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Narrative essay first flight

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ana historic essay ENG101.CV1 -- English Composition I. Prof. Eileen Joy (Fall 2006) Historical Image Analysis: The Vietnam War. First Flight! Fig. 1 . Vietnam Napalm, Trang Bang (1972), by Huynh Cong (Nick) Ut (copyright Associated Press) For this assignment, you will select an personal reflective, iconic (meaning important or enduring) photograph (not a painting, video, or other media) related to the Vietnam War, describe it to the readers and analyze how that photograph “defines the war ” or presents a particular view of narrative first, its historical moment. We know that history is documented by two kinds (or maybe more) of print texts: the first being the advantages privatization essay, archival document (like the actual parchment Declaration of essay first, Independence that we could see in a museum) as well as by historical accounts written by witnesses (“I was there”) or by historians (“Here’s what happened at the signing of the Declaration of Independence.”). Advantages! Witness and historian accounts, of course, each present a particular perspective of the event. Narrative First! When we think of reflective essay, history, we often think of texts. However, images also re/present historical momentsand importantly, images give us a perspective of a historical moment. Because visual images are powerful, we sometimes can see the picture of an event in our mind’s eye long after we forget any written account of the event. Essay! Many of you probably recall the events of 9/11 through the images you saw on television or in magazines, more so than you recall it through, say, the 9/11 Commission Report. These images, horrifying as they may have been, ultimately represent not only an narcissistic personality disorder essay, actual moment in history; they also symbolize what the event means to us personally and to our nation.

Our historical memories are filled with such visual images, such as the one above of the narrative essay first flight, naked ten-year-old Vietnamese girl running down a street having survived a napalm attack during the Vietnam War. Even if we weren’t alive or have no historical recollection of an event, these images represent a version of that history to us. The image shapes our memory of history even if we were not alive to experience the history when it happened. The photograph above, for example, paints a portrait of the war that strikes a very different chord within us than, say, this photograph: Figure 2 . Wounded paratrooper of the 101st Airborne guides a medical evacuation helicopter through the jungle foliage to pick up casualties (Hue, South Vietnam, in 1968) Figure 3 . South Vietnamese Gen. Nguyen Ngoc Loan executing a Vietcong officer (by Eddie Adams) Figure 4 . Personality Disorder Essay! Kent State University student protest against Vietnam War (1970) ends in four student deaths (by John Filo, a photojournalism student) Getting Started With This Assignment. Narrative Essay Flight! You will need to locate a photograph that is related top any aspect of the essay, Vietnam War. You can try to find an image on-line using Google’s “Image” search. Narrative Flight! Sometimes these images are difficult to find on-line. Ask for help if you can’t find the image you want.

You may also find images in a book or magazine. You will need a copy of the commemorative speech essays, image to accompany your paper. Essay First Flight! Please be careful to find a photograph that has an obvious perspective ; in other words, it is gcse framed in a particular way by the photographer to make a statement, to say something specific about the war. In other words, it should be a photograph that is essay flight clearly framed from a subjective point-of-view (as opposed to an objective point-of-view, which would be neutral and unbiased). Almost all of the photographs that you might want to use are copyrightedeven if they are on the Internet.

We’ll talk in class about how to work with those images and give credit in your paper to the photographer and web site or book where you found it. Here are some websites you might find useful: After you find the photograph, you will want to: (1) describe and analyze the image, and essay (2) think about the historical significance of that photograph. Your essay will describe/ analyze the photograph as well as discuss the perspective of history that the image shapes. You can even do some informal surveying of peers to find out what they think about the image. Keep in mind that the perspective that is narrative flight given may or may not be historically accurate, and it will most likely not be historically complete.

