresses become more urgent, they still invent new strains of adulation; and even he who outdoes his predecessor in swelling up the titles of his divinity, is sure to be outdone by his successor in newer and more pompous epithets of praise. Thus they proceed; till at last they arrive at infinity itself, beyond which there is no farther progress: And it is well, if, in essays management, striving to get farther, and to represent a magnificent simplicity, they run not into inexplicable mystery, and destroy the intelligent nature of their deity, on. which alone any rational worship or adoration can be founded. While they confine themselves to the notion of a perfect being, the creator of the in the world, they coincide, by chance, with the principles of reason and kerr, true philosophy; though they are guided to that notion, not by reason, of which they are in form, a great measure incapable, but by the adulation and fears of the most vulgar superstition. We often find, amongst barbarous nations, and even sometimes amongst civilized, that, when every strain of where is thesis located flattery has been exhausted towards arbitrary princes, when every human quality has been applauded to the utmost; their servile courtiers represent them, at last, as real divinities, and point them out to the people as objects of adoration.

How much more natural, therefore, is it, that a limited deity, who at first is supposed only the immediate author of the particular goods and ills in life, should in form, the end be represented as sovereign maker and modifier of the universe? Even where this notion of a supreme deity is already established; though it ought naturally to lessen every other worship, and abase every object of reverence, yet if a nation has entertained the opinion of famous classical a subordinate tutelar divinity, saint, or angel; their addresses to that being gradually rise upon essay in the them, and encroach on the adoration due to their supreme deity. The Virgin Mary , ere checked by the reformation, had proceeded, from is thesis being merely a good woman, to usurp many attributes of the Almighty: God and St. Nicholas go hand in hand, in all the prayers and petitions of the Muscovites . Thus the deity, who, from form love, converted himself into a bull, in order to finance management, carry off Europa ; and who, from ambition, dethroned his father, Saturn , became the Optimus Maximus of the heathens. Thus, the in the form God of Abraham , Isaac , and Jacob , became the supreme deity or Jehovah of the Jews . The Jacobins , who denied the rap ghostwriters immaculate conception, have ever been very unhappy in their doctrine, even though political reasons have kept the Romish church from condemning it.

The Cordeliers have run away with all the popularity. But in the fifteenth century, as we learn from Boulainvilliers 0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 38 * , an Italian Cordelier maintained, that, during the essay in the form three days, when Christ was interred, the essays finance management hypostatic union was dissolved, and essay in the, that his human nature was not a proper object of adoration, during that period. Where Is Thesis Statement! Without the art of divination, one might foretel, that so gross and form, impious a blasphemy would not fail to be anathematized by the people. It was the occasion of great insults on the part of the Jacobins ; who now got some recompence for their misfortunes in the war about the immaculate conception. Rather than relinquish this propensity to adulation, religionists, in all ages, have involved themselves in the greatest absurdities and contradictions. Homer , in one passage, calls Oceanus and Tethys the original parents of all things, conformably to the established mythology and tradition of the rap ghostwriters Greeks : Yet, in other passages, he could not forbear complimenting Jupiter , the reigning deity, with that magnificent appellation; and accordingly denominates him the father of gods and men. He forgets, that every temple, every street was full of the ancestors, uncles, brothers, and sisters of this Jupiter ; who was in reality nothing but an upstart parricide and form, usurper. A like contradiction is observable in Hesiod ; and is so much the less excusable, as his professed intention was to deliver a true genealogy of the gods. Were there a religion (and we may suspect Mahometanism of this inconsistence) which sometimes painted the Deity in the most sublime colours, as the creator of heaven and earth; sometimes degraded him nearly to a level with human creatures in famous essays, his powers and faculties; while at the same time it ascribed to him suitable infirmities, passions, and partialities, of the in the moral kind: That religion, after it was extinct, would also be cited as an victorian essay, instance of those contradictions, which arise from the gross, vulgar, natural conceptions of mankind, opposed to their continual propensity towards flattery and form, exaggeration. Nothing indeed would prove more strongly the divine origin of any religion, than to find (and happily this is the case with Christianity) that it is free from a contradiction, so incident to human nature.

Sect.VII. Confirmation of essay this Doctrine. It appears certain, that, though the original notions of the vulgar represent the Divinity as a limited being, and consider him only as the particular cause of health or sickness; plenty or want; prosperity or adversity; yet when more magnificent ideas are urged upon them, they esteem it dangerous to form, refuse their assent. Will you say, that your deity is finite and bounded in his perfections; may be overcome by a greater force; is subject to human passions, pains, and infirmities; has a beginning, and located, may have an end? This they dare not affirm; but thinking it safest to comply with the in the higher encomiums, they endeavour, by an affected ravishment and devotion, to ingratiate themselves with him. As a confirmation of this, we may observe, that the assent of the vulgar is, in famous, this case, merely verbal, and that they are incapable of conceiving those sublime qualities, which they seemingly attribute to the Deity. Their real idea of him, notwithstanding their pompous language, is still as poor and frivolous as ever. That original intelligence, say the Magians , who is the first principle of essay in the form all things, discovers himself immediately to the mind and understanding alone; but has placed the sun as his image in the visible universe; and when that bright luminary diffuses its beams over the earth and the firmament, it is a faint copy of the glory, which resides in the higher heavens. If you would escape the displeasure of this divine being, you must be careful never to set your bare foot upon the ground, nor spit into a fire, nor throw any water upon it, even though it were consuming a whole city0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of case studies ocd reference 39 * . Who can express the perfections of the Almighty? say the Mahometans.

Even the noblest of his works, if compared to him, are but dust and rubbish. Form! How much more must human conception fall short of his infinite perfections? His smile and favour renders men for ever happy; and to obtain it for your children, the thesis best method is to cut off from them, while infants, a little bit of skin, about half the breadth of a farthing. Take two bits of cloth0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 40 #x2020; , say the Roman catholics , about an inch or an inch and a half square, join them by the corners with two strings or pieces of tape about sixteen inches long, throw this over your head, and make one of the form bits of cloth lie upon finance your. breast, and form, the other upon your back, keeping them next your skin: There is not a better secret for cornell recommending yourself to that infinite Being, who exists from eternity to eternity. The Getes , commonly called immortal, from their steady belief of the soul’s immortality, were genuine theists and unitarians. They affirmed Zamolxis , their deity, to be the only true god; and asserted the essay worship of all other nations to be addressed to mere fictions and chimeras. But were their religious principles any more refined, on honors cornell kerr, account of these magnificent pretensions?

Every fifth year they sacrificed a human victim, whom they sent as a messenger to their deity, in essay in the form, order to inform him of their wants and necessities. And when it thundered, they were so provoked, that, in order to return the defiance, they let fly arrows at him, and declined not the combat as unequal. Such at least is the account, which Herodotus gives of the theism of the honors thesis cornell immortal Getes 0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of essay reference 41 #x2021; . Sect. VIII. Finance! Flux and reflux of polytheism and theism. It is remarkable, that the principles of religion have a kind of flux and reflux in the human mind, and essay, that men have a natural tendency to rise from idolatry to theism, and to sink again from theism into studies ocd idolatry. The vulgar, that is, indeed, all mankind, a few excepted, being ignorant and uninstructed, never elevate their contemplation to the heavens, or penetrate by their disquisitions into the secret structure of essay vegetable or animal bodies; so far as to discover a supreme mind or original providence, which bestowed order on finance management, every part of nature. They consider these admirable works in a more confined and selfish view; and finding their own happiness and misery to depend on the secret influence and unforeseen concurrence of in the external objects, they regard, with perpetual attention, the unknown causes , which govern all these natural events, and distribute pleasure and pain, good and ill, by their powerful, but silent, operation.

The unknown causes are still appealed to on rap ghostwriters, every emergence; and in this general appearance or confused image, are the perpetual objects of human hopes and fears, wishes and form, apprehensions. By degrees, the active imagination of men, uneasy in this abstract conception of objects, about which it is incessantly employed, begins to render them more particular, and to clothe them in shapes more suitable to its natural comprehension. It represents them to be sensible, intelligent beings, like mankind; actuated by rap ghostwriters love and hatred, and flexible by gifts and entreaties, by prayers and sacrifices. Hence the origin of religion: And hence the origin of idolatry or polytheism. But the in the same anxious concern for happiness, which begets the famous classical essays idea of these invisible, intelligent powers, allows not mankind to essay, remain long in the first simple conception of them; as powerful, but limited beings; masters of kerr human fate, but slaves to destiny and essay, the course of nature. Where Is Thesis! Men’s exaggerated praises and compliments still swell their idea upon them; and elevating their deities to the utmost bounds of perfection, at form last beget the attributes of psychology ocd unity and infinity, simplicity and spirituality. Such refined ideas, being somewhat disproportioned to vulgar comprehension, remain not long in their original purity; but require to be supported by the notion of inferior mediators or subordinate agents, which interpose between mankind and their supreme deity. These demi-gods or middle beings, partaking more of human nature, and being more familiar to essay in the form, us, become the chief objects of devotion, and gradually recal that idolatry, which had been formerly banished by the ardent prayers and panegyrics of case ocd timorous and indigent mortals. But as these idolatrous religions fall every day into grosser and more vulgar conceptions, they at last destroy themselves, and, by essay in the the vile representations, which they form of their deities, make the tide turn again towards theism. But so great is the propensity, in this alternate revolution of human sentiments, to return back to idolatry, that the utmost precaution is internet essay, not able effectually to essay form, prevent it.

And of is thesis statement located this, some theists, particularly the Jews and Mahometans , have been sensible; as appears by essay in the their banishing all the arts of statuary and painting, and not allowing the representations, even of human figures, to be taken by marble or colours; lest the honors thesis kerr common infirmity of mankind should thence produce idolatry. The feeble apprehensions of men cannot be satisfied with conceiving their deity as a pure spirit and perfect intelligence; and yet their natural terrors keep them from imputing to him the least shadow of limitation and imperfection. They fluctuate between these opposite sentiments. The same infirmity still drags them downwards, from an omnipotent and spiritual deity, to a limited and essay in the form, corporeal one, and from a corporeal and limited deity to a statue or visible representation. The same endeavour at elevation still pushes them upwards, from the statue or material image to rap ghostwriters, the invisible power; and essay form, from the invisible power to an infinitely perfect deity, the creator and honors thesis kerr, sovereign of the universe.

Sect. IX. In The Form! Comparison of these Religions, with regard to Persecution and Toleration. Polytheism or idolatrous worship, being founded entirely in vulgar traditions, is liable to this great inconvenience, that any practice or opinion, however barbarous or corrupted, may be authorized by classical essays it; and full scope is given, for knavery to in the, impose on credulity, till morals and humanity be expelled from there is a 'from' here in essay, all editions up to and including that of 1770; it seems to essay in the, have vanished from the 1772 and 1777 editions by mistake the religious systems of mankind. At the same time, idolatry is essays, attended with this evident advantage, that, by limiting the powers and functions of its deities, it naturally admits the gods of other sects and essay in the form, nations to a share of divinity, and renders all the various deities, as well as rites, ceremonies, or traditions, compatible with each other0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 42 * . Theism is opposite both in its advantages and disadvantages. As that system supposes one sole deity, the perfection of reason and honors cornell kerr, goodness, it should, if justly prosecuted, banish every thing frivolous, unreasonable, or inhuman from religious worship, and set before men the form most illustrious example, as well as the most commanding motives, of justice and benevolence. These mighty advantages are not indeed over-balanced (for that is not possible), but somewhat diminished, by inconveniencies, which arise from the classical vices and prejudices of in the mankind.

While one sole object of devotion is psychology case studies, acknowledged, the worship of other deities is form, regarded as absurd and impious. Rap Ghostwriters! Nay, this unity of essay object seems naturally to require the unity of famous essays faith and ceremonies, and furnishes designing men with a pretence for representing their adversaries as profane, and the objects of divine as well as human vengeance. For as each sect is positive that its own faith and worship are entirely acceptable to the deity, and as no one can conceive, that the essay form same being should be pleased with different and opposite rites and principles; the several sects fall naturally. into animosity, and management, mutually discharge on each other that sacred zeal and rancour, the most furious and implacable of all human passions. The tolerating spirit of idolaters, both in ancient and modern times, is very obvious to any one, who is the least conversant in the writings of historians or travellers. When the oracle of Delphi was asked, what rites or worship was most acceptable to the gods? Those which are legally established in essay in the, each city, replied the oracle0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 43 * . Even priests, in those ages, could, it seems, allow salvation to those of a different communion. The Romans commonly adopted the gods of the thesis conquered people; and never disputed the attributes of those local and national deities, in whose territories they resided. The religious wars and persecutions of the Egyptian idolaters are indeed an exception to this rule; but are accounted for in the by ancient authors from reasons singular and remarkable.

Different species of animals were the deities of the different sects among the Egyptians ; and the deities being in continual war, engaged their votaries in the same contention. The worshippers of dogs could not long remain in peace with the adorers of cats or wolves0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 44 * . But where that reason took not place, the Egyptian superstition was not so incompatible as is commonly imagined; since we learn from Herodotus 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 45 #x2020; , that very large contributions were given by Amasis towards rebuilding the temple of Delphi . The intolerance of almost all religions, which have maintained the unity of God, is famous classical, as remarkable as the contrary principle of polytheists. The implacable narrow spirit of the Jews is well known. Mahometanism set out with still more bloody principles; and even to essay form, this day, deals out damnation, though not fire and classical, faggot, to all other sects. And if, among Christians , the English and Dutch have embraced the principles of toleration, this singularity has proceeded from the steady resolution of the civil magistrate, in opposition to the continued efforts of in the form priests and bigots. The disciples of Zoroaster shut the honors cornell kerr doors of heaven against all but the Magians 0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 46 #x2021; . In The Form! Nothing could more obstruct the progress of the Persian conquests, than the furious zeal of that nation against the temples and images of the Greeks . And after the overthrow of thesis cornell that empire we find Alexander , as a polytheist, immediately re-establishing the worship of the Babylonians , which their former princes, as monotheists, had carefully abolished0 originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 47 #x1C1; . Even the blind and devoted attachment of that conqueror to the Greek superstition hindered not but he himself sacrificed according to the Babylonish rites and ceremonies0 originally '#xA7;'; footnotes have been numbered for in the ease of reference 48 #xA7; . So sociable is polytheism, that the utmost fierceness and antipathy, which it meets with in an opposite religion, is scarcely able to essays management, disgust it, and keep it at a distance. Augustus praised extremely the essay in the form reserve of his grandson, Caius C ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier sar , when this latter prince, passing by Jerusalem , deigned not to sacrifice according to the Jewish law.

But for what reason did Augustus so much approve of this conduct? Only, because that religion was by psychology case ocd the Pagans esteemed ignoble and in the form, barbarous0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 49 * . I may venture to affirm, that few corruptions of idolatry and polytheism are more pernicious to society than this corruption of theism0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of essay reference 50 #x2020; , when carried to the utmost height. The human sacrifices of the Carthaginians , Mexicans , and form, many barbarous nations0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 51 #x2021; , scarcely exceed the famous essays inquisition and persecutions of essay in the form Rome and Madrid . For besides, that the rap ghostwriters effusion of blood may not be so great in the former case as in the latter; besides this, I say, the human victims, being chosen by lot, or by some exterior signs, affect not, in so considerable a degree, the in the form rest of the society. Whereas virtue, knowledge, love of liberty, are the qualities, which call down the fatal vengeance of inquisitors; and when expelled, leave the victorian internet essay society in essay form, the most shameful ignorance, corruption, and bondage. The illegal murder of one man by a tyrant is more pernicious than the death of a thousand by pestilence, famine, or any undistinguishing calamity. In the temple of Diana at Aricia near Rome , whoever murdered the present priest, was legally entitled to rap ghostwriters, be installed his successor0 originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of in the form reference 52 #x1C1; . Where Located! A very singular institution!

For, however barbarous and bloody the common superstitions often are to the laity, they usually turn to the advantage of the holy order. Sect. X. In The Form! With regard to courage or abasement. From the comparison of theism and idolatry, we may form some other observations, which will also confirm the vulgar observation, that the rap ghostwriters corruption of the essay best things gives rise to the worst. Where the deity is rap ghostwriters, represented as infinitely superior to mankind, this belief, though altogether just, is apt, when joined with superstitious terror, to sink the human mind into form the lowest submission and case, abasement, and to represent the monkish virtues of mortification, penance, humility, and in the, passive suffering, as the only qualities which are acceptable to him. But where the gods are conceived to be only a little superior to mankind, and to have been, many of case studies them, advanced from that inferior rank, we are more at our ease in our addresses to essay in the, them, and may even, without profaneness, aspire sometimes to a rivalship and emulation of them.

Hence activity, spirit, courage, magnanimity, love of liberty, and all the virtues which aggrandize a people. The heroes in paganism correspond exactly to the saints in popery and famous, holy dervises in Mahometanism . The place of Hercules , Theseus , Hector , Romulus , is now supplied by Dominic , Francis , Anthony , and Benedict . Essay! Instead of the famous classical essays destruction of monsters, the subduing of essay in the tyrants, the defence of our native country; whippings and fastings, cowardice and humility, abject submission and psychology studies, slavish obedience, are become the means of essay in the form obtaining celestial honours among mankind. One great incitement to the pious Alexander in his warlike expeditions was his rivalship of Hercules and Bacchus , whom he justly pretended to have excelled0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 53 * . Brasidas , that generous and noble Spartan , after falling in battle, had heroic honours paid him by the inhabitants of Amphipolis , whose defence he had embraced0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 54 #x2020; . And in general, all founders of states and colonies among the Greeks were raised to this inferior rank of divinity, by those who reaped the benefit of their labours. This gave rise to the observation of victorian internet essay Machiavel 0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 55 #x2021; , that the doctrines of the essay Christian religion (meaning the catholic; for he knew no other) which recommend only passive courage and suffering, had subdued the spirit of. mankind, and had fitted them for slavery and famous classical, subjection. An observation, which would certainly be just, were there not many other circumstances in human society which controul the genius and character of a religion. Brasidas seized a mouse, and being bit by it, let it go. There is nothing so contemptible, said he, but what may be safe, if it has but courage to defend itself0 originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 56 #x1C1; . Bellarmine patiently and humbly allowed the fleas and other odious vermin to prey upon him.

We shall have heaven, said he, to in the, reward us for our sufferings: But these poor creatures have nothing but the enjoyment of the essays management present life0 originally '#xA7;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 57 #xA7; . Such difference is there between the essay in the form maxims of a Greek hero and a Catholic saint. Sect. XI. With regard to located, reason or absurdity. Here is another observation to the same purpose, and a new proof that the corruption of the best things begets the worst. If we examine, without prejudice, the ancient heathen mythology, as contained in form, the poets, we shall not discover in it any such monstrous absurdity, as we may at first be apt to apprehend. Where is the difficulty in conceiving, that the is thesis located same powers or principles, whatever they were, which formed this visible world, men and animals, produced also a species of intelligent creatures, of more refined substance and greater authority than the rest?

That these creatures may be capricious, revengeful, passionate, voluptuous, is easily conceived; nor is any circumstance more apt, among ourselves, to engender such vices, than the licence of absolute authority. And in short, the in the whole mythological system is so natural, that, in the vast variety of planets and words worlds originally 'words'; previous editions have 'worlds' here, which is obviously what was intended , contained in this universe, it seems more than probable, that, somewhere or other, it is really carried into execution. The chief objection to essays, it with regard to this planet, is, that it is not ascertained by in the form any just reason or authority. Rap Ghostwriters! The ancient tradition, insisted on by heathen priests and theologers, is but a weak foundation; and transmitted also such a number of contradictory reports, supported, all of them, by equal authority, that it became absolutely impossible to fix a preference amongst them. A few volumes, therefore, must contain all the polemical writings of pagan priests: And their whole theology must consist more of traditional stories and superstitious practices than of philosophical argument and controversy. But where theism forms the fundamental principle of any popular religion, that tenet is so conformable to sound reason, that philosophy is apt to incorporate itself with such a system of essay form theology. Is Thesis! And if the other dogmas of in the form that system be contained in rap ghostwriters, a sacred book, such as the Alcoran, or be determined by any visible authority, like that of the Roman pontiff, speculative reasoners naturally carry on their assent, and embrace a theory, which has been instilled into them by their earliest education, and which also possesses some degree of consistence and form, uniformity. Rap Ghostwriters! But as these appearances are sure, all of them, to prove deceitful, philosophy will soon find herself very unequally yoked with her new associate; and instead of. regulating each principle, as they advance together, she is at every turn perverted to serve the purposes of superstition. Essay In The Form! For besides the unavoidable incoherences, which must be reconciled and adjusted; one may safely affirm, that all popular theology, especially the scholastic, has a kind of appetite for absurdity and contradiction.

If that theology went not beyond reason and essays, common sense, her doctrines would appear too easy and familiar. Essay In The Form! Amazement must of necessity be raised: Mystery affected: Darkness and obscurity sought after: And a foundation of merit afforded to the devout votaries, who desire an opportunity of subduing their rebellious reason, by the belief of the most unintelligible sophisms. Ecclesiastical history sufficiently confirms these reflections. When a controversy is started, some people always pretend with certainty to essays management, foretell the issue. Whichever opinion, say they, is in the, most contrary to plain sense is sure to prevail; even where the general interest of the system requires not that decision. Though the reproach of heresy may, for internet essay some time, be bandied about among the in the form disputants, it always rests at rap ghostwriters last on the side of reason. Any one, it is essay in the form, pretended, that has but learning enough of this kind to rap ghostwriters, know the definition of Arian , Pelagian , Erestian , Socinian , Sabellian , Eutychian , Nestorian , Monothelite , c. not to mention Protestant , whose fate is yet uncertain, will be convinced of the truth of this observation. It is thus a system becomes more absurd in essay, the end, merely from its being reasonable and philosophical in the beginning. To oppose the torrent of scholastic religion by such feeble maxims as these, that it is impossible for the same thing, to be and not to be , that the whole is greater than a part , that two and three make five ; is pretending to stop the ocean with a bull-rush.

Will you set up profane reason against sacred mystery? No punishment is great enough for your impiety. Essays Management! And the form same fires, which were kindled for heretics, will serve also for the destruction of philosophers. Sect. XII. With regard to Doubt or Conviction.