That’s okay. We’re interested in this essay to explore how an image shapes a perspective of proper format for dialogue, history, of examining how we remember history based on an image. We’re not so much concerned about whether or not that perspective is accurate, though we might discuss that in narrative essay, the essay, too. Since, in compare on capitalism, your HIST111B class you have been (and will be) concentrating on issues of how people remember the narrative first flight, past, and the different ways in which different people perceive the past, please feel free to bring in material you've read and discussed in personal reflective essay, this class into your analysis of your photograph. Your essay should have, roughly, four sections: 1. Essay First Flight! Introduction to Photograph: center photograph just under a creative title and include a caption beneath it (also centered on page). Provide some specific contextual information about the photograph: who took it, where, when, and what is the general scene being depicted? What historical details can you provide, if any, about the who, what, where, and when of the gcse coursework b, photogaph? 2. More Broad Historical Context: provide one to two paragraphs worth of narrative, information, as you see fit, pertaining to format for dialogue in an essay, the larger historical context of the photograph, that you think would help your reader better understand what your photograph is connected to on a more broad, historical level.

This will likely entail information about the Vietnam War in general, but might also include information about specific events within that war--the My Lai Massacre, the Kent State shootings, the essay flight, self-immolation of commemorative outline, Buddhist monks, specific battles, etc. Hyperlinks to online information about the War and related events are available on the website syllabus Schedule of Events. 3. First! Analysis of the Photograph: What is the setting or scene? What action is happening or has happened? What features of the photograph do you first notice? What features do you notice upon compare on capitalism and socialism, closer inspection? Who is in narrative essay, the photograph? Describe the physical characteristics of the people: what are they wearing? What do they look like?

Describe their emotional or mental characteristics? What kind of expressions do they have? Look at the way in which the photograph is personal essay framed--what is the angle from which it is narrative essay first taken; what features are in the foreground, the background, off to the side, etc.? What seems to proper format, be emphasized the narrative essay, most, and how do the different figures--human otherwise--intersect or stand apart in the photograph? Why might this photograph have been taken? Why was this picture something that the photographer felt was important to capture? What draws you toward this photograph and make you interested in it? What do you think about the coursework b, historical moment that is narrative flight captured in this photograph?

What about the compare and contrast essay on capitalism, photograph makes you think that way? How does the photograph shape your understanding of the historical moment? 4. Conclusion: consider your experience of watching Oliver Stone's Platoon , reading Tim O'Brien's The Things They Carried , and now, thinking and writing about your photograph. Considering these three historical documents alongside each other, what do you know now about the narrative essay, Vietnam War that you didn't know before, and more importantly, why does that matter? [There is NO right or wrong answer to this question--it is philosophical in nature, and citizenship coursework should be treated as such, but it is also asking you to consider, on a deeper level, why knowing anything at all about narrative flight, a past historical event might be meaningful to you, or to others. Commemorative! Please feel free to draw upon any discussions you may have had in the HIST111B course that you feel might pertain to your thoughts here.] Works Cited Page : you should attached to your essay a Works Cited page that includes citations for any online resources you used in your essay, as well as the narrative essay first, citation for gcse citizenship where you found your photograph. Here are some examples of narrative first, how that would look [also, click on links to personality disorder, see what I am citing and please note how citations that take up more than one line on a page are indented]: 1. Online Photograph: Stone, Dana. Narrative Essay Flight! Bong Son, Vietnam, 1966. The Digital Journalist: Requiem . http://www.

2. Online Article or Webpage: Lewis, Jerry M. and Thomas R. Format For Dialogue! Hensley. The May 4 Shootings at Kent State University: The. Narrative Essay Flight! Search for proper essay Historical Accuracy. Kent State University . Narrative Essay First Flight! Chapter 11 in The Allyn Bacon Guide to Writing , Analyzing Images (pp. 293-300), is a good place to go first to get some initial pointers on how to analyze the rhetoric (i.e., the argument) of visual images. This chapter mainly concentreates on the analysis of advantages essay, images in advertising, so it is only a start. Narrative Essay First Flight! Look also at essay tips Chapter 3 in Seeing and Writing , Capturing Memorable Moments (pp. 220-29 and 266-77, but also Susan Sontag's essay, On Photography, pp.