We meet every day with people so sceptical with regard to history, that they assert it impossible for famous classical any nation ever to believe such absurd principles as those of Greek and Egyptian paganism; and at the same time so dogmatical with regard to religion, that they think the same absurdities are to be found in no other communion. Cambyses entertained like prejudices; and very impiously ridiculed, and even wounded, Apis , the great god of the essay in the Egyptians , who appeared to his profane senses nothing but a large spotted bull. But Herodotus judiciously ascribes this sally of case ocd passion to a real madness or disorder of the brain: Otherwise, says the historian, he never would have openly affronted any established worship. Form! For on internet, that head, continues he, every nation are best satisfied with their own, and think they have the advantage over every other nation. It must be allowed, that the Roman Catholics are a very learned sect; and that no one communion, but that of the church of England , can dispute their being the most learned of all the Christian churches: Yet Averroes , the famous Arabian , who, no doubt, had heard of the Egyptian superstitions, declares, that, of all religions, the most absurd and form, nonsensical is internet, that, whose votaries eat, after having created, their deity. I believe, indeed, that there is no tenet in all paganism, which would give so fair a scope to ridicule as this of the real presence: For it is so absurd, that it eludes the force of essay in the all argument. There are even some pleasant stories of that kind, which, though somewhat profane, are commonly told by thesis cornell kerr the Catholics themselves.

One day, a priest, it is said, gave inadvertently, instead of the sacrament, a counter, which had by accident fallen among the holy wafers. The communicant waited patiently for some time, expecting it would dissolve on his tongue: But finding that it still remained entire, he took it off. I wish, cried he to the priest, you have not committed some mistake: I wish you have not given me God the Father: He is form, so hard and tough there is no swallowing him. A famous general, at that time in the Muscovite service, having come to Paris for the recovery of his wounds, brought along with him a young Turk , whom he had taken prisoner. Psychology Ocd! Some of the doctors of the essay form Sorbonne (who are altogether as positive as the dervises of rap ghostwriters Constantinople ) thinking. it a pity, that the poor Turk should be damned for want of instruction, solicited Mustapha very hard to turn Christian, and promised him, for his encouragement, plenty of good wine in this world, and paradise in the next. These allurements were too powerful to be resisted; and essay form, therefore, having been well instructed and catechized, he at last agreed to receive the sacraments of baptism and the Lord’s supper.

The priest, however, to make every thing sure and solid, still continued his instructions; and began the next day with the honors thesis usual question, How many Gods are there? None at form all, replies Benedict ; for that was his new name. How! None at all! cries the priest. To be sure, said the honest proselyte. You have told me all along that there is but one God: And yesterday I eat him. Such are the doctrines of victorian internet our brethren the Catholics. But to these doctrines we are so accustomed, that we never wonder at them: Though in form, a future age, it will probably become difficult to case studies, persuade some nations, that any human, two-legged creature could ever embrace such principles.

And it is a thousand to one, but these nations themselves shall have something full as absurd in essay, their own creed, to cornell, which they will give a most implicit and most religious assent. I lodged once at Paris in form, the same hotel with an ambassador from Tunis , who, having passed some years at London , was returning home that way. One day I observed his Moorish excellency diverting himself under the porch, with surveying the splendid equipages that drove along; when there chanced to finance, pass that way some Capucin friars, who had never seen a Turk ; as he, on his part, though accustomed to the European dresses, had never seen the grotesque figure of a Capucin: And there is no expressing the in the mutual admiration, with which they inspired each other. Had the chaplain of the embassy entered into a dispute with these Franciscans , their reciprocal surprize had been of the same nature. Thus all mankind stand staring at one another; and there is no beating it into their heads, that the turban of the African is not just as good or as bad a fashion as the cowl of the European . He is a very honest man, said the prince of Sallee , speaking of de Ruyter , It is a pity he were a Christian. How can you worship leeks and rap ghostwriters, onions? we shall suppose a Sorbonnist to say to a priest of essay form Sais . Essays! If we worship them, replies the latter; at least, we do not, at the same time, eat them.

But what strange objects of adoration are cats and monkies? says the learned doctor. They are at least as good as the relics or rotten bones of martyrs, answers his no less learned antagonist. Are you not mad, insists the Catholic, to cut one another’s throat about the preference of a. cabbage or a cucumber? Yes, says the pagan; I allow it, if you will confess, that those are still madder, who fight about the preference among volumes of sophistry, ten thousand of which are not equal in value to one cabbage or cucumber0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 58 * . Every by-stander will easily judge (but unfortunately the by-standers are few) that, if nothing were requisite to establish any popular system, but exposing the absurdities of other systems, every votary of every superstition could give a sufficient reason for his blind and bigotted attachment to the principles in which he has been educated. In The! But without so extensive a knowledge, on which to ground this assurance (and perhaps, better without it), there is essays finance, not wanting a sufficient stock of religious zeal and essay in the, faith among mankind. Diodorus Siculus 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 59 #x2020; gives a remarkable instance to this purpose, of which he was himself an rap ghostwriters, eye-witness. While Egypt lay under the greatest terror of the Roman name, a legionary soldier having inadvertently been guilty of the sacrilegious impiety of killing a cat, the whole people rose upon him with the utmost fury; and all the efforts of the essay in the prince were not able to save him. The senate and people of Rome , I am persuaded, would not, then, have been so delicate with regard to famous, their national deities. They very frankly, a little after that time, voted Augustus a place in essay form, the celestial mansions; and would have dethroned every god in heaven, for his sake, had he seemed to desire it. Presens divus habebitur Augustus , says Horace . That is case ocd, a very important point: And in other nations and other ages, the essay form same circumstance has not been deemed altogether indifferent0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of honors thesis cornell reference 60 * . Notwithstanding the sanctity of our holy religion, says Tully 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 61 #x2020; , no crime is more common with us than sacrilege: But was it ever heard of, that an Egyptian violated the temple of a cat, an form, ibis, or a crocodile?

There is no torture, an Egyptian would not undergo, says the is thesis statement same author in another place0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for in the form ease of reference 62 #x2021; , rather than injure an ibis, an aspic, a cat, a dog, or a crocodile. Thus it is strictly true, what Dryden observes, “Of whatsoe’er descent their godhead be, “Stock, stone, or other homely pedigree, “In his defence his servants are as bold, “As if he had been born of beaten gold.” Absolom and cornell, Achitophel. Nay, the baser the materials are, of form which the divinity is composed, the greater devotion is rap ghostwriters, he likely to excite in the breasts of his deluded votaries. They exult in their shame, and in the form, make a merit with their deity, in braving, for his sake, all the ridicule and contumely of his enemies. Ten thousand Crusaders inlist themselves under the holy banners; and even openly triumph in famous essays, those parts of their religion, which their adversaries regard as the most reproachful.

There occurs, I own, a difficulty in the Egyptian system of theology; as indeed, few systems of that kind are entirely free from difficulties. Essay In The! It is evident, from their method of propagation, that a couple of honors kerr cats, in fifty years, would stock a whole kingdom; and if that religious veneration were still paid them, it would, in twenty more, not only be easier in Egypt to find a god than a man, which Petronius says was the case in some parts of Italy ; but the gods must at form last entirely starve the men, and leave themselves neither priests nor votaries remaining. Psychology Case Studies! It is probable, therefore, that this wise nation, the most celebrated in antiquity for prudence and sound policy, foreseeing such dangerous consequences, reserved all their worship for form the full-grown divinities, and used the freedom to drown the holy spawn or little sucking gods, without any scruple or remorse. And thus the practice of warping the tenets of religion, in order to psychology case ocd, serve temporal interests, is not, by any means, to be regarded as an invention of these later ages. The learned, philosophical Varro , discoursing of religion, pretends not to deliver any thing beyond probabilities and appearances: Such was his good sense and moderation! But the passionate, the in the zealous Augustin , insults the noble Roman on his scepticism and reserve, and professes the most thorough belief and psychology studies, assurance0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 63 * . A heathen poet, however, contemporary.

with the saint, absurdly esteems the religious system of the latter so false, that even the credulity of children, he says, could not engage them to believe it0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of in the form reference 64 #x2020; . Is it strange, when mistakes are so common, to find every one positive and dogmatical? And that the zeal often rises in proportion to case studies, the error? Moverunt, says Spartian , ea tempestate, Jud ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier i bellum quod vetabantur mutilare genitalia0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 65 #x2021; . If ever there was a nation or a time, in which the public religion lost all authority over mankind, we might expect, that infidelity in Rome , during the Ciceronian age, would openly have erected its throne, and that Cicero himself, in every speech and action, would have been its most declared abettor. But it appears, that, whatever sceptical liberties that great man might take, in his writings or in philosophical conversation; he yet avoided, in in the form, the common conduct of life, the rap ghostwriters imputation of deism and profaneness. Even in form, his own family, and to his wife Terentia , whom he highly trusted, he was willing to appear a devout religionist; and there remains a letter, addressed to her, in which he seriously desires her to offer sacrifice to Apollo and ? AE originally '#xC6;'; separated to make searching the victorian internet essay text easier sculapius , in gratitude for the recovery of his health0 originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 66 #x1C1; . Pompey ’s devotion was much more sincere: In all his conduct, during the form civil wars, he paid a great regard to auguries, dreams, and prophesies0 originally '#xA7;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 67 #xA7; . Augustus was tainted with superstition of every kind. As it is thesis kerr, reported of Milton , that his poetical genius never flowed with ease and abundance in the spring; so Augustus observed, that his own genius for dreaming never was so perfect during that season, nor was so much to be relied on, as during the rest of the year.

That great and able emperor was also extremely uneasy, when he happened to change his shoes, and put the right foot shoe on the left foot0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of form reference 68 * . In short it cannot be doubted, but the votaries of the established superstition of antiquity were as numerous in every state, as those of the modern religion are at present. Its influence was as universal; though it was not so great. As many people gave their assent to it; though that assent was not seemingly so strong, precise, and affirmative. We may observe, that, notwithstanding the dogmatical, imperious style of essays finance management all superstition, the essay conviction of the honors thesis religionists, in in the form, all ages, is more affected than real, and scarcely ever approaches, in essays finance management, any degree, to that solid belief and persuasion, which governs us in the common affairs of life. Men dare not avow, even to their own hearts, the doubts which they entertain on such.

subjects: They make a merit of implicit faith; and in the form, disguise to rap ghostwriters, themselves their real infidelity, by the strongest asseverations and most positive bigotry. But nature is too hard for all their endeavours, and essay in the, suffers not the obscure, glimmering light, afforded in classical, those shadowy regions, to essay in the, equal the strong impressions, made by common sense and by experience. The usual course of men’s conduct belies their words, and shows, that their assent in these matters is some unaccountable operation of the mind between disbelief and conviction, but approaching much nearer to the former than to the latter. Since, therefore, the mind of rap ghostwriters man appears of so loose and unsteady a texture, that, even at present, when so many persons find an essay in the, interest in case studies ocd, continually employing on it the chissel and the hammer, yet are they not able to engrave theological tenets with any lasting impression; how much more must this have been the case in ancient times, when the retainers to essay form, the holy function were so much fewer in comparison? No wonder, that the appearances were then very inconsistent, and that men, on some occasions, might seem determined infidels, and honors thesis kerr, enemies to the established religion, without being so in reality; or at least, without knowing their own minds in that particular. Another cause, which rendered the ancient religions much looser than the modern, is, that the former were traditional and the latter are scriptural ; and essay form, the tradition in the former was complex, contradictory, and, on many occasions, doubtful; so that it could not possibly be reduced to any standard and rap ghostwriters, canon, or afford any determinate articles of faith. The stories of the gods were numberless like the popish legends; and though every one, almost, believed a part of these stories, yet no one could believe or know the whole: While, at the same time, all must have acknowledged, that no one part stood on a better foundation than the rest. The traditions of different cities and form, nations were also, on many occasions, directly opposite; and no reason could be assigned for preferring one to the other. And as there was an infinite number of stories, with regard to which tradition was nowise positive; the famous classical essays gradation was insensible, from the essay in the form most fundamental articles of faith, to those loose and essays finance management, precarious fictions. The pagan religion, therefore, seemed to vanish like a cloud, whenever one approached to it, and examined it piecemeal. Essay Form! It could never be ascertained by any fixed dogmas and principles.

And though this did not convert the generality of mankind from so absurd a faith; for when will the people be reasonable? yet it made them faulter and hesitate more in maintaining their principles, and was even apt to honors thesis, produce, in certain dispositions of mind, some practices and opinions, which had the appearance of determined infidelity. To which we may add, that the fables of the in the pagan religion were, of themselves, light, easy, and familiar; without devils, or seas of brimstone, or any object that could much terrify the honors imagination. Who could forbear smiling, when he thought of the loves of Mars and Venus , or the amorous frolics of Jupiter and Pan ? In this respect, it was a true poetical religion; if it had not rather too much levity for the graver kinds of poetry. We find that it has been adopted by modern bards; nor have these talked with greater freedom and irreverence of the gods, whom they regarded as fictions, than the form ancients did of the real objects of essays finance their devotion. The inference is by no means just, that, because a system of religion has made no deep impression on the minds of a people, it must therefore have been positively rejected by all men of common sense, and that opposite principles, in spite of the prejudices of education, were generally established by argument and reasoning.

I know not, but a contrary inference may be more probable. The less importunate and assuming any species of superstition appears, the less will it provoke men’s spleen and indignation, or engage them into enquiries concerning its foundation and origin. This in essay in the, the mean time is obvious, that the empire of all religious faith over the understanding is wavering and uncertain, subject to every variety of humour, and dependent on the present incidents, which strike the imagination. The difference is only in the degrees. An ancient will place a stroke of impiety and one of superstition alternately, throughout a whole discourse0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 69 * : A modern often thinks in the same way, though he may be more guarded in his expression. Lucian tells us expressly0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 70 #x2020; that whoever believed not the most ridiculous fables of paganism was deemed by the people profane and impious. Studies Ocd! To what purpose, indeed, would that agreeable author have employed the whole force of his wit and satire against the national religion, had not that religion been generally believed by his countrymen and contemporaries? Livy 0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 71 #x2021; acknowledges as frankly, as any divine would at present, the common incredulity of essay in the form his age; but then he condemns it as severely. And who can imagine, that a national superstition, which could delude so ingenious a man, would not also impose on rap ghostwriters, the generality of the essay people? The Stoics bestowed many magnificent and even impious epithets on their sage; that he alone was rich, free, a king, and internet, equal to the immortal gods.

They forgot to add, that he was not inferior in prudence and understanding to an old woman. For surely nothing can be more pitiful than the essay in the sentiments, which that sect entertained with regard to religious matters; while they seriously agree with the common augurs, that, when a raven croaks from the management left, it is a good omen; but a bad one, when a rook makes a noise from the same quarter. Pan ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier tius was the only Stoic , among the Greeks , who so much as doubted with regard to auguries and divinations0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 72 * . Marcus Antoninus 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of essay reference 73 #x2020; tells us, that he himself had received many admonitions from the gods in his sleep. It is true, Epictetus 0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 74 #x2021; forbids us to regard the language of rooks and ravens; but it is classical, not, that they do not speak truth: It is only, because they can foretel nothing but the breaking of our neck or the forfeiture of essay in the our estate; which are circumstances, says he, that nowise concern us. Kerr! Thus the form Stoics join a philosophical enthusiasm to a religious superstition.

The force of their mind, being all turned to the side of morals, unbent itself in that of religion0 originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 75 #x1C1; . Plato 0 originally '#xA7;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 76 #xA7; introduces Socrates affirming, that the accusation of impiety raised against him was owing entirely to his rejecting such fables, as those of Saturn ’s castrating his father Uranus , and Jupiter ’s dethroning Saturn : Yet in a subsequent dialogue0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 77 #x2020; , Socrates confesses, that the doctrine of the mortality of the soul was the received opinion of the people. Management! Is there here any contradiction? Yes, surely: But the contradiction is not in Plato ; it is in the people, whose religious principles in general are always composed of the most discordant parts; especially in in the form, an age, when superstition sate so easy and light upon them0 originally '#x2020;#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 78 #x2020;#x2020; . The same Cicero , who affected, in his own family, to appear a devout religionist, makes no scruple, in a public court of judicature, of treating the doctrine of a future state as a ridiculous fable, to which no body could give any attention0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 79 * . Sallust 0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 80 #x2020; represents C ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier sar as speaking the same language in the open senate0 originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 81 #x2021; . But that all these freedoms implied not a total and universal infidelity and scepticism amongst the people, is too apparent to where statement, be denied. Though some parts of the national religion hung loose upon the minds of essay in the form men, other parts adhered more closely to them: And it was the chief business of the sceptical philosophers to show, that there was no more foundation for one than for the other. This is the thesis cornell artifice of Cotta in the dialogues concerning the nature of the gods . He refutes the whole system of mythology by leading the orthodox gradually, from the more momentous stories, which were believed, to essay, the more frivolous, which every one ridiculed: From the gods to the goddesses; from the thesis cornell goddesses to the nymphs; from the nymphs to the fawns and satyrs. His master, Carneades , had employed the same method of reasoning0 originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 82 #x1C1; . Upon the essay in the form whole, the greatest and most observable differences between a traditional, mythological religion, and a systematical, scholastic one, are two: The former is often more reasonable, as consisting only of a multitude of finance management stories, which, however groundless, imply no express absurdity and demonstrative contradiction; and sits also so easy and light on men’s mind, that, though it may be as universally received, it happily makes no such deep impression on the affections and in the form, understanding. Sect. Essays! XIII. Impious conceptions of the divine nature in essay in the form, popular religions of both kinds.

The primary religion of mankind arises chiefly from an anxious fear of future events; and what ideas will naturally be entertained of invisible, unknown powers, while men lie under dismal apprehensions of any kind, may easily be conceived. Every image of vengeance, severity, cruelty, and malice must occur, and must augment the ghastliness and horror, which oppresses the amazed religionist. A panic having once seized the mind, the active fancy still farther multiplies the essays finance management objects of terror; while that profound darkness, or, what is form, worse, that glimmering light, with which we are environed, represents the spectres of divinity under the most dreadful appearances imaginable. Rap Ghostwriters! And no idea of essay perverse wickedness can be framed, which those terrified devotees do not readily, without scruple, apply to their deity. This appears the natural state of thesis kerr religion, when surveyed in essay, one light.

But if we consider, on the other hand, that spirit of praise and eulogy, which necessarily has place in all religions, and which is the essays finance consequence of these very terrors, we must expect a quite contrary system of theology to prevail. Every virtue, every excellence, must be ascribed to the divinity, and no exaggeration will be deemed sufficient to reach those perfections, with which he is endowed. Whatever strains of panegyric can be invented, are immediately embraced, without consulting any arguments or ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier nomena: It is esteemed a sufficient confirmation of them, that they give us more magnificent ideas of the divine objects of our worship and adoration. Here therefore is a kind of essay in the form contradiction between the victorian internet essay different principles of human nature, which enter into religion. Our natural terrors present the notion of a devilish and malicious deity: Our propensity to adulation leads us to in the, acknowledge an excellent and where is thesis statement located, divine. And the influence of these opposite in the form, principles are various, according to the different situation of the rap ghostwriters human understanding. In very barbarous and ignorant nations, such as the Africans and Indians , nay even the Japonese , who can form no extensive ideas of power and knowledge, worship may be paid to a being, whom they confess to be wicked and detestable; though they may be cautious, perhaps, of in the pronouncing this.

judgment of him in public, or in his temple, where he may be supposed to hear their reproaches. Such rude, imperfect ideas of the Divinity adhere long to all idolaters; and it may safely be affirmed, that the Greeks themselves never got entirely rid of them. It is remarked by Xenophon 0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 83 * , in rap ghostwriters, praise of Socrates , that this philosopher assented not to the vulgar opinion, which supposed the gods to know some things, and be ignorant of in the others: He maintained, that they knew every thing; what was done, said, or even thought. But as this was a strain of philosophy0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 84 #x2020; much above the conception of his countrymen, we need not be surprised, if very frankly, in their books and conversation, they blamed the deities, whom they worshipped in their temples. It is observable, that Herodotus in particular scruples not, in many passages, to ascribe envy to the gods; a sentiment, of all others, the most suitable to a mean and classical essays, devilish nature. The pagan hymns, however, sung in in the, public worship, contained nothing but epithets of praise; even while the rap ghostwriters actions ascribed to essay in the, the gods were the most barbarous and detestable. Thesis Kerr! When Timotheus , the poet, recited a hymn to Diana , in which he enumerated, with the greatest eulogies, all the actions and attributes of that cruel, capricious goddess: May your daughter, said one present, become such as the deity whom you celebrate0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for essay ease of classical essays reference 85 * . But as men farther exalt their idea of their divinity; it is their notion of his power and knowledge only, not of his goodness, which is in the form, improved. On the contrary, in statement, proportion to the supposed extent of his science and authority, their terrors naturally augment; while they believe, that no secrecy can conceal them from essay in the form his scrutiny, and that even the inmost recesses of psychology case their breast lie open before him. They must then be careful not to form expressly any sentiment of blame and disapprobation. All must be applause, ravishment, extacy.

And while their gloomy apprehensions make them ascribe to him measures of conduct, which, in human creatures, would be highly blamed, they must still affect to praise and essay in the form, admire that conduct in is thesis statement, the object of essay in the their devotional addresses. Thus it may safely be affirmed, that popular religions are really, in the conception of their more vulgar votaries, a species of d ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier monism; and psychology case ocd, the higher the deity is exalted in power and knowledge, the lower of course is he depressed in in the form, goodness and benevolence; whatever epithets of essays finance praise may be bestowed on him by. his amazed adorers. Essay Form! Among idolaters, the where located words may be false, and belie the secret opinion: But among more exalted religionists, the opinion itself contracts a kind of falsehood, and belies the inward sentiment. The heart secretly detests such measures of cruel and implacable vengeance; but the judgment dares not but pronounce them perfect and adorable. And the additional misery of this inward struggle aggravates all the other terrors, by which these unhappy victims to superstition are for in the ever haunted.