292-94). I would also strongly suggest you read this online essay by the art historian Frank Cossa, Photojournalism and the War at Home. Finally, for further assistance in understanding how photographers use their cameras to frame an image a particular way, go here (American Photography website) and follow the link for Image Lab. **This assignment represents an emended version of narrative essay flight, Prof. Sharon McGee's Historical Image Analysis assignment.

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Citation Matters: Two Essays on the Student Journey of Citation and How Google Scholar and narrative essay, the Principle of Least Effort Can Affect Academic Writing. The paper consists of two short essays on citation matters. The aim is to compare get the academy thinking about citing and referencing from a student point of narrative, view. The first essay (on the student journey of personality disorder essay, citation) is an attempt of a framework for the academic writer, from the time they are an undergraduate student to essay an academic researcher. The worldview of citing and referencing is argued to personal reflective essay develop in accordance to academic level. The second essay is on academic writing and the principle of least effort. With a few searches on narrative first flight Google Scholar, cyberplagiarism and the pilfering of citation context was demonstrated. With emphasis on patchwriting, the temptation of the academic writer to corner cut is not argued as being exclusive to students but more apparent by students. Technology is also argued to create a conflict for speech outline the academic writer showing a path where they can reduce effort. Keywords: Citation, Academic Writing, Principle of Least Effort, Cyberplagiarism, Patchwriting. It is the attempt to combine two research interests that gets me here.

The first interest lies with the narrative essay flight effect citing and referencing has toward knowledge production. Advantages Essay? After all the references academic writers use and the context in which they cite prior work must have an effect on the end product. Within this interest, Robert Merton and the sociology of science, the social constructivist movement and information science are given priority. The second interest lies within publications on education and narrative first flight, how citing and referencing is taught. Issues surrounding the gcse citizenship coursework b role of flight, technology, plagiarism and speech, resulting academic writing styles is given priority. By combining these two interests, the focus is on the student and the environment they operate within to essay become accomplished academic writers. By calling the paper citation matters, there is an obvious double meaning. The opportunity to use a title of a paper to express the importance as well as get people thinking about citing is hard to resist. In essence, this paper consists of two short essays on matters relating to privatization essay citing and referencing. Flight? The first paper is a suggested worldview of citing and referencing the student requires during the phases of undergraduate student, postgraduate student and academic researcher.

The general trend of these three phases is that the academic writer plays the citation game less and less straight in speech outline, tandem with increasing their comprehension of the social construction of narrative essay first flight, knowledge. Personal Reflective Essay Tips? The second essay consists of a demonstration via Google Scholar of how easy it is to plagiarise from the internet. With a few simple searches, enough content was found on Google Scholar to not only pilfer ideas but to potentially spare an essay first, academic writer from reading a text by relying on format for dialogue in an essay the resulting citations. The ability for academic writers to copy and paste scholarship is argued to be a concern that can increase the temptation for least effort. The resulting discussion from the demonstration also argues that the initiated academic is more familiar with how to manipulate academic literature, so is less likely to get caught (when compared to the uninitiated student) . 1. The Student Journey of Citation. With an interest in getting students to comprehend the importance of citation matters I propose a framework I interpret as the student journey of citation. The framework is broken down into three phases in line with a student progressing from undergraduate to postgraduate to academic researcher.

Differences in academic discipline is acknowledged but considered extraneous because the focus is on a student progressing by narrative essay, academic level. With each of these three phases, I am recommending a text that symbolises the phase. The small number of references is narcissistic personality disorder, intentional, as the aim is for the readership to consider reading the references for themselves. To elaborate on what I am meaning by narrative essay first flight, a student journey of citation, I am referring to the (point in time) worldview of citation practice a student should realise as an undergraduate student, postgraduate student and as a researcher. The aim is to demonstrate what I see as a minimum specification of the academic writer to be roadworthy in the context of using citations and references. Phase 1: The Undergraduate Student.

Merton, R. K. (1983) 'Foreword' In Garfield, E., Citation Indexing Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology, and compare and contrast essay on capitalism, Humanities , Philadelphia: ISI Press, pp. v-ix. While Robert Merton's interest lay with the sociology of science, he also made a significant contribution to narrative essay first flight citation analysis. In his Foreword to Eugene Garfield's book on citation indexing, Merton emphasises peer recognition and how (what I will interpret as) capital for the scientist is measured by peer recognition. Personality Essay? After all only a scientist's scholarly community are best equipped to assess the true worth of a piece of research. When considering the student journey of citation the following quote best sums things up: 'Citations and references thus operate within a jointly cognitive and moral framework. First Flight? In their cognitive aspect, they are designed to provide the historical lineage of knowledge and to guide readers of reflective essay, new work to sources they may want to check or draw upon for first themselves. In their moral aspect, they are designed to repay intellectual debts in the only reflective essay tips, form in which this can be done: through open acknowledgement of them.' (Merton, 1983,

Typically, the undergraduate student completing assignments will be assessed according to a box ticking processes including accurate and appropriate citing and referencing. At this stage, instilling into the student why they cite and reference rather than it being something one must do to avoid an academic misconduct charge is the suggestion. It is understandable that in the higher education marketplace there are resource constraints, a dependency on student support systems and quantitative measurements for assessments. Their incorporation however could be seen as part of the problem surrounding academic writing. Do we really teach the fundamentals of why we cite and reference or is this all just a big assumption we work around? Returning to Merton's quote, emphasis on the lineage of essay first flight, ideas and intellectual debts when it comes to citing and referencing is quite simply a minimum specification for the scientist (or academic writer) of the future. The interpretation provides a good solid foundation to comprehending why we cite and reference. Narcissistic Disorder? Merton's interpretation is not immune from criticism and essay flight, it can be seen as idealistic and incompatible compared to the current citing and referencing practices that go on. Merton's unsullied proposition for citing and referencing could also be seen as too positivistic for ones taste. If however one identifies with Merton's idealistic message, there is an acknowledgment of the truth we aspire to find when researching an idea. Small, H. G. (1978) 'Cited Documents as Concept Symbols', Social Studies of Science , 8(3), pp.

327-340. Henry Small's paper represents the contribution of information science when it comes to citing and referencing. While Small's paper adopts quantitative analysis there is a social constructivist influence to it. The core element of the paper is highlighting that citations represent symbols of concepts, methods or anything citeworthy in the text. 'This leads to the citing of format for dialogue essay, works which embody ideas the author is discussing. The cited documents become, then, in a more general sense, 'symbols' for these ideas.' (Small, 1978, p.328). What Small is getting at, is the narrative essay moment an author cites a document they are in proper format for dialogue in an essay, effect creating its meaning (which in Small's eyes, consists of the narrative essay flight symbol making). Reflective Essay? Citations as concept symbols could in narrative, effect symbolise 'any statement which may be taken as characterizing or describing the cited document' (Small, 1978, p.329). The consequence of this thinking is that peers are the ones that determine the meaning of commemorative speech outline, a document.

So as an example, Merton (1983) in a paper by Author A in narrative first, 1984 could be cited as an interpretation of citing and referencing in line with the times. But a paper by Author B in 2013 could interpret Merton (1983) as out of touch. When associating Small's paper with students and citation practice, I propose that the gcse b idea of citations as concept symbols be seen as a deployment tactic for any student doing original assignments. While this type of assignment is narrative first flight, typically representative of postgraduate assignments there is also applicability for undergraduate dissertation students and such like. Reflective Essay Tips? Both Merton and Small's interpretation need to be considered in conjunction with each other but Small's deployment tactic could be seen as a progression from the more defensive stance of Merton. For assessments, the box ticking is still going on, the citing and referencing still needs to be tip-top but the progression is in the level of independence and citation evaluation the writer needs to have.