Lucian 0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 86 * observes that a young man, who reads the history of the gods in Homer or Hesiod , and finds their factions, wars, injustice, incest, adultery, and other immoralities so highly celebrated, is much surprised afterwards, when he comes into the world, to observe that punishments are by law inflicted on the same actions, which he had been taught to finance, ascribe to superior beings. The contradiction is still perhaps stronger between the representations given us by some later religions and essay, our natural ideas of generosity, lenity, impartiality, and justice; and in proportion to the multiplied terrors of these religions, the barbarous conceptions of the divinity are multiplied upon us0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of psychology studies ocd reference 87 #x2020; . Nothing can preserve untainted the. genuine principles of morals in our judgment of human conduct, but the absolute necessity of these principles to the existence of society. If common conception can indulge princes in a system of ethics, somewhat different from that which should regulate private persons; how much more those superior beings, whose attributes, views, and nature are so totally unknown to us? Sunt superis sua jura0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for in the form ease of reference 88 * . The gods have maxims of justice peculiar to themselves. Sect. XIV.

Bad influence of popular religions on morality. Here I cannot forbear observing a fact, which may be worth the case studies attention of such as make human nature the object of their enquiry. It is certain, that, in every religion, however sublime the verbal definition which it gives of its divinity, many of the votaries, perhaps the greatest number, will still seek the essay in the form divine favour, not by virtue and good morals, which alone can be acceptable to a perfect being, but either by frivolous observances, by intemperate zeal, by management rapturous extasies, or by the belief of form mysterious and absurd opinions. The least part of the Sadder , as well as of the thesis cornell Pentateuch , consists in precepts of morality; and we may also be assured, that that part was always the least observed and regarded. When the old Romans were attacked with a pestilence, they never ascribed their sufferings to their vices, or dreamed of essay in the form repentance and rap ghostwriters, amendment. They never thought, that they were the general robbers of the world, whose ambition and avarice made desolate the earth, and reduced opulent nations to want and beggary.

They only created a dictator0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 89 #x2020; , in order to drive a nail into a door; and by that means, they thought that they had sufficiently appeased their incensed deity. In ? AE originally '#xC6;'; separated to make searching the essay form text easier gina , one faction forming a conspiracy, barbarously and treacherously assassinated seven hundred of their fellow-citizens; and carried their fury so far, that, one miserable fugitive having fled to honors cornell, the temple, they cut off his hands, by which he clung to the gates, and essay form, carrying him out of essays finance management holy ground, immediately murdered him. By this impiety, says Herodotus 0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 90 * , (not by the other many cruel assassinations) they offended the gods, and contracted an in the form, inexpiable guilt. Nay, if we should suppose, what never happens, that a popular religion were found, in which it was expressly declared, that nothing but morality could gain the divine favour; if an order of priests were instituted to essays management, inculcate this opinion, in daily sermons, and with all the arts of persuasion; yet so inveterate are the people’s prejudices, that, for want of essay form some other superstition, they would make the very attendance on finance management, these sermons the essay essentials of thesis cornell kerr religion, rather than place them in virtue and essay, good morals. The. sublime prologue of classical Zaleucus ’s laws0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for essay ease of reference 91 #x2020; inspired not the Locrians , so far as we can learn, with any sounder notions of the measures of acceptance with the deity, than were familiar to the other Greeks . This observation, then, holds universally: But still one may be at some loss to account for it. Where Is Thesis Statement! It is sufficient to observe, that the people, every where, degrade their deities into in the a similitude with themselves, and consider them merely as a species of human creatures, somewhat more potent and intelligent. This will not remove the difficulty.

For there is no man so stupid, as that, judging by his natural reason, he would not esteem virtue and honesty the most valuable qualities, which any person could possess. Why not ascribe the same sentiment to his deity? Why not make all religion, or the chief part of it, to consist in these attainments? Nor is it satisfactory to say, that the practice of morality is more difficult than that of superstition; and is therefore rejected. For, not to essays, mention the excessive pennances of the Brachmans and essay in the form, Talapoins ; it is where is thesis located, certain, that the Rhamadan of the essay Turks , during which the famous poor wretches, for essay in the form many days, often in the hottest months of the year, and in some of the essays hottest climates of the world, remain without eating or drinking from the rising to the setting sun; this Rhamadan , I say, must be more severe than the practice of in the any moral duty, even to internet essay, the most vicious and depraved of mankind. Essay! The four lents of the Muscovites , and the austerities of some Roman Catholics , appear more disagreeable than meekness and benevolence.

In short, all virtue, when men are reconciled to thesis cornell kerr, it by essay in the ever so little practice, is agreeable: All superstition is for ever odious and burthensome. Perhaps, the studies ocd following account may be received as a true solution of the in the difficulty. The duties, which a man performs as a friend or parent, seem merely owing to his benefactor or children; nor can he be wanting to these duties, without breaking through all the statement ties of nature and morality. A strong inclination may prompt him to the performance: A sentiment of order and essay in the form, moral obligation joins its force to these natural ties: And the whole man, if truly virtuous, is drawn to his duty, without any effort or endeavour. Even with regard to the virtues, which are more austere, and more founded on reflection, such as public spirit, filial duty, temperance, or integrity; the is thesis statement moral obligation, in essay form, our apprehension, removes all pretension to religious merit; and the virtuous conduct is deemed no more than what we owe to society and to ourselves. In all this, a superstitious man finds nothing, which he has properly performed for the sake of this deity, or which can peculiarly recommend him to the divine favour and honors thesis cornell kerr, protection.

He considers not, that the most genuine method of serving the divinity is by promoting the happiness of his creatures. Essay! He still looks out for some more immediate service of the psychology studies ocd supreme Being, in order to allay those terrors, with which he is haunted. And any practice, recommended to him, which either serves to no purpose in life, or offers the strongest violence to his natural inclinations; that practice he will the more readily embrace, on account of those very circumstances, which should make him absolutely reject it. It seems the more purely religious, because it proceeds from no mixture of essay in the form any other motive or consideration. And if, for its sake, he sacrifices much of his ease and essays, quiet, his claim of merit appears still to rise upon him, in proportion to in the, the zeal and devotion which he discovers. In restoring a loan, or paying a debt, his divinity is nowise beholden to him; because these acts of justice are what he was bound to perform, and studies ocd, what many would have performed, were there no god in the universe. But if he fast a day, or give himself a sound whipping; this has a direct reference, in his opinion, to the service of God.

No other motive could engage him to such austerities. By these distinguished marks of devotion, he has now acquired the divine favour; and may expect, in essay, recompence, protection and safety in this world, and eternal happiness in the next. Hence the greatest crimes have been found, in many instances, compatible with a superstitious piety and internet, devotion: Hence, it is justly regarded as unsafe to draw any certain inference in favour of a man’s morals from the fervour or strictness of his religious exercises, even though he himself believe them sincere. Nay, it has been observed, that enormities of the blackest dye have been rather apt to produce superstitious terrors, and essay in the, encrease the religious passion. Studies! Bomilcar , having formed a conspiracy for assassinating at once the in the whole senate of Carthage , and invading the liberties of his country, lost the opportunity, from a continual regard to rap ghostwriters, omens and prophecies. Those who undertake the most criminal and most dangerous enterprizes are commonly the most superstitious ; as an ancient historian0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 92 * remarks on this occasion. Their devotion and essay form, spiritual faith rise with their fears.

Catiline was not contented with the established deities, and received rites of the finance national religion: His anxious terrors made him seek new inventions of this kind0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 93 #x2020; ; which he never probably had dreamed of, had he remained a good citizen, and obedient to form, the laws of internet his country. To which we may add, that, after the commission of crimes, there arise remorses and secret horrors, which give no rest to form, the mind, but make it have recourse to religious rites and ceremonies, as expiations of its offences. Whatever weakens or disorders the internal frame promotes the interests of superstition: And nothing is more destructive to statement located, them than a manly, steady virtue, which either preserves us from disastrous, melancholy accidents, or teaches us to bear them. During such calm sunshine of the mind, these spectres of false divinity never make their appearance. Essay In The! On the other hand, while we abandon ourselves to where is thesis located, the natural undisciplined suggestions of essay our timid and anxious hearts, every kind of barbarity is ascribed to the supreme Being, from the terrors with which we are agitated; and every kind of caprice, from the methods which we embrace in rap ghostwriters, order to appease him. Barbarity , caprice ; these qualities, however nominally disguised, we may universally observe, form the ruling character of the deity in popular religions. Even priests, instead of essay form correcting these depraved ideas of mankind, have often been found ready to foster and encourage them. The more tremendous the divinity is represented, the rap ghostwriters more tame and submissive do men become to his ministers: And the more unaccountable the measures of acceptance required by him, the more necessary does it become to abandon our natural reason, and essay in the, yield to their ghostly guidance and direction. Thus it may be allowed, that the psychology studies ocd artifices of men aggravate our natural infirmities and essay form, follies of this kind, but never originally beget them. Their root strikes deeper into the mind, and rap ghostwriters, springs from the essential and universal properties of human nature.

Though the stupidity of men, barbarous and uninstructed, be so great, that they may not see a sovereign author in the more obvious works of nature, to which they are so much familiarized; yet it scarcely seems possible, that any one of good understanding should reject that idea, when once it is suggested to him. A purpose, an intention, a design is evident in every thing; and when our comprehension is so far enlarged as to contemplate the first rise of this visible system, we must adopt, with the strongest conviction, the idea of some intelligent cause or author. The uniform maxims too, which prevail throughout the whole frame of the universe, naturally, if not necessarily, lead us to conceive this intelligence as single and undivided, where the prejudices of education oppose not so reasonable a theory. Even the essay in the form contrarieties of psychology studies ocd nature, by discovering themselves every where, become proofs of some consistent plan, and establish one single purpose or intention, however inexplicable and incomprehensible. Good and ill are universally intermingled and confounded; happiness and form, misery, wisdom and folly, virtue and vice. Essays Finance Management! Nothing is pure and entirely of a piece. All advantages are attended with disadvantages. Essay In The! An universal compensation prevails in psychology case ocd, all conditions of in the form being and existence.

And it is not possible for us, by our most chimerical wishes, to form the idea of a station or situation altogether desirable. Victorian Internet Essay! The draughts of life, according to the poet’s fiction, are always mixed from the vessels on each hand of Jupiter : Or if any cup be presented altogether pure, it is drawn only, as the same poet tells us, from the in the form left-handed vessel. The more exquisite any good is, of which a small specimen is afforded us, the sharper is the evil, allied to it; and few exceptions are found to this uniform law of nature. The most sprightly wit borders on internet essay, madness; the highest effusions of joy produce the deepest melancholy; the most ravishing pleasures are attended with the most cruel lassitude and disgust; the most flattering hopes make way for the severest disappointments. Essay In The Form! And, in general, no course of is thesis life has such safety (for happiness is not to be dreamed of) as the essay temperate and moderate, which maintains, as far as possible, a mediocrity, and a kind of psychology case ocd insensibility, in every thing. As the good, the great, the sublime, the ravishing are found eminently in the genuine principles of theism; it may be expected, from the analogy of nature, that the base, the absurd, the in the form mean, the terrifying will be equally discovered in religious fictions and chimeras. The universal propensity to believe in invisible, intelligent power, if not an original instinct, being at least a general attendant of human nature, may be considered as a kind of mark or stamp, which the divine workman has set upon his work; and nothing surely can more dignify mankind, than to famous classical essays, be thus selected from all other parts of the creation, and to bear the essay in the form image or impression of the universal Creator. But consult this image, as it appears in the popular religions of the rap ghostwriters world.

How is the deity disfigured in our representations of him! What caprice, absurdity, and immorality are attributed to him! How much is he degraded even below the essay form character, which we should naturally, in common life, ascribe to a man of sense and virtue! What a noble privilege is it of human reason to attain the knowledge of the supreme Being; and, from the visible works of nature, be enabled to infer so sublime a principle as its supreme Creator? But turn the honors cornell reverse of the medal. Survey most nations and most ages. Examine the religious principles, which have, in fact, prevailed in form, the world. You will scarcely be persuaded, that they are any thing but sick men’s dreams: Or perhaps will regard them more as the playsome whimsies of where is thesis located monkies in form, human shape, than the serious, positive, dogmatical asseverations of essays management a being, who dignifies himself with the essay name of rational. Hear the verbal protestations of all men: Nothing so certain as their religious tenets. Examine their lives: You will scarcely think that they repose the smallest confidence in them.

The greatest and truest zeal gives us no security against essays, hypocrisy: The most open impiety is attended with a secret dread and compunction. No theological absurdities so glaring that they have not, sometimes, been embraced by men of the greatest and most cultivated understanding. No religious precepts so rigorous that they have not been adopted by the most voluptuous and essay in the, most abandoned of men. Ignorance is the mother of Devotion: A maxim that is proverbial, and confirmed by general experience. Look out for a people, entirely destitute of religion: If you find them at all, be assured, that they are but few degrees removed from statement located brutes. What so pure as some of the morals, included in some theological systems? What so corrupt as some of the practices, to which these systems give rise? The comfortable views, exhibited by the belief of futurity, are ravishing and essay form, delightful. But how quickly vanish on the appearance of its terrors, which keep a more firm and durable possession of the is thesis statement human mind?

The whole is a riddle, an essay in the form, ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the ocd text easier nigma, an inexplicable mystery. Essay! Doubt, uncertainty, suspence of judgment appear the rap ghostwriters only result of our most accurate scrutiny, concerning this subject. But such is the frailty of human reason, and such the essay in the form irresistible contagion of opinion, that even this deliberate doubt could scarcely be upheld; did we not enlarge our view, and opposing one species of superstition to kerr, another, set them a quarrelling; while we ourselves, during their fury and essay, contention, happily make our escape, into the calm, though obscure, regions of internet philosophy. * originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 3. The following lines of Euripides are so much to the present purpose, that I cannot forbear quoting them: ??? ????? ????? ??????, ??? ???????, ???’ ?? ????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?????. ??????? ?’???’?? ???? ????? ?? ??? ?????, ???????? ??????????, ?? ???????. ??????? ??????. Hecuba . “There is nothing secure in the world; no glory, no prosperity. The gods toss all life into confusion; mix every thing with its reverse; that all of in the form us, from our ignorance and uncertainty, may pay them the more worship and reverence.” #x2021; originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 8. Rap Ghostwriters! Diod.

Sic. lib. i. Lucian. de Sacrificiis. Essay In The! Ovid alludes to the same tradition, Metam. li.v. l. 321. So also Manilius , lib. iv. * originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of honors cornell reference 26. Essay Form! The same author, who can thus account for the origin of the world without a Deity, esteems it impious to explain from physical causes, the common accidents of life, earthquakes, inundations, and tempests; and devoutly ascribes these to the anger of Jupiter or Neptune . A plain proof, whence he derived his ideas of religion. Famous Classical Essays! See lib. xv. p. 364. Ex edit.

Rhodomanni . * originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 34. Herodian . lib. v. In The Form! Jupiter Ammon is represented by Curtius as a deity of the same kind, lib. iv. cap. 7. The Arabians and Persinuntians adored also shapeless unformed stones as their deity. Arnob. lib. vi. So much did their folly exceed that of the where is thesis statement Egyptians . * originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 36. Essay! See C ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to classical essays, make searching the in the text easier sar of the religion of the Gauls , De bello Gallico, lib. Thesis Cornell! xi. * originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 60. When Louis the essay form XIVth took on himself the protection of the Jesuits’ College of Clermont , the society ordered the king’s arms to be put up over the gate, and took down the cross, in order to make way for it: Which gave occasion to the following epigram:

Sustulit hinc Christi, posuitque insignia Regis: Impia gens, alium nescit habere Deum. * originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 69. Witness this remarkable passage of Tacitus : “Pr ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier ter multiplices rerum humanarum casus, c ? oe originally '#x153;'; separated to make searching the text easier lo terraque prodigia, fulminum monitus futurorum pr ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier sagia, l ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier ta, tristia, ambigua, manifesta. Nec enim unquam atrocioribus populi Romani cladibus, magisque justis judiciis approbatum est, non esse cur ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier Diis securitatem nostram, esse ultionem.” Hist. lib. i. Augustus ’s quarrel with Neptune is an instance of the same kind.

Had not the emperor believed Neptune to be a real being, and to have dominion over the sea, where had been the foundation of his anger? And if he believed it, what madness to classical essays, provoke still farther that deity? The same observation may be made upon Quintilian ’s exclamation, on account of the death of his children, lib. vi. Pr ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier f. #x1C1; originally '#x1C1;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 75. The Stoics, I own, were not quite orthodox in the established religion; but one may see, from these instances, that they went a great way: And the people undoubtedly went every length. #x2021; originally '#x2021;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 81. Cicero (Tusc.

Qu ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier st.) lib. Essay In The! i. cap. 5, 6. and where statement located, Seneca (Epist. 24), as also Juvenal (Satyr. 2.), maintain that there is in the, no boy or old woman so ridiculous as to believe the poets in their accounts of a future state. Rap Ghostwriters! Why then does Lucretius so highly exalt his master for freeing us from these terrors? Perhaps the generality of mankind were then in the disposition of Cephalus in Plato (de Rep. lib. i.) who while he was young and healthful could ridicule these stories; but as soon as he became old and infirm, began to entertain apprehensions of their truth.

This we may observe not to be unusual even at present. #x2020; originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 84. It was considered among the ancients, as a very extraordinary, philosophical paradox, that the presence of the gods was not confined to the heavens, but were extended every where; as we learn from Lucian Hirmotimus sive De sectis . #x2020; originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 89. Called Dictator clavis figend ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier causa. T. Livii , l. vii. c. 3. NOTE [YY], p. 409. [Bea 38.] added for ease of reference. “F ragilis laboriosa mortalitas in partes ista digessit, infirmitatis su ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier memor, ut portionibus quisquis coleret, quo maxime indigeret.” Plin. lib. ii. cap. Essay! 7. So early as Hesiod ’s time there were 30,000 deities. Oper. Dier. lib. i. ver.

250. But the psychology case studies task to be performed by these seems still too great for their number. The provinces of the deities were so subdivided, that there was even a God of essay in the form Sneezing . See Arist. Probl. Case Ocd! sect. 33. cap. 7. The province of copulation, suitably to the importance and dignity of essay in the form it, was divided among several deities. NOTE [ZZ], p. Statement! 420. [Bea 47.] added for ease of reference. I t will be easy to give a reason, why Thales , Anaximander , and those early philosophers, who really were atheists, might be very orthodox in the pagan creed; and why Anaxagoras and Socrates , though real theists, must naturally, in ancient times, be esteemed impious. In The! The blind, unguided powers of nature, if they could produce men, might also produce such beings as Jupiter and Neptune , who being the most powerful, intelligent existences in where statement, the world, would be proper objects of in the worship.

But where a supreme intelligence, the first cause of all, is admitted, these capricious beings, if they exist at all, must appear very subordinate and dependent, and case studies ocd, consequently be excluded from the rank of deities. Plato (de leg. Form! lib. x.) assigns this reason for internet the imputation thrown on Anaxagoras , namely his denying the divinity of the stars, planets, and other created objects. NOTE [AAA], p. 436. [Bea 60.] added for ease of reference. V errius Flaccus , cited by Pliny , lib. xxviii. cap. 2. affirmed, that it was usual for essay in the the Romans , before they laid siege to any town, to victorian essay, invocate the tutelar deity of the place, and by essay promising him greater honours than those he at present enjoyed, bribe him to betray his old friends and votaries. The name of the tutelar deity of honors cornell kerr Rome was for this reason kept a most religious mystery; lest the enemies of the republic should be able, in the same manner, to draw him over to their service. For without the in the name, they thought, nothing of that kind could be practised. Pliny says, that the common form of invocation was preserved to his time in the ritual of the pontifs. And Macrobius has transmitted a copy of it from the secret things of Sammonicus Serenus . NOTE [BBB], p. 439. Victorian Essay! [Bea 62.] added for ease of reference. M ost nations have fallen into form this guilt of human sacrifices; though, perhaps, that impious superstition has never prevailed very much in honors kerr, any civilized nation, unless we except the essay Carthaginians . For the Tyrians soon abolished it.

A sacrifice is conceived as a present; and any present is delivered to their deity by destroying it and rendering it useless to men; by burning what is solid, pouring out the liquid, and thesis cornell kerr, killing the animate. For want of a better way of doing him service, we do ourselves an injury; and fancy that we thereby express, at least, the heartiness of our good-will and adoration. Thus our mercenary devotion deceives ourselves, and imagines it deceives the deity. NOTE [CCC], p. 447. [Bea 69.] added for ease of reference. I t is strange that the Egyptian religion, though so absurd, should yet have borne so great a resemblance to the Jewish , that ancient writers even of the greatest genius were not able to observe any difference between them. For it is remarkable that both Tacitus , and Suetonius , when they mention that decree of the senate, under Tiberius , by which the Egyptian and in the, Jewish proselytes were banished from Rome , expressly treat these religions as the same; and it appears, that even the decree itself was founded on studies, that supposition. “Actum de sacris ? AE originally '#xC6;'; separated to make searching the text easier gyptiis , Judaicisque pellendis; factumque patrum consultum, ut quatuor millia libertini generis ea superstitione infecta, quis idonea ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier tas, in insulam Sardiniam veherentur, coercendis illic latrociniis; si ob gravitatem c ? oe originally '#x153;'; separated to make searching the text easier li interissent, vile damnum: Ceteri cederent Italia , nisi certam ante diem profanos ritus exuissent.” Tacit. Tacit. small capitals added, in keeping with formatting preferences elsewhere; the name is in small capitals in the 1772 edition, and is changed here presumably by mistake ann. lib. ii, c. In The Form! 85. “Externas c ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier remonias, ? AE originally '#xC6;'; separated to make searching the text easier gyptios , Judaicosque ritus compescuit; coactus qui superstitione ea tenebantur, religiosas vestes cum instrumento omni comburere, c.” Sueton. Tiber. c. 36. These wise heathens, observing something in the general air, and genius, and famous essays, spirit of the two religions to be the same, esteemed the differences of their dogmas too frivolous to deserve any attention. NOTE [DDD], p. 455. [Bea 74.] added for ease of in the form reference.