By using a citation as a concept symbol, the aim is first flight, also to promote interpretation and evaluation of ideas into one's own words and not just filling space with quotations. Citations represent ideas and we need to use citations to express the reflective essay ideas we want to say. Latour, B. (1987) Science in Action: How to follow scientists and engineers through society , Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, pp. 21-62. Bruno Latour's chapter on literature develops the idea of peers deciding the fate of research by acknowledging citation context, which he reframes according to positive and negative modalities. The context of a citation can put spin on narrative essay a critical paper so it appears less damaging to the reader and a lesser known paper can be embellished so it appears as fact. Further still, the and contrast essay on capitalism 'presence or the absence of references, quotations and footnotes is narrative, so much a sign that a document is serious or not that you can transform a fact into fiction or a fiction into a fact just by adding or subtracting references' (Latour, 1987, p.33). A take on Latour's thinking is that we carve the narcissistic literature of others in essay first, conjunction with our own interests to reflective tips impress others when it comes to saying what we want to say. Citations are just one weapon in our armoury when writing to achieve this aim. Latour sees the scientific article as a rhetorical vehicle and that whenever there is debate we get support from our allies (who I see as changeable) to give more authority to what we want to first flight say. Essay? The student should by this stage comprehend Merton's ethos and be capable enough to incorporate Small's deployment tactic of citations.

On top of that, the student becoming an academic researcher needs to come to terms with citation context and not be blinkered to overlook the tactical game playing that occurs in narrative first, scholarly communication. 'Whatever the tactics, the general strategy is easy to essay grasp: do whatever you need to the former literature to render it as helpful as possible for narrative essay flight the claims you are going to make. help your allies if they are attacked, ensure safe communications with those who supply you with indisputable instruments. oblige your enemies to fight one another. Privatization Essay? if you are not sure of narrative essay flight, winning, be humble and understated.' (Latour, 1987, pp.37-38) An example of tactical citation practice is what Latour refers to as the perfunctory citation, where citations by an author can infiltrate a pre-existing citation network (also known as a citation circle). The primary concern with this perfunctory citation is that it makes some citations more meaningful than others. In an age of evaluation metrics based on citation practice, the perfunctory citation risks downgrading the essays citation from a representation of an idea to narrative essay first flight that of a tradable commodity. Another concern with the tactical deployment of citations is that while they can make you look a million dollars, they can also be used against you and if someone puts the effort in, your citations can be scrutinised with disastrous results (Latour, 1987, pp. 33) Bruno Latour's Actor Network Theory (ANT) may not be for everyone but as an individual chapter it is narcissistic personality disorder essay, a great guide in narrative essay first, informing the format in an researcher of the future one form of how the scholarly communication game is played.

Latour's writing in this chapter comes across as militaristic but in doing so, the narrative first message is pretty clear: Use the work of peers and anything else at your disposal to say want you want to say but prepare yourself if there is a worthy opponent. The first point to emphasise is that the proposed student journey of speech, citation is not a theory of citation. If that is your interest, I would suggest reading Gilbert's (1977) persuasion hypothesis (who predates (Latour, 1987) in reference to rhetorical and perfunctory citations), then look at all of the essay papers that have cited that paper as a guide to further reading. The student journey of citation is advantages, a suggested framework for the comprehension of citing and referencing the narrative essay first academic writer requires from the moment they start as an undergraduate student to speech a published academic author. The crawling, walking then running framework is unlikely to be something invested within course design but if the essay flight desired outcome is to teach students to use citations effectively and respect referencing it is a progressive framework to gravitate the student toward. Another observation that can be made (and the choice of texts was quite intentional for this) is how the texts coincide with interpretations of knowledge production. There is a progression from Merton's sociology of gcse coursework b, science laying emphasis on peer recognition, to Henry Small combining information science and social constructivism to Latour's progression of social constructivism to narrative first flight Actor Network Theory. Commemorative Outline? The principled nature of citing and referencing looks to essay flight have morphed into narcissistic essay a 'peculiar trade in a merciless world' (Latour, 1987, p.60) where gamesmanship and rhetoric are key. The range of interpretations could be seen as a reflection of the changeable social structures of knowledge production but could simply be an outcome of increased debate within a specific field where no stone is left unturned. There are also practical considerations to consider.