X enophon ’s conduct, as related by himself, is, at once, an incontestable proof of the general credulity of rap ghostwriters mankind in those ages, and in the form, the incoherencies, in all ages, of men’s opinions in religious matters. That great captain and philosopher, the disciple of Socrates , and one who has delivered some of the rap ghostwriters most refined sentiments with regard to form, a deity, gave all the following marks of vulgar, pagan superstition. By Socrates ’s advice, he consulted the oracle of Delphi , before he would engage in the expedition of Cyrus . Thesis! De exped. Form! lib. iii. p. 294. ex edit Leuncl. Sees a dream the night after the generals were seized; which he pays great regard to, but thinks ambiguous. Id. p. 295. He and the whole army regard sneezing as a very lucky omen. Id. p. 300. Has another dream, when he comes to rap ghostwriters, the river Centrites , which his fellow-general, Chirosophus , also pays great regard to. Id. lib. iv. p. 323. The Greeks , suffering from a cold north wind, sacrifice to it; and the historian observes, that it immediately abated.

Id. Form! p. 329. Xenophon consults the sacrifices in [Bea 75] secret, before he would form any resolution with himself about settling a colony. Lib. v. p. 359. He was himself a very skilful augur. Id. p. 361. Is determined by the victims to refuse the sole command of the army which was offered him.

Lib. vi. p. 273. Cleander , the Spartan , though very desirous of it, refuses it for the same reason. Id. p. Honors! 392. Xenophon mentions an old dream with the interpretation given him, when he first joined Cyrus , p. 373. Mentions also the place of Hercules ’s descent into hell as believing it, and says the marks of it are still remaining. Id. p. 375.

Had almost starved the army, rather than lead them to the field against the auspices. Id. p. 382, 383. Essay Form! His friend, Euclides , the augur, would not believe that he had brought no money from the expedition; till he ( Euclides ) sacrificed, and then he saw the matter clearly in honors, the Exta. Lib. vii. p. 425. The same philosopher, proposing a project of mines for the encrease of the Athenian revenues, advises them first to consult the oracle. De rat. red. p. Essay In The Form! 392. Where Is Thesis! That all this devotion was not a farce, in order to serve a political purpose, appears both from the essay in the form facts themselves, and from the genius of that age, when little or nothing could be gained by hypocrisy. Famous Classical! Besides, Xenophon , as appears from his Memorabilia, was a kind of heretic in those times, which no political devotee ever is. It is for essay in the form the same reason, I maintain, that Newton , Locke , Clarke , c. being Arians or Socinians , were very sincere in the creed they professed: And I always oppose this argument to some libertines, who will needs have it, that it was impossible but that these philosophers must have been hypocrites.

NOTE [EEE], p. Rap Ghostwriters! 460. Essay In The Form! [Bea 79.] added for honors thesis kerr ease of reference. B acchus , a divine being, is represented by the heathen mythology as the inventor of dancing and the theatre. Essay In The! Plays were anciently even a part of public worship on the most solemn occasions, and often employed in times of pestilence, to appease the offended deities. Where Is Thesis Statement! But they have been zealously proscribed by the godly in later ages; and the playhouse, according to a learned divine, is the porch of form hell. But in order to show more evidently, that it is possible for a religion to represent the divinity in still a more immoral and unamiable light than he was pictured by the ancients, we shall cite a long passage from an author of taste and imagination, who was surely no enemy to finance, Christianity. It is the Chevalier Ramsay , a writer, who had so laudable an inclination to be orthodox, that his reason never found any difficulty, even in the doctrines which free-thinkers scruple the most, the trinity, incarnation, and satisfaction: His humanity alone, of which he seems to have had a great stock, rebelled against the doctrines of eternal reprobation and predestination. He expresses himself thus: ‘What strange ideas,’ says he, ‘would an Indian or a Chinese philosopher have of our holy religion, if they judged by the schemes given of it by in the our modern free-thinkers, and pharisaical doctors of all sects? According to the odious and too vulgar system of these incredulous scoffers and credulous scribblers, “The God of the Jews is a most cruel, unjust, partial, and fantastical being. He created, about 6000 years ago, a man and a woman, and essay, placed them in a fine garden of Asia , of which there are no remains.

This garden was furnished with all sorts of essay trees, fountains, and flowers. He allowed them the use of all the fruits of this beautiful garden, except one, that was planted in the midst thereof, and that had in it a secret virtue of preserving them in continual health and famous essays, vigour of body and mind, of exalting their natural powers and making them wise. The devil entered into the body of a serpent, and solicited the first woman to eat of essay in the this forbidden fruit; she engaged her husband to do the classical essays same. To punish this slight curiosity and natural desire of life and knowledge, God not only threw our first parents out of paradise, but he condemned all their posterity to temporal misery, and the greatest part of them to eternal pains, though the souls of these innocent children have no more relation to that of Adam than to those of Nero and Mahomet ; since, according to the scholastic drivellers, fabulists, and mythologists, all souls are created pure, and in the, infused immediately into mortal bodies, [Bea 80] so soon as the f ? oe originally '#x153;'; separated to victorian essay, make searching the text easier tus is formed. To accomplish the barbarous, partial decree of predestination and reprobation, God abandoned all nations to darkness, idolatry, and superstition, without any saving knowledge or salutary graces; unless it was one particular nation, whom he chose as his peculiar people.

This chosen nation was, however, the most stupid, ungrateful, rebellious and persidious of all nations. Essay Form! After God had thus kept the far greater part of all the human species, during near 4000 years, in a reprobate state, he changed all of a sudden, and classical, took a fancy for other nations beside the Jews . Then he sent his only begotten Son to the world, under a human form, to appease his wrath, satisfy his vindictive justice, and die for the pardon of sin. Very few nations, however, have heard of this gospel; and essay in the, all the rest, though left in invincible ignorance, are damned without exception, or any possibility of remission. Thesis Cornell Kerr! The greatest part of those who have heard of it, have changed only some speculative notions about God, and some external forms in worship: For, in other respects, the bulk of Christians have continued as corrupt as the rest of mankind in their morals; yea, so much the more perverse and criminal, that their lights were greater. Unless it be a very small select number, all other Christians, like the pagans, will be for ever damned; the great sacrifice offered up for essay form them will become void and of no effect; God will take delight for famous classical essays ever, in their torments and blasphemies; and though he can, by one fiat change their hearts, yet they will remain for ever unconverted and in the, unconvertible, because he will be for honors kerr ever unappeasable and irreconcileable. It is true, that all this makes God odious, a hater of souls, rather than a lover of them; a cruel, vindictive tyrant, an impotent or a wrathful d ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier mon, rather than an all-powerful, beneficent father of spirits: Yet all this is a mystery.

He has secret reasons for his conduct, that are impenetrable; and though he appears unjust and barbarous, yet we must believe the contrary, because what is injustice, crime, cruelty, and the blackest malice in us, is in him justice, mercy, and essay in the form, sovereign goodness.” Thus the incredulous free-thinkers, the rap ghostwriters judaizing Christians, and the fatalistic doctors have disfigured and in the, dishonoured the statement sublime mysteries of our holy faith; thus they have confounded the nature of good and evil; transformed the most monstrous passions into divine attributes, and surpassed the pagans in blasphemy, by ascribing to the eternal nature, as perfections, what makes the most horrid crimes amongst men. The grosser pagans contented themselves with divinizing lust, incest, and adultery; but the predestinarian doctors have divinized cruelty, wrath, fury, vengeance, and all the blackest vices.’ See the Chevalier Ramsay ’s philosophical principles of natural and revealed religion, Part II. p. 401. The same author asserts, in form, other places, that the essays finance management Arminian and Molinist schemes serve very little to mend the matter: And having thus thrown himself out of all received sects of in the form Christianity, he is obliged to advance a system of his own, which is a kind of Origenism , and supposes the pre-existence of the souls both of men and beasts, and psychology case ocd, the eternal salvation and conversion of all men, beasts, and devils. But this notion, being quite peculiar to himself, we need not treat of. I thought the opinions of this ingenious author very curious; but I pretend not to warrant the justness of them. 1. Form! S ome objects produce immediately an agreeable sensation, by victorian internet the original structure of essay in the form our organs, and are thence denominated Good ; as others, from their immediate disagreeable sensation, acquire the appellation of Evil . Thus moderate warmth is psychology studies ocd, agreeable and good; excessive heat painful and evil. Some objects again, by being naturally conformable or contrary to passion, excite an essay in the form, agreeable or painful sensation; and are thence called Good or Evil . The punishment of an adversary, by where located gratifying revenge, is good; the sickness of a companion, by affecting friendship, is evil. 2. All good or evil, whence-ever it arises, produces various passions and affections, according to the light in which it is surveyed. When good is certain or very probable, it produces Joy : When evil is in the same situation, there arises Grief or Sorrow . When either good or evil is uncertain, it gives rise to Fear or Hope , according to the degree of essay in the form uncertainty on one side or the other. Desire arises from good considered simply; and Aversion , from evil.

The Will exerts itself, when either the presence of the good or absence of the evil may be attained by rap ghostwriters any action of the essay form mind or body. 3. None of these passions seem to famous classical, contain any thing curious or remarkable, except Hope and Fear , which, being derived from the probability of any good or evil, are mixed passions, that merit our attention. Probability arises from an opposition of contrary chances or causes, by which the mind is not allowed to form, fix on either side; but is incessantly tossed from one to honors thesis, another, and is determined, one moment, to consider an object as existent, and another moment as the contrary. The imagination or understanding, call it which you please, fluctuates between the opposite essay in the form, views; and essays, though perhaps it may be oftener turned to one side than the other, it is impossible for it, by reason of the opposition of causes or chances, to rest on essay in the form, either. The pro and con of the question alternately prevail; and psychology studies ocd, the mind, surveying the objects in their opposite causes, finds such a contrariety as destroys all certainty or established opinion. Suppose, then, that the essay in the form object, concerning which we are doubtful, produces either desire or aversion; it is evident, that, according as the victorian mind turns itself to essay form, one side or the other, it must feel a momentary impression of joy or sorrow. An object, whose existence we desire, gives satisfaction, when we think of those causes, which produce it; and for the same reason, excites grief.

or uneasiness from the opposite consideration. So that, as the understanding, in probable questions, is divided between the contrary points of view, the rap ghostwriters heart must in essay in the form, the same manner be divided between opposite emotions. Now, if we consider the human mind, we shall observe, that, with regard to the passions, it is not like a wind instrument of music, which, in running over all the notes, immediately loses the sound when the breath ceases; but rather resembles a string-instrument, where, after each stroke, the vibrations still retain some sound, which gradually and insensibly decays. The imagination is extremely quick and agile; but the passions, in comparison, are slow and restive: For which reason, when any object is presented, which affords a variety of views to the one and essays finance, emotions to the other; though the fancy may change its views with great celerity; each stroke will not produce a clear and distinct note of passion, but the one passion will always be mixed and confounded with the other. According as the probability inclines to good or evil, the passion of grief or joy predominates in in the form, the composition; and statement, these passions being intermingled by means of the contrary views of the imagination, produce by the union the passions of hope or fear. 4. Essay Form! As this theory seems to carry its own evidence along with it, we shall be more concise in case ocd, our proofs.

The passions of fear and hope may arise, when the chances are equal on both sides, and no superiority can be discovered in essay in the, one above the other. Nay, in this situation the honors thesis cornell passions are rather the essay form strongest, as the mind has then the least foundation to rest upon, and is tost with the greatest uncertainty. Honors Thesis Cornell! Throw in a superior degree of probability to the side of in the grief, you immediately see that passion diffuse itself over the composition, and tincture it into fear. Encrease the rap ghostwriters probability, and by that means the grief; the fear prevails still more and more, ’till at last it runs insensibly, as the joy continually diminishes, into pure grief. After you have brought it to this situation, diminish the grief, by a contrary operation to that, which encreased it, to wit, by diminishing the probability on the melancholy side; and you will see the passion clear every moment, ’till it changes insensibly into hope; which again runs, by slow degrees, into joy, as you encrease that part of the composition, by the encrease of the probability. Are not these as plain proofs, that the passions of fear and hope are mixtures of grief and joy, as in optics it is a proof, that a coloured ray of the essay in the form sun, passing through a prism, is a composition of two others, when, as you diminish or encrease the quantity of either, you find it prevail proportionably, more or less, in the composition? 5. Probability is of two kinds; either when the object is itself uncertain, and to be determined by chance; or when, though the object be already. certain, yet it is famous essays, uncertain to our judgment, which finds a number of proofs or presumptions on each side of the question. Both these kinds of essay in the probability cause fear and hope; which must proceed from that property, in which they agree; namely, the uncertainty and fluctuation which they bestow on the passion, by that contrariety of views, which is common to both. 6. Essays Management! It is a probable good or evil, which commonly causes hope or fear; because probability, producing an inconstant and wavering survey of an object, occasions naturally a like mixture and uncertainty of passion.

But we may observe, that, wherever, from other causes, this mixture can be produced, the passions of fear and hope will arise, even though there be no probability. An evil, conceived as barely possible , sometimes produces fear; especially if the evil be very great. A man cannot think on excessive pain and torture without trembling, if he runs the least risque of suffering them. The smallness of the probability is essay, compensated by the greatness of the evil. But even impossible evils cause fear; as when we tremble on the brink of a precipice, though we know ourselves to be in perfect security, and is thesis, have it in our choice, whether we will advance a step farther.

The immediate presence of the evil influences the imagination and produces a species of belief; but being opposed by the reflection on our security, that belief is immediately retracted, and causes the same kind of passion, as when, from a contrariety of essay chances, contrary passions are produced. Evils, which are certain , have sometimes the same effect as the rap ghostwriters possible or impossible. A man, in essay form, a strong prison, without the least means of escape, trembles at the thoughts of the rack, to which he is sentenced. Famous Essays! The evil is here fixed in itself; but the mind has not courage to fix upon it; and this fluctuation gives rise to a passion of a similar appearance with fear. 7. But it is not only where good or evil is uncertain as to its existence , but also as to its kind , that fear or hope arises. If any one were told that one of his sons is suddenly killed; the passion, occasioned by this event, would not settle into grief, ’till he got certain information which of his sons he had lost. Though each side of the question produces here the same passion; that passion cannot settle, but receives from the imagination, which is unfixed, a tremulous unsteady motion, resembling the form mixture and contention of grief and joy. 8. Thus all kinds of uncertainty have a strong connexion with fear, even though they do not cause any opposition of statement passions, by the opposite views, which they present to us. Should I leave a friend in any malady, I should feel more anxiety upon his account, than if he were present; though perhaps I am not only incapable of giving him assistance, but likewise of. judging concerning the event of his sickness.

There are a thousand little circumstances of his situation and essay, condition, which I desire to case, know; and the knowledge of them would prevent that fluctuation and uncertainty, so nearly allied to form, fear. Horace has remarked this ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier nomenon. Ut assidens implumibus pullus avis. Serpentum allapsus timet, Magis relictis; non, ut adsit, auxili. Latura plus pr ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier sentibus. A virgin on her bridal-night goes to bed full of fears and apprehensions, though she expects nothing but pleasure. The confusion of wishes and joys, the newness and greatness of the unknown event, so embarrass the mind, that it knows not in what image or passion to fix itself. 9. Concerning the mixture of internet affections, we may remark, in general, that when contrary passions arise from objects nowise connected together, they take place alternately. Thus when a man is afflicted for the loss of a law-suit, and joyful for the birth of a son, the mind, running from the agreeable to the calamitous object; with whatever celerity it may perform this motion, can scarcely temper the one affection with the other, and remain between them in a state of indifference. It more easily attains that calm situation, when the essay same event is of a mixed nature, and contains something adverse and something prosperous in its different circumstances.

For in that case, both the passions, mingling with each other by means of the relation, often become mutually destructive, and leave the mind in perfect tranquillity. But suppose, that the object is not a compound of good and evil, but is considered as probable or improbable in any degree; in that case, the contrary passions will both of them be present at essays finance management once in the soul, and instead of balancing and tempering each other, will subsist together, and by their union produce a third impression or affection, such as hope or fear. The influence of the relations of in the ideas (which we shall explain more fully afterwards) is plainly seen in this affair. In contrary passions, if the objects be totally different , the famous passions are like two opposite liquors in different bottles, which have no influence on form, each other. If the objects be intimately connected , the essays passions are like an in the, alcali and an acid , which, being mingled, destroy each other. If the relation be more imperfect, and consist in the contradictory views of the same object, the passions are like oil and essays, vinegar, which, however mingled, never perfectly unite and incorporate. The effect of a mixture of passions, when one of them is predominant, and swallows up the other, shall be explained afterwards. 1. Besides those passions above-mentioned, which arise from a direct pursuit of good and aversion to evil, there are others which are of a more complicated nature, and imply more than one view or consideration. Thus Pride is a certain satisfaction in ourselves, on account of some accomplishment or possession, which we enjoy: Humility , on the other hand, is a dissatisfaction with ourselves, on account of some defect or infirmity.

Love or Friendship is a complacency in another, on account of his accomplishments or services: Hatred , the contrary. 2. Essay In The Form! In these two sets of passion, there is an obvious distinction to be made between the object of the passion and rap ghostwriters, its cause . The object of pride and humility is self: The cause of the passion is some excellence in the former case; some fault, in the latter. The object of love and hatred is some other person: The causes, in like manner, are either excellencies or faults. With regard to all these passions, the causes are what excite the emotion; the essay object is what the mind directs its view to when the emotion is psychology, excited. Our merit, for instance, raises pride; and it is essential to essay, pride to turn our view on famous essays, ourselves with complacency and satisfaction. Now, as the causes of these passions are very numerous and various, though their object be uniform and simple; it may be a subject of in the form curiosity to consider, what that circumstance is, in which all these various causes agree; or in other words, what is the real efficient cause of the passion. We shall begin with pride and humility. 3. Rap Ghostwriters! In order to essay in the, explain the where located causes of these passions, we must reflect on certain principles, which, though they have a mighty influence on every operation, both of the understanding and in the form, passions, are not commonly much insisted on by philosophers.

The first of these is the association of ideas, or that principle, by which we make an easy transition from one idea to is thesis located, another. However uncertain and changeable our thoughts may be, they are not entirely without rule and method in their changes. In The! They usually pass with regularity, from one object, to what resembles it, is contiguous to it, or produced by it0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 1 * . Internet! When one idea is present to the imagination, any other, united by these relations, naturally follows it, and enters with more facility, by means of that introduction. The second property, which I shall observe in the human mind, is a like association of impressions or emotions. All resembling impressions are connected together; and no sooner one arises, than the rest naturally follow. Essay Form! Grief and victorian essay, disappointment give rise to anger, anger to envy, envy to malice, and malice to grief again.

In like manner, our temper, when elevated with joy, naturally throws itself into essay in the love, generosity, courage, pride, and other resembling affections. In the third place, it is observable of victorian these two kinds of form association, that they very much assist and forward each other, and that the where is thesis transition is more easily made, where they both concur in essay, the same object. Thus, a man, who, by an injury received from another, is very much discomposed and ruffled in his temper, is apt to victorian, find a hundred subjects of essay in the hatred, discontent, impatience, fear, and other uneasy passions; especially, if he can discover these subjects in or near the person, who was the object of his first emotion. Finance! Those principles, which forward the transition of ideas, here concur with those which operate on the passions; and both, uniting in one action, bestow on the mind a double impulse. Upon this occasion I may cite a passage from an elegant writer, who expresses himself in the following manner0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 2 * : “As the fancy delights in every thing, that is great, strange, or beautiful, and is still the more pleased the more it finds of these perfections in the same object, so it is capable of receiving new satisfaction by the assistance of another sense. Thus, any continual sound, as the music of birds, or a fall of waters, awakens every moment the mind of the beholder, and makes him more attentive to the several beauties of the place, that lie before him. Thus, if there arises a fragrancy of smells or perfumes, they heighten the pleasure of the imagination, and make even the in the colours and verdure of the landscape appear more agreeable; for the ideas of both senses recommend each other, and are pleasanter together than where they enter the mind separately: As the different colours of famous classical a picture, when they are well disposed, set off one another, and receive an additional beauty from the essay advantage of the situation.” In these ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier nomena, we may remark the association both of impressions and ideas; as well as the mutual assistance these associations lend to each other.

4. It seems to me, that both these species of relation have place in producing Pride or Humility , and are the real, efficient causes of the passion. With regard to the first relation, that of ideas, there can be no question. Whatever we are proud of must, in rap ghostwriters, some manner, belong to in the form, us. It is always. our knowledge, our sense, beauty, possessions, family, on which we value ourselves. Rap Ghostwriters! Self, which is the object of the passion, must still be related to that quality or circumstance, which causes the passion. Essay In The! There must be a connexion between them; an easy transition of the imagination; or a facility of the conception in passing from one to the other. Essays Finance! Where this connexion is wanting, no object can either excite pride or humility; and the more you weaken the connexion, the essay more you weaken the passion. 5. The only subject of enquiry is, whether there be a like relation of impressions or sentiments, wherever pride or humility is felt; whether the circumstance, which causes the passion, previously excites a sentiment similar to victorian, the passion; and whether there be an easy transfusion of the one into the other. The feeling or sentiment of pride is agreeable; of essay in the humility, painful.

An agreeable sensation is, therefore, related to the former; a painful, to the latter. And if we find, after examination, that every object, which produces pride, produces also a separate pleasure; and every object, which causes humility, excites in like manner a separate uneasiness; we must allow, in that case, that the present theory is fully proved and ascertained. The double relation of ideas and sentiments will be acknowledged incontestable. 6. To begin with personal merit and demerit, the most obvious causes of these passions; it would be entirely foreign to our present purpose to examine the foundation of moral distinctions. Finance Management! It is sufficient to observe, that the foregoing theory concerning the origin of the in the form passions may be defended on case, any hypothesis. The most probable system, which has been advanced to explain the difference between vice and virtue, is, that either from a primary constitution of nature, or from a sense of public or private interest, certain characters, upon the very view and contemplation, produce uneasiness; and others, in like manner, excite pleasure. The uneasiness and satisfaction, produced in the spectator, are essential to vice and virtue. To approve of a character, is to feel a delight upon its appearance. To disapprove of it, is to be sensible of an uneasiness. In The Form! The pain and pleasure, therefore, being, in a manner, the primary source of blame or praise, must also be the causes of all their effects; and consequently, the psychology ocd causes of pride and in the form, humility, which are the unavoidable attendants of that distinction. But supposing this theory of morals should not be received; it is where statement located, still evident that pain and pleasure, if not the sources of moral distinctions, are at least inseparable from them.

A generous and noble character affords a satisfaction even in the survey; and when presented to us, though only in a poem or fable, never fails to charm and essay in the, delight us. On the other hand, cruelty and treachery displease from their very nature; nor is it. possible ever to reconcile us to these qualities, either in ourselves or others. Virtue, therefore, produces always a pleasure distinct from the pride or self-satisfaction which attends it: Vice, an uneasiness separate from the humility or remorse. But a high or low conceit of ourselves arises not from those qualities alone of the mind, which, according to common systems of is thesis statement located ethics, have been defined parts of moral duty; but from any other, which have a connexion with pleasure or uneasiness. Nothing flatters our vanity more than the talent of pleasing by our wit, good-humour, or any other accomplishment; and nothing gives us a more sensible mortification, than a disappointment in any attempt of that kind. No one has ever been able to essay in the form, tell precisely, what wit is, and to essays management, shew why such a system of thought must be received under that denomination, and such another rejected. It is by taste alone we can decide concerning it; nor are we possessed of any other standard, by which we can form a judgment of this nature.

Now what is this taste , from which true and false wit in a manner receive their being, and without which no thought can have a title to either of these denominations? It is plainly nothing but a sensation of pleasure from true wit, and in the, of disgust from false, without our being able to tell the reasons of that satisfaction or uneasiness. The power of exciting these opposite victorian internet essay, sensations is, therefore, the very essence of true or false wit; and consequently, the cause of form that vanity or mortification, which arises from one or the other. 7. Beauty of honors cornell all kinds gives us a peculiar delight and essay in the, satisfaction; as deformity produces pain, upon whatever subject it may be placed, and whether surveyed in an animate or inanimate object. If the beauty or deformity belong to our own face, shape, or person, this pleasure or uneasiness is converted into victorian internet essay pride or humility; as having in this case all the circumstances requisite to produce a perfect transition, according to the present theory.

It would seem, that the very essence of beauty consists in its power of producing pleasure. All its effects, therefore, must proceed from this circumstance: And if beauty is so universally the subject of vanity, it is only from its being the cause of pleasure. Concerning all other bodily accomplishments, we may observe in general, that whatever in essay form, ourselves is either useful, beautiful, or surprizing, is an object of pride; and the contrary of humility. These qualities agree in producing a separate pleasure; and agree in nothing else. We are vain of the surprizing adventures which we have met with, the escapes which we have made, the where dangers to which we have been exposed; as well as of in the our surprising feats of vigour and activity. Hence the origin of vulgar lying; where men, without any interest, and merely out of finance management vanity, heap up a number of extraordinary events, which are either the fictions of their brain; or, if true, have no connexion with themselves. Their fruitful invention supplies them with a variety of adventures; and form, where that talent is wanting, they appropriate such as belong to others, in famous classical essays, order to gratify their vanity: For between that passion, and the sentiment of pleasure, there is always a close connexion. 8. But though pride and humility have the qualities of our mind and body, that is, of self, for their natural and more immediate causes; we find by experience, that many other objects produce these affections. Essay Form! We found vanity upon where is thesis houses, gardens, equipage, and essay form, other external objects; as well as upon personal merit and accomplishments. This happens when external objects acquire any particular relation to ourselves, and are associated or connected with us.

A beautiful fish in the ocean, a well-proportioned animal in a forest, and indeed, any thing, which neither belongs nor is related to us, has no manner of influence on our vanity; whatever extraordinary qualities it may be endowed with, and whatever degree of surprize and admiration it may naturally occasion. It must be someway associated with us, in order to touch our pride. Its idea must hang, in a manner, upon that of ourselves; and the transition from one to the other must be easy and natural. Men are vain of the beauty either of their country, or their county, or even of their parish. Here the idea of beauty plainly produces a pleasure. This pleasure is related to pride. The object or cause of this pleasure is, by the supposition, related to psychology case ocd, self, the form object of rap ghostwriters pride. By this double relation of sentiments and ideas, a transition is made from essay form one to the other. Men are also vain of the happy temperature of the climate, in which they are born; of the psychology studies fertility of their native soil; of the goodness of the wines, fruits, or victuals, produced by it; of the softness or force of their language, with other particulars of that kind.

These objects have plainly a reference to the pleasures of sense, and are originally considered as agreeable to the feeling, taste or hearing. How could they become causes of in the pride, except by means of that transition above explained? There are some, who discover a vanity of an opposite kind, and rap ghostwriters, affect to depreciate their own country, in comparison of those, to which they have travelled. These persons find, when they are at home, and surrounded with their countrymen, that the strong relation between them and their own nation is essay form, shared with so many, that it is in a manner lost to them; whereas, that distant relation to where statement, a foreign country, which is formed by their having. seen it, and lived in it, is augmented by essay in the form their considering how few have done the is thesis statement located same. For this reason, they always admire the beauty, utility, and rarity of what they met with abroad, above what they find at home. Since we can be vain of a country, climate , a comma is missing here from the essay in the 1777 edition, but present in earlier editions or any inanimate object, which bears a relation to essays, us; it is no wonder we should be vain of the qualities of those, who are connected with us by blood or friendship. Essay In The! Accordingly we find, that any qualities which, when belonging to ourselves, produce pride, produce also, in a less degree, the same affection, when discovered in persons, related to us. The beauty, address, merit, credit, and essay, honours of their kindred are carefully displayed by the proud, and are considerable sources of their vanity.

As we are proud of riches in ourselves, we desire, in order to gratify our vanity, that every one who has any connexion with us, should likewise be possessed of them, and in the, are ashamed of such as are mean or poor among our friends and relations. Psychology Ocd! Our forefathers being regarded as our nearest relations; every one naturally affects to be of a good family, and to be descended from a long succession of in the rich and honourable ancestors. Those, who boast of the antiquity of their families, are glad when they can join this circumstance, that their ancestors, for many generations, have been uninterrupted proprietors of the same portion of land, and psychology studies ocd, that their family has never changed its possessions, or been transplanted into any other county or province. It is an additional subject of vanity, when they can boast, that these possessions have been transmitted through a descent, composed entirely of males, and that the essay in the form honours and fortune have never passed through any female. Let us endeavour to explain these ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier nomena from the foregoing theory. When any one values himself on the antiquity of his family, the subjects of essay his vanity are not merely the essay in the extent of time and statement, number of ancestors (for in that respect all mankind are alike), but these circumstances, joined to the riches and credit of in the his ancestors, which are supposed to reflect a lustre on himself, upon essay account of essay form his connexion with them. Statement Located! Since therefore the passion depends on the connexion, whatever strengthens the essay form connexion must also encrease the passion, and whatever weakens the connexion must diminish the passion. But it is evident, that the sameness of the possessions must strengthen the relation of ideas, arising from blood and kindred, and convey the fancy with greater facility from one generation to another; from the remotest ancestors to their posterity, who are both their heirs and their descendants.

By this facility, the classical sentiment is transmitted more entire, and excites a greater degree of pride and vanity. The case is the same with the in the form transmission of the honours and fortune, through a succession of males, without their passing through any female. It is an obvious quality of human nature, that the essays finance imagination naturally turns to whatever is important and considerable; and where two objects are presented, a small and a great, it usually leaves the former, and dwells entirely on the latter. Essay Form! This is the reason, why children commonly bear their father’s name, and are esteemed to be of a nobler or meaner birth, according to his family. And though the mother should be possessed of superior qualities to essays, the father, as often happens, the general rule prevails, notwithstanding the exception, according to in the, the doctrine, which shall be explained afterwards. Nay, even when a superiority of any kind is so great, or when any other reasons have such an effect, as to make the children rather represent the mother’s family than the father’s, the general rule still retains an efficacy, sufficient to weaken the relation, and make a kind of breach in the line of ancestors. The imagination runs not along them with the same facility, nor is able to transfer the honour and credit of the ancestors to their posterity of the same name and rap ghostwriters, family so readily, as when the transition is conformable to the general rule, and passes through the male line, from father to son, or from brother to brother. 9. But property , as it gives us the fullest power and form, authority over any object, is the relation, which has the greatest influence on these passions0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 3 * . Every thing, belonging to a vain man, is the best that is any where to psychology case ocd, be found. His houses, equipage, furniture, cloaths, horses, hounds, excel all others in his conceit; and it is easy to observe, that, from the least advantage in any of these , a comma is missing here from the 1777 edition, but present in earlier editions he draws a new subject of pride and vanity.

His wine, if you will believe him, has a finer flavour than any other; his cookery is more exquisite; his table more orderly; his servants more expert; the air, in which he lives, more healthful; the soil, which he cultivates, more fertile; his fruits ripen earlier, and to greater perfection: Such a thing is remarkable for essay in the form its. novelty; such another for its antiquity: This is the workmanship of a famous artist; that belonged once to such a prince or great man. All objects, in a word, which are useful, beautiful, or surprizing, or are related to such, may, by means of property, give rise to this passion. These all agree in giving pleasure. This alone is common to them; and therefore must be the quality, that produces the passion, which is their common effect. As every new instance is rap ghostwriters, a new argument, and as the instances are here without number; it would seem, that this theory is sufficiently confirmed by experience. Riches imply the power of acquiring whatever is agreeable; and as they comprehend many particular objects of vanity, necessarily become one of the chief causes of that passion. 10. Our opinions of all kinds are strongly affected by society and essay, sympathy, and it is almost impossible for us to support any principle or sentiment, against the universal consent of every one, with whom we have any friendship or correspondence.

But of all our opinions, those, which we form in our own favour; however lofty or presuming; are, at bottom, the frailest, and the most easily shaken by the contradiction and finance, opposition of others. Our great concern, in this case, makes us soon alarmed, and keeps our passions upon the watch: Our consciousness of essay in the partiality still makes us dread a mistake: And the very difficulty of judging concerning an object, which is never set at a due distance from us, nor is seen in a proper point of view, makes us hearken anxiously to the opinions of internet others, who are better qualified to form just opinions concerning us. Hence that strong love of fame, with which all mankind are possessed. It is in order to fix and confirm their favourable opinion of themselves, not from any original passion, that they seek the applauses of others. Essay In The Form! And when a man desires to finance management, be praised, it is for the same reason, that a beauty is pleased with surveying herself in a favourable looking-glass, and seeing the reflection of her own charms. Though it be difficult, in all points of speculation, to distinguish a cause, which encreases an effect, from one, which solely produces it; yet in the present case the ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier nomena seem pretty strong and essay in the, satisfactory in confirmation of the foregoing principle.

We receive a much greater satisfaction from the approbation of those whom we ourselves esteem and approve of, than of those whom we contemn and despise. When esteem is obtained after a long and intimate acquaintance, it gratifies our vanity in a peculiar manner. The suffrage of those, who are shy and backward in giving praise, is attended with an additional relish and enjoyment, if we can obtain it in our favour. Where a great man is delicate in his choice of thesis kerr favourites, every one courts with greater earnestness his countenance and protection. Praise never gives us much pleasure, unless it concur with our own opinion, and extol us for those qualities, in which we chiefly excel. These ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier nomena seem to in the, prove, that the favourable suffrages of the world are regarded only as authorities, or as confirmations of our own opinion. Psychology Studies! And if the opinions of others have more influence in this subject than in form, any other, it is easily accounted for from the nature of the management subject. 11. Thus few objects, however related to us, and whatever pleasure they produce, are able to excite a great degree of pride or self-satisfaction; unless they be also obvious to others, and engage the approbation of the spectators. What disposition of mind so desirable as the peaceful, resigned, contented; which readily submits to all the dispensations of providence, and preserves a constant serenity amidst the greatest misfortunes and disappointments?

Yet this disposition, though acknowledged to be a virtue or excellence, is seldom the foundation of great vanity or self-applause; having no brilliancy or exterior lustre, and rather cheering the heart, than animating the behaviour and conversation. The case is the same with many other qualities of the mind, body, or fortune; and this circumstance, as well as the double relations above mentioned, must be admitted to be of consequence in essay form, the production of psychology case studies these passions. A second circumstance, which is of consequence in this affair, is the constancy and durableness of the object. What is very casual and inconstant, beyond the common course of human affairs, gives little joy, and less pride. We are not much satisfied with the thing itself; and form, are still less apt to feel any new degree of self-satisfaction upon its account. We foresee and anticipate its change; which makes us little satisfied with the where located thing itself: We compare it to ourselves, whose existence is more durable; by which means its inconstancy appears still greater. It seems ridiculous to make ourselves the object of a passion, on account of essay in the form a quality or possession, which is of so much shorter duration, and attends us during so small a part of our existence. A third circumstance, not to be neglected, is that the objects, in victorian essay, order to produce pride or self-value, must be peculiar to us, or at least common to us with a few others.

The advantages of sun-shine, good weather, a happy climate, c. distinguish us not from any of our companions, and give us no preference or superiority. The comparison, which we are every moment apt to make, presents no inference to our advantage; and we still remain, notwithstanding these enjoyments, on a level with all our friends and acquaintance. As health and sickness vary incessantly to all men, and there is no one, who is solely or certainly fixed in either; these accidental blessings and calamities are in a manner separated from us, and are not considered as a foundation for vanity or humiliation. But wherever a malady of any kind is so rooted in our constitution, that we no longer entertain any hope of recovery, from that moment it damps our self-conceit, as is evident in old men, whom nothing mortifies more than the consideration of their age and infirmities. They endeavour, as long as possible, to conceal their blindness and deafness, their rheums and gouts; nor do they ever avow them without reluctance and uneasiness. And though young men are not ashamed of every head-ach or cold which they fall into; yet no topic is form, more proper to mortify human pride, and make us entertain a mean opinion of our nature, than this, that we are every moment of our lives subject to such infirmities.

This proves, that bodily pain and sickness are in themselves proper causes of rap ghostwriters humility; though the custom of estimating every thing, by comparison, more than by its intrinsic worth and value, makes us overlook those calamities, which we find incident to every one, and essay in the form, causes us to form an idea of our merit and character, independent of them. We are ashamed of such maladies as affect others, and are either dangerous or disagreeable to famous classical essays, them. Of the form epilepsy; because it gives a horror to every one present: Of the itch; because it is infectious: Of the king’s evil; because it often goes to posterity. Men always consider the sentiments of others in their judgment of honors cornell kerr themselves. A fourth circumstance, which has an influence on these passions, is general rules ; by which we form a notion of different ranks of men, suitably to essay in the, the power or riches of which they are possessed; and finance, this notion is in the form, not changed by any peculiarities of the thesis kerr health or temper of the essay in the form persons, which may deprive them of all enjoyment in their possessions. Finance Management! Custom readily carries us beyond the just bounds in our passions, as well as in essay in the, our reasonings.

It may not be amiss to observe on this occasion, that the influence of general rules and maxims on the passions very much contributes to rap ghostwriters, facilitate the essay in the effects of famous essays all the essay in the form principles or internal mechanism, which we here explain. For it seems evident, that, if a person full grown, and of the same nature with ourselves, were on psychology ocd, a sudden transported into our world, he would be much embarrassed with every object, and would not readily determine what degree of love or hatred, of pride or humility, or of form any other passion should be excited by it. The passions are often varied by very inconsiderable principles; and these do not always play with perfect regularity, especially on the first trial. But as custom or practice has brought to where is thesis located, light all these principles, and has settled the just value of every thing; this must certainly. contribute to the easy production of the passions, and guide us, by essay form means of general established rules, in the proportions, which we ought to observe in preferring one object to another. This remark may, perhaps, serve to obviate difficulties, that may arise concerning some causes, which we here ascribe to where is thesis statement, particular passions, and which may be esteemed too refined to operate so universally and form, certainly, as they are found to do. 1. In running over all the causes, which produce the passion of pride or that of humility; it would readily occur, that the same circumstance, if transferred from ourselves to another person, would render him the object of love or hatred, esteem or contempt. The virtue, genius, beauty, family, riches, and authority of others beget favourable sentiments in their behalf; and is thesis, their vice, folly, deformity, poverty, and meanness excite the contrary sentiments. The double relation of impressions and ideas still operates on in the, these passions of love and hatred; as on the former of pride and humility.

Whatever gives a separate pleasure or pain, and is related to another person or connected with him, makes him the object of our affection or disgust. Hence too injury or contempt towards us is one of the greatest sources of our hatred; services or esteem, of honors kerr our friendship. 2. Sometimes a relation to essay form, ourselves excites affection towards any person. But there is always here implied a relation of sentiments, without which the other relation would have no influence0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 4 * . A person, who is related to finance management, us, or connected with us, by blood, by similitude of fortune, of adventures, profession, or country, soon becomes an agreeable companion to us; because we enter easily and familiarly into his sentiments and conceptions: Nothing is strange or new to us: Our imagination, passing from self, which is ever intimately present to us, runs smoothly along the relation or connexion, and essay in the form, conceives with a full sympathy the person, who is finance, nearly related to self. Form! He renders himself immediately acceptable, and is at once on finance management, an easy footing with us: No distance, no reserve has place, where the person introduced is form, supposed so closely connected with us. Relation has here the classical same influence as custom or acquaintance, in exciting affection; and from like causes. The ease and satisfaction, which, in in the form, both cases, attend our intercourse or commerce, is the essays source of the friendship.

3. The passions of love and hatred are always followed by, or rather conjoined with, benevolence and anger. Essay! It is this conjunction, which chiefly distinguishes these affections from pride and humility. For pride and rap ghostwriters, humility are pure emotions in the soul, unattended with any desire, and. not immediately exciting us to in the, action. But love and hatred are not compleat within themselves, nor rest in that emotion, which they produce; but carry the mind to something farther. Love is always followed by a desire of happiness to the person beloved, and an aversion to his misery: As hatred produces a desire of the misery, and victorian internet essay, an aversion to the happiness of the person hated.

These opposite desires seem to be originally and primarily conjoined with the passions of love and in the, hatred. It is a constitution of rap ghostwriters nature, of which we can give no farther explication. 4. Compassion frequently arises, where there is essay form, no preceding esteem or friendship; and is thesis statement, compassion is an uneasiness in the sufferings of another. It seems to spring from the intimate and strong conception of his sufferings; and essay, our imagination proceeds by classical degrees, from the lively idea to the real feeling of essay in the form another’s misery. Malice and envy also arise in the mind without any preceding hatred or injury; though their tendency is exactly the same with that of anger and ill-will. The comparison of victorian internet essay ourselves with others seems to be the source of envy and malice. The more unhappy another is, the form more happy do we ourselves appear in our own conception. 5. The similar tendency of compassion to is thesis statement located, that of benevolence, and in the, of envy to anger, forms a very close relation between these two sets of passions; though of a different kind from that which was insisted on above. It is not a resemblance of feeling or sentiment, but a resemblance of tendency or direction. Its effect, however, is the same, in producing an famous, association of form passions. Compassion is classical, seldom or never felt without some mixture of tenderness or friendship : ; originally a colon; the lowercase 'a' following suggests that a semi-colon was intended, and essay in the form, there is a semi-colon here in all the previous editions (N.B. prior to the 1772 edition, the semi-colon in the next sentence was a colon (with a capital 'A' following), but the flow clearly suggests the same apposition in each sentence, thus it is victorian essay, natural to suppose that Hume later aligned the punctuation accordingly) and envy is naturally accompanied with anger or ill-will.

To desire the happiness of another, from whatever motive, is in the form, a good preparative to affection; and to delight in another’s misery almost unavoidably begets aversion towards him. Even where interest is the management source of our concern, it is commonly attended with the same consequences. A partner is in the form, a natural object of friendship; a rival of enmity. 6. Poverty, meanness, disappointment, produce contempt and classical, dislike: But when these misfortunes are very great, or are represented to us in very strong colours, they excite compassion, and tenderness, and friendship. In The Form! How is this contradiction to be accounted for? The poverty and statement, meanness of another, in essay in the form, their common appearance, gives us uneasiness, by a species of imperfect sympathy; and this uneasiness produces aversion or dislike, from the resemblance of sentiment.

But when we enter more intimately into another’s concerns, and wish for his happiness, as well as feel his misery, friendship or good-will arises, from the similar tendency of the inclinations. A bankrupt, at first, while the idea of his misfortunes is fresh and recent, and while the comparison of his present unhappy situation with his former prosperity operates strongly upon us, meets with compassion and friendship. Management! After these ideas are weakened or obliterated by time, he is in danger of compassion dislike originally 'compassion'; from the context it seems clear that this is an error (N.B. this paragraph was first added in the 1777 edition, so unfortunately there are no other editions to check) and contempt. 7. In respect, there is a mixture of humility, with the esteem or affection: In contempt, a mixture of pride. The amorous passion is usually compounded of complacency in beauty, a bodily appetite, and friendship or affection. In The Form! The close relation of is thesis statement these sentiments is in the, very obvious, as well as their origin from each other, by means of that relation. Were there no other ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier nomenon to reconcile us to the present theory, this alone, methinks, were sufficient. 1. The present theory of the passions depends entirely on the double relations of classical essays sentiments and form, ideas, and rap ghostwriters, the mutual assistance, which these relations lend to in the, each other. It may not, therefore, be improper to thesis, illustrate these principles by some farther instances. 2. In The! The virtues, talents, accomplishments, and possessions of others, make us love and finance, esteem them: Because these objects excite a pleasing sensation, which is related to love; and as they have also a relation or connexion with the person, this union of ideas forwards the union of sentiments, according to the foregoing reasoning.

But suppose, that the person, whom we love, is also related to us, by blood, country, or friendship; it is evident, that a species of pride must also be excited by his accomplishments and essay in the form, possessions; there being the same double relation, which we have all along insisted on. The person is famous classical, related to us, or there is an easy transition of thought from him to us; and the sentiments, excited by his advantages and virtues, are agreeable, and consequently related to pride. Accordingly we find, that people are naturally vain of the good qualities or high fortune of their friends and countrymen. 3. Form! But it is observable, that, if we reverse the order of the passions, the same effect does not follow. Rap Ghostwriters! We pass easily from love and affection to pride and vanity; but not from the latter passions to the former, though all the essay form relations be the same. We love not those who are related to us, on honors thesis, account of our own merit; though they are naturally vain on essay, account of our merit. What is the reason of this difference?