We don't always have the time and means to read and reflect on everything we want but we do manage to make the time and means to read what we need and say what we want to say. Narrative? If we don't do that for academic writing, we could be there forever, getting lost in tangents, considering ifs and buts to protect ourselves from the same peers we seek approval from. 2. Academic Writing and the Principle of Least Effort - Supported by Some Thoughts on disorder essay Cyberplagiarism, Patchwriting and Google Scholar. The proposition is narrative first flight, that in current times Google Scholar can be used by narcissistic disorder essay, academic writers as a tool to corner cut and narrative essay first flight, reduce effort. Personal Reflective Essay? Most of the readership will be aware that Google Scholar contains the narrative bibliographic records of proper, scholarship (and when lucky, copies of the article itself) as well as grey literature and information held in institutional repositories. While this abundance of information creates new possibilities there is also the concern over deviant citation behaviour that can occur. To test my contention, I will demonstrate how easy it is to cyberplagiarise and narrative first flight, take the citation context off a paper. Before the personal reflective essay tips demonstration I would like to clear up a few definitions. By cyberplagiarism (or cyber plagiarism, also referred to as Digital plagiarism (Barrie and Presti, 2000)) I am referring to narrative first flight the relationship between information on advantages essay the internet and a consequential type of plagiarism behaviour. Those involved with assessments will no doubt identify with the authors arguing that the essay flight ease of information on the internet has led to the rise in plagiarism (Eysenbach (2000); (Kralik (2003); Pupovac, Bilic-Zulle and Petrovecki (2008); Szabo and Underwood (2004)). While cyberplagiarism can entail papers being acquired from the internet (Smith (2003); Oliphant (2002)), the focus of essay, this piece will be the form of cyberplagiarism where content from the internet is essay, copied and pasted without acknowledging the originator.

The crux with cyberplagiarism is not only taking the ideas off another but also the citation context. The second concept of citizenship coursework, patchwriting refers to two papers by Rebecca Howard (1993, 1995). Howard (1993, p. Narrative Essay First? 233), defines patchwriting as 'copying from a source text and then deleting some words, altering grammatical structures, or plugging in essay, one-for-one synonym substitutes'. The combination of Howard's papers dispute the conventional attitude towards plagiarism, whereby those that commit this form of academic misconduct are unethical or poorly socialised with citation practices. Patchwriting is associated with plagiarism, can lead to first plagiarism but is its own entity.

For example, Patchwriting can be an acceptable technique when combined with a reflective or evaluative touch at the earliest stages of writing and organising ideas. It is just that patchwriting can be unacceptable when it is essay, just glossing over the pilfering of texts. In my own experience, students are willing to admit to patchwriting, due to a lack of preparation and a fear of word counts. Narrative Essay First? Furthermore, students informally confess to a complete misinterpretation of paraphrasing and gcse citizenship coursework b, assume that citing a text once is narrative flight, free reign to use whole chunks of the cited text. In this context, the student likes to think they are within acceptable boundaries, but their patchwriting becomes plagiarism. The third concept I am highlighting is the Principle of proper for dialogue in an, Least Effort (also known as Zipf's Law) put forward by George Kingsley Zipf (1949). In the eyes of a linguist, Zipf's Law refers to word frequencies when people write or speak (most words are hardly ever used but the first flight words we do use, we use often). If we focus however on the principle of least effort itself, we can interpret it as a concept that explains human behaviour. 'In simple terms, the Principle of Least Effort means, for example, that a person in privatization essay, solving his immediate problems will view these against the background of his probable future problems, as estimated by himself. Moreover he will strive to solve his problems in such a way as to minimize the total work that he must expend in solving both his immediate problems and his probable future problems.' (Zipf, 2012, p.1) Thus if one is a student just expecting to pass a course in higher education (the reasons why at this point are extraneous and varied), taking a path where there is less effort spent to narrative meet this outcome is speech, understandable.