The transition of the imagination to ourselves, from objects related to us, is always easy; both on where is thesis located, account of the relation, which facilitates the transition, and because we there pass from remoter objects, to those which are contiguous. But in passing from ourselves to objects, related to us; though the former principle forwards the transition of essay in the thought, yet the latter opposes it; and consequently there is not the same easy transfusion of passions from pride to love as from love to pride. 4. The virtues, services, and fortune of one man inspire us readily with esteem and case studies, affection for form another related to him. The son of our friend is famous classical, naturally entitled to our friendship: The kindred of a very great man value themselves, and essay in the form, are valued by others, on account of that relation. The force of the double relation is here fully displayed. 5. The following are instances of management another kind, where the operation of these principles may still be discovered. Envy arises from a superiority in others; but it is observable, that it is not the great disproportion between us, which excites that passion, but on form, the contrary, our proximity. A great disproportion cuts off the essays finance management relation of the ideas, and either keeps us from comparing ourselves with what is remote from us, or diminishes the effects of the comparison. A poet is not apt to envy a philosopher, or a poet of a different kind, of a different nation, or of a different age. All these differences, if they do not prevent, at least weaken the comparison, and consequently the passion.

This too is the reason, why all objects appear great or little, merely by a comparison with those of the same species. A mountain neither magnifies nor diminishes a horse in our eyes: But when a Flemish and essay in the form, a Welsh horse are seen together, the rap ghostwriters one appears greater and the other less, than when viewed apart. From the same principle we may account for that remark of historians, that any party, in in the, a civil war, or even factious division, always choose to call in a foreign enemy at any hazard, rather than submit to statement located, their fellow-citizens. Guicciardin applies this remark to the wars in Italy ; where the relations between the different states are, properly speaking, nothing but of name, language, and contiguity. Yet even these relations, when joined with superiority, by making the in the form comparison more natural, make it likewise more grievous, and rap ghostwriters, cause men to search for some other superiority, which may be attended with no relation, and by that means, may have a less sensible influence on the imagination.

When we cannot break the association, we feel a stronger desire to remove the superiority. This seems to be the in the reason, why travellers, though commonly lavish of their praise to the Chinese and Persians , take care to depreciate those neighbouring nations, which may stand upon a footing of rivalship with their native country. 6. The fine arts afford us parallel instances. Victorian Internet! Should an form, author compose a treatise, of which one part was serious and profound, another light and case studies, humorous; every one would condemn so strange a mixture, and would blame him for the neglect of all rules of art and criticism. Yet we accuse not Prior for joining his Alma and Solomon in the same volume; though that amiable poet has perfectly succeeded in the gaiety of the one, as well as in essay in the form, the melancholy of the other. Even suppose the reader should peruse these two compositions without any interval, he would feel little or no difficulty in famous essays, the change of the passions.

Why? but because he considers these performances as entirely different; and by that break in the ideas, breaks the progress. of the affections, and hinders the one from essay influencing or contradicting the other. An heroic and burlesque design, united in one picture, would be monstrous; though we place two pictures of so opposite a character in the same chamber, and even close together, without any scruple. 7. It needs be no matter of wonder, that the easy transition of the imagination should have such an influence on all the passions. It is this very circumstance, which forms all the relations and victorian internet, connexions amongst objects. We know no real connexion between one thing and another.

We only know, that the idea of one thing is associated with that of another, and that the imagination makes an easy transition between them. And as the easy transition of ideas, and that of in the sentiments mutually assist each other; we might before-hand expect, that this principle must have a mighty influence on all our internal movements and affections. And experience sufficiently confirms the theory. For, not to repeat all the foregoing instances: Suppose, that I were travelling with a companion through a country, to where statement, which we are both utter strangers; it is evident, that, if the prospects be beautiful, the roads agreeable, and the fields finely cultivated; this may serve to put me in in the, good-humour, both with myself and fellow-traveller. But as the country has no connexion with myself or friend, it can never be the immediate cause either of self-value or of regard to him: And therefore, if I found not the passion on some other object, which bears to one of us a closer relation, my emotions are rather to rap ghostwriters, be considered as the overflowings of an elevated or humane disposition, than as an in the form, established passion. But supposing the agreeable prospect before us to be surveyed either from thesis cornell kerr his country-seat or from mine; this new connexion of ideas gives a new direction to the sentiment of pleasure, derived from the prospect, and raises the emotion of regard or vanity, according to in the form, the nature of the connexion. There is not here, methinks, much room for where statement located doubt or difficulty. 1. It seems evident, that reason, in a strict sense, as meaning the judgment of truth and falsehood, can never, of itself, be any motive to the will, and essay in the form, can have no influence but so far as it touches some passion or affection. Management! Abstract relations of ideas are the object of curiosity, not of volition. And matters of fact , where they are neither good nor evil, where they neither excite desire nor aversion, are totally indifferent; and form, whether known or unknown, whether mistaken or rightly apprehended, cannot be regarded as any motive to action. 2. What is commonly, in rap ghostwriters, a popular sense, called reason, and is so much recommended in moral discourses, is nothing but a general and a calm passion, which takes a comprehensive and a distant view of its object, and actuates the will, without exciting any sensible emotion.

A man, we say, is diligent in his profession from reason; that is, from a calm desire of riches and a fortune. A man adheres to justice from reason; that is, from essay form a calm regard to public good, or to a character with himself and statement located, others. 3. Essay Form! The same objects, which recommend themselves to honors, reason in this sense of the word, are also the objects of what we call passion, when they are brought near to us, and form, acquire some other advantages, either of external situation, or congruity to our internal temper; and by victorian internet essay that means excite a turbulent and sensible emotion. In The! Evil, at cornell kerr a great distance, is avoided, we say, from essay in the form reason: Evil, near at hand, produces aversion, horror, fear, and is the rap ghostwriters object of passion. 4. The common error of metaphysicians has lain in ascribing the essay form direction of the will entirely to one of these principles, and supposing the other to have no influence. Men often act knowingly against their interest: It is not therefore the view of the greatest possible good which always influences them.

Men often counteract a violent passion, in prosecution of their distant interests and designs: It is not therefore the present uneasiness alone, which determines them. In general, we may observe, that both these principles operate on the will; and where they are contrary, that either of them prevails, according to the general character or present disposition of the person. What we call strength of essays finance management mind implies the prevalence of the essay in the calm passions above the violent; though we may easily observe, that there is no. person so constantly possessed of this virtue, as never, on any occasion, to yield to the solicitation of violent affection and desire. From these variations of temper proceeds the great difficulty of deciding with regard to the future actions and thesis cornell kerr, resolutions of men, where there is any contrariety of motives and passions. 1. We shall here enumerate some of those circumstances, which render a passion calm or violent, which heighten or diminish any emotion. It is a property in human nature, that any emotion, which attends a passion , a comma is in the form, missing here from the 1777 edition, but present in earlier editions is internet, easily converted into it; though in their natures they be originally different from, and even contrary to each other.

It is essay, true, in order to cause a perfect union amongst passions, and make one produce the other, there is case ocd, always required a double relation, according to in the, the theory above delivered. Victorian Internet! But when two passions are already produced by their separate causes, and essay in the form, are both present in essay, the mind, they readily mingle and unite; though they have but one relation, and sometimes without any. The predominant passion swallows up the essay in the inferior, and essays finance management, converts it into itself. The spirits, when once excited, easily receive a change in in the form, their direction; and it is natural to imagine, that this change will come from the prevailing affection. The connexion is in many cases closer between any two passions, than between any passion and indifference. When a person is once heartily in love, the little faults and caprices of his mistress, the jealousies and quarrels, to which that commerce is so subject; however unpleasant they be, and rather connected with anger and rap ghostwriters, hatred; are yet found, in many instances, to give additional force to the prevailing passion. It is a common artifice of politicians, when they would affect any person very much by essay a matter of fact, of which they intend to inform him, first to excite his curiosity; delay as long as possible the famous classical essays satisfying of it; and by that means raise his anxiety and impatience to the utmost, before they give him a full insight into the business.

They know, that this curiosity will precipitate him into essay form the passion, which they purpose to raise, and will assist the where object in its influence on the mind. A soldier advancing to battle, is form, naturally inspired with courage and confidence, when he thinks on located, his friends and essay in the form, fellow-soldiers; and is struck with fear and terror, when he reflects on rap ghostwriters, the enemy. Whatever new emotion therefore proceeds from the former, naturally encreases the courage; as the form same emotion proceeding from the latter, augments the fear. Hence in martial discipline, the studies uniformity and lustre of habit, the regularity of essay form figures and motions, with all the pomp and majesty of war, encourage ourselves and famous, our allies; while the same objects in the enemy strike terror into us, though agreeable and form, beautiful in themselves. Hope is, in thesis cornell kerr, itself, an agreeable passion, and allied to friendship and benevolence; yet is it able sometimes to blow up anger, when that is the predominant passion. Spes addita suscitat iras. Virg . 2. Since passions, however independent, are naturally transfused into each other, if they be both present at the same time; it follows, that when good or evil is placed in such a situation as to essay in the form, cause any particular emotion, besides its direct passion of desire or aversion, this latter passion must acquire new force and violence. 3. Rap Ghostwriters! This often happens, when any object excites contrary passions. For it is observable, that an in the, opposition of passions commonly causes a new emotion in the spirits, and is thesis, produces more disorder than the concurrence of any two affections of equal force. In The Form! This new emotion is easily converted into the predominant passion, and in case, many instances, is essay, observed to rap ghostwriters, encrease its violence, beyond the pitch, at which it would have arrived, had it met with no opposition.

Hence we naturally desire what is forbid, and often take a pleasure in performing actions, merely because they are unlawful. The notion of duty, when opposite to the passions, is form, not always able to overcome them; and where is thesis located, when it fails of that effect, is apt rather to encrease and irritate them, by producing an opposition in in the, our motives and principles. 4. The same effect follows, whether the opposition arise from internal motives or external obstacles. The passion commonly acquires new force in both cases. The efforts, which the mind makes to surmount the is thesis located obstacle, excite the spirits, and enliven the passion. 5. Uncertainty has the same effect as opposition. The agitation of the thought, the quick turns which it makes from one view to another, the variety of passions which succeed each other, according to the different views: All these produce an emotion in the mind; and this emotion transfuses itself into the predominant passion. Security, on the contrary, diminishes the passions. The mind, when left to itself, immediately languishes; and in order to essay in the form, preserve its ardour, must be every moment supported by a new flow of passion.

For the same reason, despair, though contrary to security, has a like influence. 6. Victorian! Nothing more powerfully excites any affection than to conceal some part of its object, by throwing it into a kind of shade, which , a comma is missing here from the 1777 edition, but present in earlier editions at essay the same time that it shows enough to prepossess us in favour of the rap ghostwriters object, leaves still some work for the imagination. Besides that obscurity is always attended with a kind of in the form uncertainty; the effort, which the finance fancy makes to compleat the in the form idea, rouzes the spirits, and gives an additional force to the passion. 7. As despair and security, though contrary, produce the same effects; so absence is observed to have contrary effects, and in different circumstances, either encreases or diminishes our affection. Rochefoucault has very well remarked, that absence destroys weak passions, but encreases strong; as the thesis cornell wind extinguishes a candle, but blows up a fire. Long absence naturally weakens our idea, and diminishes the passion: But where the form affection is so strong and lively as to support itself, the uneasiness, arising from absence, encreases the passion, and gives it new force and influence. 8. When the soul applies itself to classical essays, the performance of any action, or the conception of any object, to which it is not accustomed, there is a certain unpliableness in the faculties, and a difficulty of the form spirits moving in their new direction. As this difficulty excites the spirits, it is the source of wonder, surprize, and rap ghostwriters, of all the emotions, which arise from novelty; and is, in itself, agreeable, like every thing which enlivens the mind to a moderate degree.

But though surprize be agreeable in in the form, itself, yet, as it puts the psychology case ocd spirits in agitation, it not only augments our agreeable affections, but also our painful, according to the foregoing principle. Hence every thing that is new, is most affecting, and gives us either more pleasure or pain, than what, strictly speaking, should naturally follow from it. When it often returns upon us, the novelty wears off; the essay form passions subside; the hurry of the essays spirits is over; and we survey the object with greater tranquillity. 9. Essay! The imagination and affections have a close union together. The vivacity of the former gives force to management, the latter. Hence the prospect of any pleasure, with which we are acquainted, affects us more than any other pleasure, which we may own superior, but of whose nature we are wholly ignorant. Of the one we can form a particular and determinate idea: The other we conceive under the general notion of pleasure. Any satisfaction, which we lately enjoyed, and of which the memory is fresh and recent, operates on the will with more violence, than another of essay which the traces are decayed and almost obliterated. A pleasure, which is internet, suitable to the way of life, in which we are engaged, excites more our desire and appetite than another, which is foreign to it.

Nothing is more capable of infusing any passion into the mind, than eloquence, by which objects are represented in in the, the strongest and most lively colours. The bare opinion of another, especially when enforced with passion, will cause an idea to psychology case ocd, have an influence upon us, though that idea might otherwise have been entirely neglected. It is remarkable, that lively passions commonly attend a lively imagination. In this respect, as well as in others, the force of the passion depends as much on the temper of the person, as on the nature and situation of the object. What is distant, either in place or time, has not equal influence with what is near and contiguous. I pretend not to have here exhausted this subject. It is sufficient for my purpose, if I have made it appear, that, in the production and conduct of the passions, there is a certain regular mechanism, which is in the, susceptible of as accurate a disquisition, as the case studies laws of motion, optics, hydrostatics, or any part of natural philosophy. * originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 4. The affection of parents to children seems founded on an original instinct. The affection towards other relations depends on the principles here explained. NOTE [R], p. 193. [Bea 13.] added for ease of reference.

T hat property is a species of relation , which produces a connexion between the in the form person and classical, the object is evident: The imagination passes naturally and easily from the consideration of a field to that of the person to essay in the, whom it belongs. It may only be asked, how this relation is resolvable into any of those three, viz. causation , contiguity , and resemblance , which we have affirmed to be the only connecting principles among ideas. To be the proprietor of any thing is to be the sole person, who, by the laws of society, has a right to dispose of it, and to enjoy the honors cornell benefit of it. In The! This right has at thesis least a tendency to procure the person the essay exercise of it; and in fact does commonly procure him that advantage. For rights which had no influence, and never took place, would be no rights at rap ghostwriters all. Now a person who disposes of an object, and reaps benefit from it, both produces, or may produce, effects on it, and in the, is affected by it. Property therefore is a species of causation . Honors Cornell Kerr! It enables the person to in the form, produce alterations on the object, and it supposes that his condition is improved and altered by it. It is indeed the relation the most interesting of any, and occurs the located most frequently to the mind.

I t seems an unaccountable pleasure, which the spectators of a well-written tragedy receive from sorrow, terror, anxiety, and other passions, that are in themselves disagreeable and uneasy. The more they are touched and affected, the more are they delighted with the spectacle; and as soon as the uneasy passions cease to operate, the piece is at essay in the an end. One scene of full joy and contentment and security is the utmost, that any composition of this kind can bear; and it is sure always to be the concluding one. If, in the texture of the piece, there be interwoven any scenes of satisfaction, they afford only faint gleams of pleasure, which are thrown in by way of variety, and in order to where is thesis, plunge the actors into deeper distress, by means of that contrast and disappointment. The whole art of the poet. is employed, in rouzing and supporting the compassion and in the form, indignation, the anxiety and resentment of where located his audience. They are pleased in proportion as they are afflicted, and never are so happy as when they employ tears, sobs, and cries to give vent to essay, their sorrow, and relieve their heart, swoln with the tenderest sympathy and compassion. The few critics who have had some tincture of management philosophy, have remarked this singular ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier nomenon, and have endeavoured to account for it. L’Abbe Dubos , in his reflections on in the form, poetry and painting, asserts, that nothing is in general so disagreeable to the mind as the famous classical essays languid, listless state of indolence, into which it falls upon the removal of all passion and occupation.

To get rid of this painful situation, it seeks every amusement and pursuit; business, gaming, shews, executions; whatever will rouze the passions, and take its attention from itself. No matter what the passion is: Let it be disagreeable, afflicting, melancholy, disordered; it is essay, still better than that insipid languor, which arises from perfect tranquillity and repose. It is essays finance management, impossible not to admit this account, as being, at form least in part, satisfactory. Famous Classical! You may observe, when there are several tables of gaming, that all the company run to those, where the deepest play is, even though they find not there the essay in the form best players. The view, or, at rap ghostwriters least, imagination of high passions, arising from great loss or gain, affects the spectator by sympathy, gives him some touches of the same passions, and in the form, serves him for a momentary entertainment.

It makes the time pass the easier with him, and is some relief to that oppression, under which men commonly labour, when left entirely to their own thoughts and meditations. We find that common liars always magnify, in their narrations, all kinds of danger, pain, distress, sickness, deaths, murders, and cruelties; as well as joy, beauty, mirth, and. magnificence. It is an absurd secret, which they have for pleasing their company, fixing their attention, and victorian, attaching them to such marvellous relations, by essay in the form the passions and emotions, which they excite. There is, however, a difficulty in applying to the present subject, in its full extent, this solution, however ingenious and satisfactory it may appear. It is certain, that the same object of distress, which pleases in rap ghostwriters, a tragedy, were it really set before us, would give the most unfeigned uneasiness; though it be then the most effectual cure to languor and indolence.

Monsieur Fontenelle seems to have been sensible of this difficulty; and accordingly attempts another solution of the ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier nomenon; at least makes some addition to the theory above mentioned0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of in the reference 1 * . “Pleasure and where is thesis located, pain,” says he, “which are two sentiments so different in themselves, differ not so much in their cause. From the instance of tickling, it appears, that the in the movement of pleasure, pushed a little too far, becomes pain; and is thesis statement, that the movement of pain, a little moderated, becomes pleasure. Hence it proceeds, that there is such a thing as a sorrow, soft and agreeable: It is a pain weakened and diminished. The heart likes naturally to be moved and affected. Melancholy objects suit it, and even disastrous and sorrowful, provided they are softened by some circumstance. It is certain, that, on the theatre, the representation has almost the effect of reality; yet it has not altogether that effect. However we may be hurried away by in the form the spectacle; whatever dominion the senses and imagination may usurp over the reason, there still lurks at the bottom a certain idea of falsehood in the whole of what we see. This idea, though weak and disguised, suffices to diminish the case ocd pain which we suffer from the misfortunes of those whom we love, and to reduce that affliction to such a pitch as converts it into a pleasure. We weep for the misfortune of a hero, to whom we are attached.

In the same instant we com- fort ourselves, by reflecting, that it is nothing but a fiction: And it is precisely that mixture of sentiments, which composes an agreeable sorrow, and tears that delight us. But as that affliction, which is caused by essay exterior and sensible objects, is case studies, stronger than the consolation which arises from an internal reflection, they are the effects and symptoms of sorrow, that ought to predominate in in the, the composition.” This solution seems just and convincing; but perhaps it wants still some new addition, in order to make it answer fully the ph ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to essays finance management, make searching the text easier nomenon, which we here examine. All the passions, excited by eloquence, are agreeable in the highest degree, as well as those which are moved by painting and the theatre. The epilogues of Cicero are, on this account chiefly, the delight of every reader of taste; and it is difficult to read some of them without the deepest sympathy and sorrow. His merit as an orator, no doubt, depends much on his success in this particular. When he had raised tears in his judges and all his audience, they were then the most highly delighted, and expressed the greatest satisfaction with the pleader. The pathetic description of the butchery, made by Verres of the Sicilian captains, is a masterpiece of this kind: But I believe none will affirm, that the being present at a melancholy scene of that nature would afford any entertainment.

Neither is the sorrow here softened by form fiction: For the audience were convinced of the reality of every circumstance. What is it then, which in this case raises a pleasure from the bosom of uneasiness, so to speak; and a pleasure, which still retains all the features and psychology ocd, outward symptoms of distress and sorrow? I answer: This extraordinary effect proceeds from that very eloquence, with which the melancholy scene is represented. The genius required to paint objects in a lively manner, the art employed in collecting all the pathetic circumstances, the essay form judgment displayed in disposing them: the exercise, I say, of essays finance these noble talents, together with the force of expression, and. beauty of oratorial numbers, diffuse the essay highest satisfaction on the audience, and excite the most delightful movements. By this means, the uneasiness of the melancholy passions is not only overpowered and effaced by something stronger of an opposite kind; but the whole impulse of those passions is converted into victorian pleasure, and in the form, swells the delight which the eloquence raises in thesis, us. The same force of essay form oratory, employed on an uninteresting subject, would not please half so much, or rather would appear altogether ridiculous; and the mind, being left in absolute calmness and indifference, would relish none of those beauties of finance imagination or expression, which, if joined to passion, give it such exquisite entertainment.

The impulse or vehemence, arising from sorrow, compassion, indignation, receives a new direction from the sentiments of beauty. The latter, being the predominant emotion, seize the whole mind, and in the, convert the former into themselves, at thesis cornell least tincture them so strongly as totally to alter their nature. And the soul, being, at the same time, rouzed by passion, and charmed by eloquence, feels on essay form, the whole a strong movement, which is altogether delightful. The same principle takes place in tragedy; with this addition, that tragedy is an imitation; and imitation is always of itself agreeable. This circumstance serves still farther to smooth the honors cornell kerr motions of passion, and convert the whole feeling into one uniform and strong enjoyment. Objects of the greatest terror and form, distress please in essays, painting, and essay in the form, please more than the most beautiful objects, that appear calm and indifferent0 originally '*'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 2 * . The affection, rouzing the mind, excites a large stock of spirit and vehemence; which is all transformed into pleasure by the.

force of the prevailing movement. It is thus the fiction of tragedy softens the passion, by an infusion of a new feeling, not merely by weakening or diminishing the sorrow. You may by degrees weaken a real sorrow, till it totally disappears; yet in none of its gradations will it ever give pleasure; except, perhaps, by internet accident, to a man sunk under lethargic indolence, whom it rouzes from that languid state. To confirm this theory, it will be sufficient to produce other instances, where the subordinate movement is converted into the predominant, and gives force to it, though of essay in the form a different, and even sometimes though of a contrary nature. Novelty naturally rouzes the mind, and attracts our attention; and the movements, which it causes, are always converted into any passion, belonging to located, the object, and form, join their force to it. Whether an event excite joy or sorrow, pride or shame, anger or good-will, it is rap ghostwriters, sure to produce a stronger affection, when new or unusual. And though novelty of itself be agreeable, it fortifies the essay in the form painful, as well as agreeable passions. Had you any intention to move a person extremely by rap ghostwriters the narration of any event, the best method of encreasing its effect would be artfully to delay informing him of it, and first to excite his curiosity and impatience before you let him into the secret. This is the artifice practised by Iago in the famous scene of Shakespeare ; and every spectator is sensible, that Othello ’s jealousy acquires additional force from his preceding impatience, and that the subordinate passion is here readily transformed into the predominant one. Difficulties encrease passions of every kind; and by rouzing our attention, and exciting our active powers, they produce an essay in the, emotion, which nourishes the prevailing affection.

Parents commonly love that child most, whose sickly infirm frame of body has occasioned them the greatest pains, trouble, and anxiety in rearing him. The agreeable sentiment of affection here acquires force from sentiments of rap ghostwriters uneasiness. Nothing endears so much a friend as sorrow for his death. The pleasure of his company has not so powerful an in the form, influence. Jealousy is a painful passion; yet without some share of honors thesis kerr it, the agreeable affection of essay form love has difficulty to subsist in its full force and violence. Absence is also a great source of classical essays complaint among lovers, and gives them the greatest uneasiness: Yet nothing is more favourable to their mutual passion than short intervals of essay in the that kind.

And if long intervals often prove fatal, it is only because, through time, men are accustomed to them, and they cease to give uneasiness. Jealousy and absence in love compose the dolce peccante of the Italians , which they suppose so essential to all pleasure. There is a fine observation of the honors thesis cornell kerr elder Pliny , which illustrates the essay in the form principle here insisted on. It is very remarkable , says he, that the last works of celebrated artists, which they left imperfect, are always the most prized, such as the Iris of Aristides , the Tyndarides of Nicomachus , the Medea of Timomachus , and the Venus of Apelles . These are valued even above their finished productions: The broken lineaments of the piece, and the half-formed idea of the painter are carefully studied; and our very grief for that curious hand, which had been stopped by death, is an additional encrease to our pleasure0 originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 3 #x2020; . These instances (and many more might be collected) are sufficient to afford us some insight into the analogy of nature, and to show us, that the pleasure, which poets, orators, and musicians give us, by exciting grief, sorrow, indignation, compassion, is not so extraordinary or paradoxical, as it may at first sight appear. The force of imagination, the energy of expression, the power of numbers, the charms of imitation; all these are naturally, of themselves, delightful to the mind: And when. the object presented lays also hold of some affection, the pleasure still rises upon us, by the conversion of this subordinate movement into that which is predominant. The passion, though, perhaps, naturally, and psychology case, when excited by the simple appearance of essay in the a real object, it may be painful; yet is so smoothed, and essays finance management, softened, and mollified, when raised by essay the finer arts, that it affords the highest entertainment. To confirm this reasoning, we may observe, that if the cornell kerr movements of the imagination be not predominant above those of the passion, a contrary effect follows; and the former, being now subordinate, is converted into the latter, and still farther encreases the pain and affliction of the essay sufferer. Who could ever think of it as a good expedient for comforting an afflicted parent, to exaggerate, with all the force of elocution, the irreparable loss, which he has met with by the death of a favourite child?

The more power of imagination and expression you here employ, the more you encrease his despair and affliction. The shame, confusion, and terror of Verres , no doubt, rose in proportion to the noble eloquence and vehemence of Cicero : So also did his pain and uneasiness. These former passions were too strong for the pleasure arising from the beauties of elocution; and operated, though from the same principle, yet in a contrary manner, to the sympathy, compassion, and indignation of the audience. Lord Clarendon , when he approaches towards the catastrophe of the royal party, supposes, that his narration must then become infinitely disagreeable; and he hurries over the king’s death, without giving us one circumstance of it. He considers it as too horrid a scene to is thesis located, be contemplated with any satisfaction, or even without the utmost pain and aversion. He himself, as well as the essay form readers of that age, were too deeply concerned in the events, and felt a pain from finance management subjects, which.

an historian and a reader of another age would regard as the most pathetic and most interesting, and, by consequence, the most agreeable. An action, represented in tragedy, may be too bloody and atrocious. It may excite such movements of horror as will not soften into essay pleasure; and the greatest energy of victorian internet expression, bestowed on descriptions of that nature, serves only to augment our uneasiness. Such is essay, that action represented in the Ambitious Stepmother , where a venerable old man, raised to the height of fury and despair, rushes against a pillar, and striking his head upon it, besmears it all over with mingled brains and gore. The English theatre abounds too much with such shocking images. Even the common sentiments of compassion require to be softened by some agreeable affection, in order to give a thorough satisfaction to the audience. The mere suffering of plaintive virtue, under the triumphant tyranny and oppression of vice, forms a disagreeable spectacle, and is carefully avoided by all masters of the honors thesis cornell drama. Essay In The! In order to dismiss the audience with entire satisfaction and contentment, the virtue must either convert itself into a noble courageous despair, or the vice receive its proper punishment. Most painters appear in this light to have been very unhappy in their subjects.

As they wrought much for churches and convents, they have chiefly represented such horrible subjects as crucifixions and martyrdoms, where nothing appears but tortures, wounds, executions, and honors thesis, passive suffering, without any action or affection. When they turned their pencil from this ghastly mythology, they had commonly recourse to Ovid , whose fictions, though passionate and agreeable, are scarcely natural or probable enough for painting. The same inversion of that principle, which is here insisted on, displays itself in common life, as in in the form, the effects of oratory and poetry. Raise so the subordinate passion that it becomes. the predominant, it swallows up that affection which it before nourished and encreased. Too much jealousy extinguishes love: Too much difficulty renders us indifferent: Too much sickness and infirmity disgusts a selfish and unkind parent. What so disagreeable as the dismal, gloomy, disastrous stories, with which melancholy people entertain their companions? The uneasy passion being there raised alone, unaccompanied with any spirit, genius, or eloquence, conveys a pure uneasiness, and is attended with nothing that can soften it into pleasure or satisfaction. #x2020; originally '#x2020;'; footnotes have been numbered for ease of reference 3. Illud vero perquam rarum ac memoria dignum, etiam suprema opera artificum, imperfectasque tabulas, sicut, Irin Aristidis , Tyndaridas Nicomachi , Medeam Timomachi , quam diximus Venerem Apellis , in majori admiratione esse quam perfecta. Honors Kerr! Quippe in iis lineamenta reliqua, ips ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the essay in the text easier que cogitationes artificum spectantur, atque in lenocinio commendationis dolor est manus, cum id ageret, extinct ? ae originally '#xE6;'; separated to make searching the text easier . Internet Essay! Lib. xxxv. cap. 11.

NOTE [N], p. 235. [Mil 220.] added for ease of reference. P ainters make no scruple of representing distress and sorrow as well as any other passion: But they seem not to dwell so much on these melancholy affections as the poets, who, though they copy every motion of the human breast, yet pass quickly over essay, the agreeable sentiments. A painter represents only one instant; and famous, if that be passionate enough, it is sure to affect and delight the spectator: But nothing can furnish to the poet a variety of scenes and incidents and sentiments, except distress, terror, or anxiety. Compleat joy and satisfaction is attended with security, and leaves no farther room for action. T he great variety of Taste, as well as of opinion, which prevails in the world, is too obvious not to have fallen under every one’s observation. Men of the most confined knowledge are able to remark a difference of taste in the. narrow circle of their acquaintance, even where the in the persons have been educated under the same government, and have early imbibed the same prejudices. But those, who can enlarge their view to contemplate distant nations and honors thesis cornell kerr, remote ages, are still more surprized at in the the great inconsistence and contrariety. We are apt to call barbarous whatever departs widely from our own taste and apprehension: But soon find the finance epithet of reproach retorted on us.

And the essay in the highest arrogance and self-conceit is at rap ghostwriters last startled, on observing an equal assurance on all sides, and essay in the form, scruples, amidst such a contest of sentiment, to pronounce positively in its own favour. As this variety of taste is obvious to the most careless enquirer; so will it be found, on examination, to be still greater in reality than in appearance. The sentiments of men often differ with regard to beauty and deformity of all kinds, even while their general discourse is the same. There are certain terms in every language, which import blame, and others praise; and all men, who use the same tongue, must agree in their application of them. Every voice is united in applauding elegance, propriety, simplicity, spirit in writing; and in famous, blaming fustian, affectation, coldness, and a false brilliancy: But when critics come to particulars, this seeming unanimity vanishes; and it is essay form, found, that they had affixed a very different meaning to their expressions. In all matters of opinion and science, the case is opposite: The difference among men is there oftener found to lie in where located, generals than in essay in the form, particulars; and to be less in reality than in appearance. An explanation of the terms commonly ends the controversy; and the disputants are surprized to internet, find, that they had been quarrelling, while at bottom they agreed in their judgment. Those who found morality on sentiment, more than on reason, are inclined to comprehend ethics under the former. observation, and to maintain, that, in all questions, which regard conduct and in the form, manners, the difference among men is really greater than at first sight it appears.

It is indeed obvious, that writers of all nations and all ages concur in applauding justice, humanity, magnanimity, prudence, veracity; and in blaming the opposite victorian, qualities. In The Form! Even poets and other authors, whose compositions are chiefly calculated to please the imagination, are yet found from Homer down to Fenelon , to inculcate the same moral precepts, and to bestow their applause and blame on the same virtues and vices. This great unanimity is essays finance management, usually ascribed to the influence of plain reason; which, in all these cases, maintains similar sentiments in all men, and prevents those controversies, to which the abstract sciences are so much exposed. So far as the unanimity is real, this account may be admitted as satisfactory: But we must also allow that some part of the seeming harmony in morals may be accounted for form from the very nature of language. The word virtue , with its equivalent in every tongue, implies praise; as that of finance vice does blame: And no one, without the in the most obvious and grossest impropriety, could affix reproach to a term, which in general acceptation is understood in a good sense; or bestow applause, where the idiom requires disapprobation. Homer ’s general precepts, where he delivers any such, will never be controverted; but it is obvious, that, when he draws particular pictures of internet essay manners, and represents heroism in Achilles and prudence in Ulysses , he intermixes a much greater degree of ferocity in the former, and of cunning and fraud in the latter, than Fenelon would admit of. In The Form! The sage Ulysses in the Greek poet seems to statement located, delight in lies and fictions, and often employs them without any necessity or even advantage: But his more scrupulous son, in the French epic writer, exposes himself to the most imminent perils, rather than depart from the most exact line of truth and veracity. The admirers and followers of the Alcoran insist on essay in the, the excellent moral precepts interspersed throughout that wild and absurd performance. Rap Ghostwriters! But it is to be supposed, that the essay Arabic words, which correspond to the English , equity, justice, temperance, meekness, charity, were such as, from the constant use of that tongue, must always be taken in a good sense; and it would have argued the greatest ignorance, not of morals, but of language, to have mentioned them with any epithets, besides those of applause and rap ghostwriters, approbation. But would we know, whether the pretended prophet had really attained a just sentiment of morals? Let us attend to his narration; and we shall soon find, that he bestows praise on such instances of treachery, inhumanity, cruelty, revenge, bigotry, as are utterly incompatible with civilized society.

No steady rule of right seems there to form, be attended to; and every action is blamed or praised, so far only essays as it is beneficial or hurtful to the true believers. The merit of delivering true general precepts in ethics is indeed very small. Whoever recommends any moral virtues, really does no more than is implied in the terms themselves. Essay In The Form! That people, who invented the word charity , and used it in kerr, a good sense, inculcated more clearly and much more efficaciously, the precept, be charitable , than any pretended legislator or prophet, who should insert such a maxim in his writings. Of all expressions, those, which, together with their other meaning, imply a degree either of blame or approbation, are the least liable to essay in the form, be perverted or mistaken. It is natural for famous classical us to seek a Standard of Taste ; a rule, by which the various sentiments of men may be reconciled; at least, a decision, decision originally 'decision,'; this comma first appeared in the 1777 edition, but from the sense it is hard to believe that it was put there deliberately afforded, confirming one sentiment, and in the form, condemning another. There is a species of philosophy, which cuts off all hopes of success in such an attempt, and represents the impossibility of ever attaining any standard of honors thesis cornell kerr taste. The difference, it is said, is very wide between judgment and sentiment. All sentiment is right; because sentiment has a reference to nothing beyond itself, and is always real, wherever a man is conscious of it. But all determinations of the understanding are not right; because they have a reference to something beyond themselves, to wit, real matter of fact; and are not always conformable to form, that standard.

Among a thousand different opinions which different men may entertain of the same subject, there is one, and but one, that is just and true; and the only difficulty is to fix and ascertain it. On the contrary, a thousand different sentiments, excited by the same object, are all right: Because no sentiment represents what is really in the object. It only marks a certain conformity or relation between the object and the organs or faculties of the mind; and if that conformity did not really exist, the essays sentiment could never possibly have being. Beauty is no quality in things themselves: It exists merely in the mind which contemplates them; and each mind perceives a different beauty. One person may even perceive deformity, where another is sensible of beauty; and every individual ought to acquiesce in his own sentiment, without pretending to regulate those of others.

To seek the real beauty, or real deformity, is as fruitless an enquiry, as to pretend to form, ascertain the real sweet or real bitter. According to the disposition of the organs, the same object may be both sweet and studies ocd, bitter; and essay, the proverb has justly determined it to be fruitless to dispute concerning tastes. It is finance management, very natural, and even quite necessary, to extend this axiom to mental, as well as bodily taste; and thus common sense, which is so often at variance with philosophy, especially with the sceptical kind, is found, in one instance at least, to agree in essay in the, pronouncing the same decision. But though this axiom, by passing into a proverb, seems to have attained the sanction of common sense; there is certainly a species of honors cornell kerr common sense which opposes it, at least serves to modify and restrain it. Whoever would assert an equality of genius and essay form, elegance between Ogilby and Milton , or. Bunyan and Addison , would be thought to psychology case studies ocd, defend no less an extravagance, than if he had maintained a mole-hill to be as high as Teneriffe , or a pond as extensive as the ocean. Though there may be found persons, who give the preference to the former authors; no one pays attention to such a taste; and we pronounce without scruple the sentiment of these pretended critics to be absurd and ridiculous. The principle of the natural equality of essay form tastes is then totally forgot, and while we admit it on some occasions, where the objects seem near an equality, it appears an extravagant paradox, or rather a palpable absurdity, where objects so disproportioned are compared together. It is evident that none of the rules of rap ghostwriters composition are fixed by reasonings a priori , or can be esteemed abstract conclusions of the understanding, from comparing those habitudes and relations of ideas, which are eternal and immutable. Their foundation is the same with that of all the practical sciences, experience; nor are they any thing but general observations, concerning what has been universally found to please in all countries and in all ages.

Many of the beauties of poetry and even of eloquence are founded on falsehood and form, fiction, on hyperboles, metaphors, and an abuse or perversion of terms from their natural meaning. To check the sallies of the imagination, and to famous classical essays, reduce every expression to geometrical truth and exactness, would be the essay in the form most contrary to the laws of internet criticism; because it would produce a work, which, by universal experience, has been found the in the form most insipid and disagreeable. But though poetry can never submit to thesis, exact truth, it must be confined by rules of essay in the form art, discovered to the author either by genius or observation. If some negligent or irregular writers have pleased, they have not pleased by their transgressions of rule or order, but in spite of victorian internet these transgressions: They have possessed other beauties, which were conformable to just criticism; and the force of these beauties has been able to overpower censure, and give the essay in the mind a satisfaction superior to internet essay, the disgust arising from the blemishes. Ariosto pleases; but not by essay form his monstrous and improbable fictions, by his bizarre mixture of the serious and comic styles, by rap ghostwriters the want of coherence in his stories, or by the continual interruptions of his narration. He charms by form the force and clearness of his expression, by the readiness and variety of famous his inventions, and by in the form his natural pictures of the passions, especially those of the case studies gay and amorous kind: And however his faults may diminish our satisfaction, they are not able entirely to destroy it. Did our pleasure really arise from those parts of essay his poem, which we denominate faults, this would be no objection to where is thesis, criticism in general: It would only essay form be an objection to those particular rules of criticism, which would establish such circumstances to be faults, and would represent them as universally blameable. If they are found to please, they cannot be faults; let the pleasure, which they produce, be ever so unexpected and unaccountable. But though all the general rules of art are founded only on experience and on the observation of the common sentiments of human nature, we must not imagine, that, on victorian internet essay, every occasion, the feelings of men will be conformable to form, these rules.

Those finer emotions of the mind are of internet a very tender and delicate nature, and require the concurrence of many favourable circumstances to essay in the form, make them play with facility and exactness, according to their general and established principles. The least exterior hindrance to such small springs, or the least internal disorder, disturbs their motion, and confounds the operation of the whole machine. When we would make an experiment of this nature, and would try the force of any beauty or deformity, we must choose with care a proper time and place, and bring the fancy to a suitable situation and disposition. A perfect serenity of mind, a recollection of thought, a due attention to the object; if any of these circumstances be wanting, our experiment will be fallacious, and we. shall be unable to honors thesis cornell kerr, judge of the catholic and universal beauty. The relation, which nature has placed between the form and the sentiment, will at least be more obscure; and it will require greater accuracy to trace and discern it. We shall be able to ascertain its influence not so much from the operation of form each particular beauty, as from the durable admiration, which attends those works, that have survived all the caprices of mode and fashion, all the mistakes of ignorance and envy. The same Homer , who pleased at Athens and Rome two thousand years ago, is still admired at Paris and at London . All the changes of climate, government, religion, and language, have not been able to essays finance, obscure his glory. Authority or prejudice may give a temporary vogue to a bad poet or orator; but his reputation will never be durable or general. When his compositions are examined by essay form posterity or by foreigners, the enchantment is dissipated, and his faults appear in their true colours.

On the contrary, a real genius, the longer his works endure, and famous classical essays, the more wide they are spread, the more sincere is the admiration which he meets with. Envy and jealousy have too much place in a narrow circle; and even familiar acquaintance with his person may diminish the applause due to his performances: But when these obstructions are removed, the beauties, which are naturally fitted to excite agreeable sentiments, immediately display their energy; and while the world endures, they maintain their authority over the minds of men. It appears then, that, amidst all the variety and caprice of taste, there are certain general principles of approbation or blame, whose influence a careful eye may trace in all operations of the mind. In The! Some particular forms or qualities, from the original structure of the honors cornell internal fabric, are calculated to please, and essay, others to displease; and if they fail of rap ghostwriters their effect in any particular instance, it is from some apparent defect or imperfection in the organ. A man in a fever would not insist on his palate as able to decide concerning flavours; nor would one, affected with the jaundice, pretend to give a verdict with regard to colours. Form! In each creature, there is a sound and a. defective state; and the former alone can be supposed to afford us a true standard of taste and sentiment. Honors Thesis Cornell Kerr! If, in the sound state of the organ, there be an entire or a considerable uniformity of in the sentiment among men, we may thence derive an idea of the perfect beauty; in internet, like manner as the appearance of objects in day-light, to the eye of a man in health, is denominated their true and real colour, even while colour is allowed to in the, be merely a phantasm of the senses. Many and frequent are the defects in the internal organs, which prevent or weaken the famous classical influence of those general principles, on which depends our sentiment of beauty or deformity. Though some objects, by the structure of the in the mind, be naturally calculated to give pleasure, it is not to be expected, that in every individual the pleasure will be equally felt. Essays Finance Management! Particular incidents and situations occur, which either throw a false light on the objects, or hinder the true from essay in the conveying to the imagination the proper sentiment and perception.

One obvious cause, why many feel not the proper sentiment of beauty, is the want of honors thesis cornell that delicacy of imagination, which is requisite to convey a sensibility of those finer emotions. Essay In The Form! This delicacy every one pretends to: Every one talks of it; and would reduce every kind of finance taste or sentiment to its standard. But as our intention in this essay is to in the, mingle some light of the understanding with the feelings of sentiment, it will be proper to give a more accurate definition of delicacy, than has hitherto been attempted. And not to draw our philosophy from too profound a source, we shall have recourse to a noted story in where, Don Quixote . It is with good reason, says Sancho to the squire with the great nose, that I pretend to in the, have a judgment in wine: This is finance, a quality hereditary in our family. Two of my kinsmen were once called to give their opinion of a hogshead, which was supposed to essay form, be excellent, being old and of a good vintage. One of them tastes it; considers it; and after mature reflection.

pronounces the wine to victorian, be good, were it not for a small taste of leather, which he perceived in it. The other, after using the same precautions, gives also his verdict in favour of the wine; but with the reserve of a taste of iron, which he could easily distinguish. You cannot imagine how much they were both ridiculed for their judgment. But who laughed in the end? On emptying the hogshead, there was found at the bottom, an old key with a leathern thong tied to essay, it. The great resemblance between mental and essay, bodily taste will easily teach us to apply this story. Though it be certain, that beauty and deformity, more than sweet and essay form, bitter, are not qualities in classical essays, objects, but belong entirely to the sentiment, internal or external; it must be allowed, that there are certain qualities in objects, which are fitted by nature to produce those particular feelings. Now as these qualities may be found in in the form, a small degree, or may be mixed and classical essays, confounded with each other, it often happens, that the taste is in the form, not affected with such minute qualities, or is not able to distinguish all the particular flavours, amidst the rap ghostwriters disorder, in which they are presented. Where the organs are so fine, as to allow nothing to escape them; and at the same time so exact as to perceive every ingredient in the composition: This we call delicacy of taste, whether we employ these terms in the literal or metaphorical sense. Essay! Here then the general rules of beauty are of essays use; being drawn from essay in the form established models, and thesis kerr, from the observation of what pleases or displeases, when presented singly and in a high degree: And if the essay in the same qualities, in a continued composition and in a smaller degree, affect not the organs with a sensible delight or uneasiness, we exclude the person from all pretensions to this delicacy.

To produce these general rules or avowed patterns of classical composition is like finding the key with the leathern thong; which justified the verdict of essay form Sancho ’s kinsmen, and confounded those pretended judges who had condemned them. Though the hogshead had never been emptied, the taste of the one was still equally delicate, and that of the other equally dull and languid: But it would have been more difficult to have proved the superiority of the famous former, to. the conviction of essay form every by-stander. In like manner, though the psychology case ocd beauties of writing had never been methodized, or reduced to general principles; though no excellent models had ever been acknowledged; the in the different degrees of rap ghostwriters taste would still have subsisted, and the judgment of essay in the form one man been preferable to that of another; but it would not have been so easy to silence the bad critic, who might always insist upon his particular sentiment, and refuse to case studies, submit to his antagonist. But when we show him an in the form, avowed principle of art; when we illustrate this principle by examples, whose operation, from his own particular taste, he acknowledges to be conformable to the principle; when we prove, that the same principle may be applied to the present case, where he did not perceive or feel its influence: He must conclude, upon the whole, that the fault lies in himself, and that he wants the delicacy, which is requisite to make him sensible of every beauty and every blemish, in any composition or discourse. It is acknowledged to victorian internet, be the perfection of every sense or faculty, to perceive with exactness its most minute objects, and allow nothing to escape its notice and observation. The smaller the objects are, which become sensible to the eye, the finer is in the form, that organ, and victorian internet, the more elaborate its make and composition.

A good palate is not tried by strong flavours; but by a mixture of small ingredients, where we are still sensible of each part, notwithstanding its minuteness and its confusion with the rest. In like manner, a quick and acute perception of essay in the form beauty and deformity must be the perfection of our mental taste; nor can a man be satisfied with himself while he suspects, that any excellence or blemish in a discourse has passed him unobserved. In this case, the perfection of the man, and the perfection of the sense or feeling, are found to be united. A very delicate palate, on many occasions, may be a great inconvenience both to a man himself and to his friends: But a delicate taste of wit or beauty must always be a desirable quality; because it is the source of all the finest and most innocent enjoyments, of which human nature is susceptible. In this decision the sentiments of all mankind are agreed.

Wherever you can ascertain a delicacy of taste, it is sure to meet with approbation; and the best way of ascertaining it is to appeal to those models and principles, which have been established by the uniform consent and experience of nations and ages. But though there be naturally a wide difference in point of where is thesis delicacy between one person and another, nothing tends further to encrease and essay in the form, improve this talent, than practice in a particular art, and the frequent survey or contemplation of a particular species of beauty. When objects of any kind are first presented to the eye or imagination, the sentiment, which attends them, is obscure and confused; and the mind is, in a great measure, incapable of pronouncing concerning their merits or defects. The taste cannot perceive the several excellencies of the performance; much less distinguish the particular character of each excellency, and ascertain its quality and degree. If it pronounce the whole in rap ghostwriters, general to be beautiful or deformed, it is the utmost that can be expected; and even this judgment, a person, so unpractised, will be apt to deliver with great hesitation and reserve. But allow him to acquire experience in those objects, his feeling becomes more exact and nice: He not only perceives the beauties and defects of form each part, but marks the distinguishing species of each quality, and assigns it suitable praise or blame. Honors! A clear and distinct sentiment attends him through the essay whole survey of the objects; and he discerns that very degree and kind of approbation or displeasure, which each part is naturally fitted to produce. The mist dissipates, which seemed formerly to hang over the object: The organ acquires greater perfection in its operations; and can pronounce, without danger of mistake, concerning the merits of every performance. In a word, the same address and dexterity, which practice gives to the execution of any work, is also acquired by the same means, in the judging of it. So advantageous is practice to the discernment of beauty, that, before we can give judgment on any work of importance, it will even be requisite, that that very individual performance be more than once perused by us, and be surveyed in different.

lights with attention and deliberation. There is a flutter or hurry of essays finance thought which attends the form first perusal of any piece, and which confounds the victorian internet genuine sentiment of beauty. The relation of the parts is not discerned: The true characters of style are little distinguished: The several perfections and defects seem wrapped up in essay in the, a species of confusion, and present themselves indistinctly to the imagination. Not to case ocd, mention, that there is a species of beauty, which, as it is florid and superficial, pleases at first; but being found incompatible with a just expression either of reason or passion, soon palls upon the taste, and is then rejected with disdain, at least rated at a much lower value. It is essay in the, impossible to continue in the practice of contemplating any order of beauty, without being frequently obliged to form comparisons between the several species and degrees of excellence, and rap ghostwriters, estimating their proportion to each other. A man, who has had no opportunity of comparing the different kinds of beauty, is essay, indeed totally unqualified to pronounce an opinion with regard to any object presented to him. By comparison alone we fix the statement epithets of praise or blame, and learn how to assign the due degree of each. The coarsest daubing contains a certain lustre of colours and exactness of imitation, which are so far beauties, and would affect the mind of form a peasant or Indian with the highest admiration.

The most vulgar ballads are not entirely destitute of harmony or nature; and famous classical, none but a person, familiarized to superior beauties, would pronounce their numbers harsh, or narration uninteresting. A great inferiority of beauty gives pain to form, a person conversant in finance, the highest excellence of the kind, and is for that reason pronounced a deformity: As the essay form most finished object, with which we are acquainted, is naturally supposed to have reached the pinnacle of where statement perfection, and to be entitled to the highest applause. In The Form! One accustomed to rap ghostwriters, see, and examine, and weigh the several performances, admired in different ages and nations, can alone rate the merits of a work exhibited to essay, his view, and victorian, assign its proper rank among the productions of genius. But to enable a critic the more fully to execute this undertaking, he must preserve his mind free from all prejudice , and allow nothing to in the form, enter into classical his consideration, but the very object which is submitted to his examination. We may observe, that every work of art, in order to produce its due effect on the mind, must be surveyed in a certain point of view, and cannot be fully relished by persons, whose situation, real or imaginary, is not conformable to that which is required by the performance. An orator addresses himself to a particular audience, and must have a regard to their particular genius, interests, opinions, passions, and prejudices; otherwise he hopes in form, vain to studies ocd, govern their resolutions, and inflame their affections. Should they even have entertained some prepossessions against him, however unreasonable, he must not overlook this disadvantage; but, before he enters upon the subject, must endeavour to conciliate their affection, and acquire their good graces.

A critic of a different age or nation, who should peruse this discourse, must have all these circumstances in his eye, and must place himself in essay in the, the same situation as the audience, in order to form a true judgment of the oration. In like manner, when any work is addressed to rap ghostwriters, the public, though I should have a friendship or enmity with the author, I must depart from essay form this situation; and considering myself as a man in general, forget, if possible, my individual being and my peculiar circumstances. A person influenced by prejudice, complies not with this condition; but obstinately maintains his natural position, without placing himself in essays, that point of view, which the performance supposes. If the work be addressed to persons of a different age or nation, he makes no allowance for their peculiar views and essay in the, prejudices; but, full of the manners of case studies ocd his own age and country, rashly condemns what seemed admirable in essay in the, the eyes of those for whom alone the discourse was calculated. If the essays finance management work be executed for the public, he never sufficiently enlarges his comprehension, or forgets his interest as a friend or enemy, as a rival or commentator. By this means, his sentiments are perverted; nor have the same beauties and blemishes the same influence upon him, as if he had imposed. a proper violence on essay in the, his imagination, and had forgotten himself for a moment.

So far his taste evidently departs from the true standard; and of consequence loses all credit and authority. It is thesis, well known, that in all questions, submitted to the understanding, prejudice is destructive of sound judgment, and perverts all operations of the intellectual faculties: It is no less contrary to good taste; nor has it less influence to corrupt our sentiment of essay in the beauty. It belongs to good sense to check its influence in both cases; and in this respect, as well as in many others, reason, if not an essential part of taste, is at least requisite to the operations of this latter faculty. In all the nobler productions of genius, there is a mutual relation and rap ghostwriters, correspondence of parts; nor can either the beauties or blemishes be perceived by him, whose thought is not capacious enough to essay in the, comprehend all those parts, and compare them with each other, in order to essays finance management, perceive the consistence and uniformity of the whole. Every work of art has also a certain end or purpose, for which it is calculated; and is to in the, be deemed more or less perfect, as it is more or less fitted to attain this end. The object of eloquence is to persuade, of history to instruct, of poetry to please by means of the passions and the imagination.

These ends we must carry constantly in our view, when we peruse any performance; and we must be able to judge how far the is thesis located means employed are adapted to their respective purposes. Besides, every kind of essay in the form composition, even the most poetical, is nothing but a chain of propositions and reasonings; not always, indeed, the justest and most exact, but still plausible and specious, however disguised by the colouring of the imagination. Honors Thesis Cornell Kerr! The persons introduced in tragedy and epic poetry, must be represented as reasoning, and thinking, and essay, concluding, and acting, suitably to their character and circumstances; and without judgment, as well as taste and invention, a poet can never hope to succeed in so delicate an undertaking. Not to mention, that the same excellence of faculties which contributes to the improvement of reason, the same clearness of conception, the same exactness of distinction, the same vivacity of internet apprehension, are essential to. the operations of true taste, and are its infallible concomitants. It seldom, or never happens, that a man of sense, who has experience in any art, cannot judge of essay in the form its beauty; and essay, it is no less rare to meet with a man who has a just taste without a sound understanding. Thus, though the principles of essay taste be universal, and nearly, if not entirely the same in all men; yet few are qualified to give judgment on any work of art, or establish their own sentiment as the standard of beauty. The organs of internal sensation are seldom so perfect as to allow the general principles their full play, and produce a feeling correspondent to those principles.

They either labour under some defect, or are vitiated by essay some disorder; and by that means, excite a sentiment, which may be pronounced erroneous. When the critic has no delicacy, he judges without any distinction, and is only affected by essay in the form the grosser and more palpable qualities of the object: The finer touches pass unnoticed and disregarded. Where he is not aided by practice, his verdict is attended with confusion and hesitation. Where no comparison has been employed, the most frivolous beauties, such as rather merit the name of defects, are the object of his admiration. Where he lies under the influence of prejudice, all his natural sentiments are perverted. Where good sense is wanting, he is not qualified to discern the beauties of design and reasoning, which are the highest and most excellent. Under some or other of these imperfections, the generality of men labour; and hence a true judge in statement, the finer arts is observed, even during the most polished ages, to be so rare a character: Strong sense, united to delicate sentiment, improved by practice, perfected by comparison, and essay in the, cleared of all prejudice, can alone entitle critics to this valuable character; and the joint verdict of such, wherever they are to be found, is the true standard of taste and beauty. But where are such critics to statement, be found? By what marks are they to be known? How distinguish them from pretenders?

These questions are embarrassing; and in the form, seem to throw us back into the same uncertainty, from which, during the course of case studies this essay, we have endeavoured to extricate ourselves. But if we consider the matter aright, these are questions of fact, not of sentiment. Essay In The Form! Whether any particular person be endowed with good sense and a delicate imagination, free from psychology studies prejudice, may often be the subject of in the dispute, and where is thesis statement, be liable to great discussion and in the, enquiry: But that such a character is valuable and cornell, estimable will be agreed in in the form, by all mankind. Where these doubts occur, men can do no more than in other disputable questions, which are submitted to the understanding: They must produce the best arguments, that their invention suggests to them; they must acknowledge a true and decisive standard to exist somewhere, to wit, real existence and matter of fact; and they must have indulgence to such as differ from famous essays them in their appeals to this standard. It is sufficient for our present purpose, if we have proved, that the taste of all individuals is not upon an equal footing, and that some men in general, however difficult to be particularly pitched upon, will be acknowledged by universal sentiment to have a preference above others.

But in reality the difficulty of in the form finding, even in particulars, the standard of taste, is not so great as it is represented. Though in speculation, we may readily avow a certain criterion in rap ghostwriters, science and deny it in sentiment, the matter is found in practice to be much more hard to ascertain in the former case than in the latter. Theories of abstract philosophy, systems of profound theology, have prevailed during one age: In a successive period, these have been universally exploded: Their absurdity has been detected: Other theories and form, systems have supplied their place, which again gave place to their successors: And nothing has been experienced more liable to the revolutions of chance and kerr, fashion than these pretended decisions of science. Essay In The! The case is essays management, not the same with the beauties of eloquence and poetry. Just expressions of passion and nature are sure, after a little time, to gain public applause, which they maintain for ever. Aristotle , and Plato , and Epicurus , and Descartes , may successively yield to essay in the form, each other: But Terence and Virgil maintain an universal, undisputed empire over the minds of internet men. The abstract philosophy of Cicero has lost its credit: The vehemence of his oratory is still the essay in the object of case studies our admiration. Though men of delicate taste be rare, they are easily to be distinguished in society, by the soundness of in the form their understanding and the superiority of their faculties above the rest of psychology case mankind.

The ascendant, which they acquire, gives a prevalence to that lively approbation, with which they receive any productions of genius, and renders it generally predominant. Many men, when left to themselves, have but a faint and dubious perception of beauty, who yet are capable of relishing any fine stroke, which is pointed out to in the form, them. Studies! Every convert to the admiration of the real poet or orator is the cause of some new conversion. Form! And though prejudices may prevail for a time, they never unite in celebrating any rival to the true genius, but yield at last to the force of nature and rap ghostwriters, just sentiment. Thus, though a civilized nation may easily be mistaken in the choice of their admired philosopher, they never have been found long to err, in their affection for a favourite epic or tragic author. But notwithstanding all our endeavours to fix a standard of taste, and reconcile the discordant apprehensions of essay in the form men, there still remain two sources of thesis variation, which are not sufficient indeed to confound all the boundaries of beauty and deformity, but will often serve to produce a difference in the degrees of our approbation or blame.

The one is the different humours of particular men; the other, the particular manners and form, opinions of our age and country. Psychology Studies! The general principles of taste are uniform in human nature: Where men vary in their judgments, some defect or perversion in essay, the faculties may commonly be remarked; proceeding either from psychology studies prejudice, from want of practice, or want of essay form delicacy; and there is just reason for approving one taste, and condemning another. Where Is Thesis Statement! But. where there is such a diversity in in the form, the internal frame or external situation as is entirely blameless on both sides, and leaves no room to give one the preference above the other; in that case a certain degree of diversity in case studies, judgment is essay in the, unavoidable, and statement located, we seek in essay form, vain for a standard, by which we can reconcile the contrary sentiments. A young man, whose passions are warm, will be more sensibly touched with amorous and tender images, than a man more advanced in years, who takes pleasure in wise, philosophical reflections concerning the conduct of life and moderation of the passions. At twenty, Ovid may be the psychology ocd favourite author; Horace at forty; and perhaps Tacitus at fifty. Vainly would we, in in the, such cases, endeavour to studies ocd, enter into the sentiments of others, and divest ourselves of those propensities, which are natural to us. We choose our favourite author as we do our friend, from a conformity of humour and disposition. Mirth or passion, sentiment or reflection; whichever of these most predominates in our temper, it gives us a peculiar sympathy with the writer who resembles us. One person is more pleased with the sublime; another with the tender; a third with raillery. One has a strong sensibility to blemishes, and is extremely studious of correctness: Another has a more lively feeling of beauties, and in the, pardons twenty absurdities and defects for one elevated or pathetic stroke.

The ear of honors cornell kerr this man is entirely turned towards conciseness and energy; that man is delighted with a copious, rich, and harmonious expression. Simplicity is affected by form one; ornament by another. Classical Essays! Comedy, tragedy, satire, odes, have each its partizans, who prefer that particular species of writing to all others. Essay! It is plainly an error in a critic, to internet, confine his approbation to one species or style of writing, and condemn all the rest. But it is almost impossible not to feel a predilection for that which suits our particular turn and disposition. Such preferences are innocent and unavoidable, and can never reasonably be the object of dispute, because there is no standard, by which they can be decided. For a like reason, we are more pleased, in the course of our. reading, with pictures and characters, that resemble objects which are found in our own age or country, than with those which describe a different set of customs. It is not without some effort, that we reconcile ourselves to the simplicity of ancient manners, and behold princesses carrying water from the form spring, and kings and heroes dressing their own victuals. We may allow in general, that the psychology case ocd representation of such manners is no fault in the author, nor deformity in the piece; but we are not so sensibly touched with them.

For this reason, comedy is form, not easily transferred from classical essays one age or nation to another. A Frenchman or Englishman is not pleased with the Andria of Terence , or Clitia of Machiavel ; where the fine lady, upon whom all the play turns, never once appears to essay in the, the spectators, but is always kept behind the scenes, suitably to the reserved humour of the studies ocd ancient Greeks and modern Italians . A man of learning and reflection can make allowance for these peculiarities of form manners; but a common audience can never divest themselves so far of their usual ideas and sentiments, as to relish pictures which no wise resemble them. But here there occurs a reflection, which may, perhaps, be useful in classical, examining the celebrated controversy concerning ancient and modern learning; where we often find the one side excusing any seeming absurdity in the ancients from the manners of the in the form age, and the other refusing to admit this excuse, or at least, admitting it only as an apology for the author, not for famous essays the performance. In my opinion, the proper boundaries in this subject have seldom been fixed between the essay form contending parties. Where any innocent peculiarities of victorian internet essay manners are represented, such as those above mentioned, they ought certainly to be admitted; and a man, who is essay in the form, shocked with them, gives. an evident proof of false delicacy and refinement.

The poet’s monument more durable than brass , must fall to honors thesis kerr, the ground like common brick or clay, were men to make no allowance for in the form the continual revolutions of manners and customs, and would admit of internet nothing but what was suitable to the prevailing fashion. Must we throw aside the pictures of our ancestors, because of their ruffs and in the, fardingales? But where the ideas of morality and decency alter from one age to famous classical essays, another, and where vicious manners are described, without being marked with the proper characters of blame and disapprobation; this must be allowed to form, disfigure the poem, and to be a real deformity. I cannot, nor is it proper I should, enter into such sentiments; and however I may excuse the poet, on account of the manners of his age, I never can relish the composition. The want of humanity and of decency, so conspicuous in the characters drawn by several of the ancient poets, even sometimes by Homer and the Greek tragedians, diminishes considerably the merit of kerr their noble performances, and gives modern authors an advantage over them. We are not interested in the fortunes and sentiments of such rough heroes: We are displeased to find the limits of vice and virtue so much confounded: And whatever indulgence we may give to the writer on account of his prejudices, we cannot prevail on ourselves to in the form, enter into his sentiments, or bear an affection to characters, which we plainly discover to be blameable. The case is not the same with moral principles, as with speculative opinions of any kind. These are in continual flux and located, revolution. The son embraces a different system from the father. Nay, there scarcely is any man, who can boast of great constancy and uniformity in this particular.

Whatever speculative errors may be found in the polite writings of any age or country, they detract but little from the value of those compositions. There needs but a certain turn of thought or imagination to make us enter into all the opinions, which then. prevailed, and relish the sentiments or conclusions derived from them. But a very violent effort is requisite to change our judgment of manners, and excite sentiments of form approbation or blame, love or hatred, different from those to where is thesis, which the essay mind from long custom has been familiarized. And where a man is confident of the rectitude of that moral standard, by which he judges, he is justly jealous of it, and will not pervert the honors sentiments of his heart for in the a moment, in complaisance to any writer whatsoever. Of all speculative errors, those, which regard religion, are the most excusable in compositions of genius; nor is it ever permitted to judge of the civility or wisdom of rap ghostwriters any people, or even of single persons, by the grossness or refinement of their theological principles. The same good sense, that directs men in the ordinary occurrences of life, is not hearkened to in religious matters, which are supposed to be placed altogether above the in the cognizance of human reason. On this account, all the absurdities of the pagan system of theology must be overlooked by every critic, who would pretend to form a just notion of ancient poetry; and case studies, our posterity, in their turn, must have the same indulgence to their forefathers. No religious principles can ever be imputed as a fault to any poet, while they remain merely principles, and essay, take not such strong possession of his heart, as to lay him under the imputation of bigotry or superstition . Where that happens, they confound the sentiments of essays morality, and alter the natural boundaries of essay in the vice and virtue.

They are therefore eternal blemishes, according to the principle above mentioned; nor are the prejudices and false opinions of the age sufficient to justify them. It is rap ghostwriters, essential to the Roman catholic religion to inspire a violent hatred of every other worship, and to represent all pagans, mahometans, and heretics as the objects of divine wrath and vengeance. Such sentiments, though they are in in the, reality very blameable, are considered as virtues by the zealots of internet that communion, and are represented in their tragedies and epic poems as a kind of form divine heroism. This bigotry has. disfigured two very fine tragedies of the French theatre, Polieucte and Athalia ; where an intemperate zeal for particular modes of finance worship is essay, set off with all the pomp imaginable, and forms the predominant character of the heroes. “What is this,” says the sublime Joad to Josabet , finding her in discourse with Mathan , the priest of Baal , “Does the daughter of David speak to psychology ocd, this traitor? Are you not afraid, lest the earth should open and pour forth flames to devour you both? Or lest these holy walls should fall and crush you together? What is his purpose? Why comes that enemy of God hither to essay, poison the air, which we breathe, with his horrid presence?” Such sentiments are received with great applause on the theatre of Paris ; but at London the internet essay spectators would be full as much pleased to hear Achilles tell Agamemnon , that he was a dog in his forehead, and a deer in his heart, or Jupiter threaten Juno with a sound drubbing, if she will not be quiet. Religious principles are also a blemish in any polite composition, when they rise up to superstition, and intrude themselves into form every sentiment, however remote from any connection with religion.

It is no excuse for the poet, that the customs of his country had burthened life with so many religious ceremonies and observances, that no part of it was exempt from that yoke. It must for ever be ridiculous in victorian internet, Petrarch to compare his mistress, Laura , to Jesus. Christ . Nor is it less ridiculous in in the form, that agreeable libertine, Boccace , very seriously to give thanks to God Almighty and thesis, the ladies, for their assistance in in the form, defending him against his enemies.