To start things off, I type in the book I intend to look up (so it becomes a searchable concept symbol), the author of the essay flight book as well as a keyword (representing the gcse citizenship subject I am researching) in Google Scholar. Figure 1: Google Scholar search of narrative first flight, Science in Action (Latour, 1987) and citation analysis. To explain Figure 1, the author (Latour) is a search term as well as the title of the book in question ('Science in Action') and proper format for dialogue essay, the subject in narrative flight, question ('citation analysis'). The quotations are in place to ensure a phrase is being searched rather than words that are not adjacent to each other. This search is intentionally structured in proper format for dialogue in an, a way so Google Scholar retrieves any mention of Bruno Latour's Science in Action as well as 'citation analysis' being mentioned anywhere in the text. At the essay time of this demonstration (May 2013), I retrieved 336 results. The top five results according to Google Scholar make up Figure 1.

The results in Figure 1 satisfy my aim in retrieving citations of Science in Action as well as containing some mention of citation analysis (which is a gamble as I have not included synonyms). Had I not included citation analysis as a search term, I would have retrieved about 14,300 results according to Google Scholar and been nowhere near knowing what retrieved documents concern themselves with Latour's thoughts on citation. To demonstrate cyberplagiarism I will look within the papers of Figure 1, use CTRL + F and provide samples of citation context where Latour (plus the publication year of the appropriate text) was mentioned: 'As Latour further indicates, citations are not put in papers to indicate to others who has influenced the production of the work but to display the advantages privatization essay 'black boxed' (established) knowledge. If one does not agree with a referenced statement, one must, in narrative essay, essence, dispute it with the cited definitive authority.' (MacRoberts and compare and contrast on capitalism, MacRoberts, 1996, p. 441) 'Latour's views, similar to those within the various new perspectives in the sociology of scientific knowledge, emphasise that the essay flight boundaries between the social and technical in proper essay, scientific practice are blurry. Latour's analysis of references pertains in particular to their role in 'the science in the making'.' (Luukkonen, 1997, p.29) 'Latour makes understandable the first flight heterogeneous and apparently chaotic picture of the actual use of citations. Narcissistic Essay? In spite of the variety of uses, references have a major function in scientific texts: that of mobilising allies in the defence of knowledge claims' (Luukkonen, 1997, p.29) 'Latour's view of the role of references (citations) in scientific texts is related to a theory of construction of scientific knowledge, a process in which scientific controversies are settled and first, knowledge claims are turned into facts.

References play a role as a rhetorical device in the textual phase of the tips process.' (Luukkonen, 1997, p.30) 'Others (e.g., MacRoberts and MacRoberts 1987; Latour 1987) have drawn attention to narrative essay first flight the perfunctory and rhetorical functions of citations within the scientific community (Cozzens 1989).' (Leydesdorff, 1998, pp. 6) 'Latour (1987) treats references as resources for persuasion rather like battalions. But he warns that their force may vanish if readers actually read what authors cite. Neither Gilbert nor Latour, I think actually believes that reflected-glory references persuade if their true nature is discovered (Latour calls this result 'disastrous' for the author). But they apparently believe that citers often try to manipulate readers in this way. Scientists and scholars are thus portrayed less as truth-seekers than as image-managers. Such a portrayal is controversial, to say the least.' (White, 2004, p. 109) Out of the five references in Figure 1, only Robins, Gosling and Craik (1999) was unsuitable for this exercise. In this specific example, Latour was cited, citation analysis was stated but the context of the citation did not match my purpose. At this point I am proposing that the sum of Macroberts and outline essays, Macroberts (1996), Lukkonen (1997), Leydesdorff (1998) and narrative essay first, White (2004) gives me not only enough ammunition to reflective tips spare me from having to read Chapter 1 of Science in Action (that concerns itself on first flight literature) but also provide me with a set of proper in an essay, papers critiquing the narrative first flight same chapter.

An interesting comparison for the reader could be to compare the aforementioned quotes with my own interpretation of Latour in the student journey of citation essay (I can assure you, I have read the book and proper format in an essay, wrote this essay after the essay on the student journey of citation). If we now consider the amount of freely available (but not necessarily copyright cleared) scholarship that is available via Google Scholar, an individual could potentially take the citation context of an article, book or thesis and be able to comprehend it without ever reading it. In other words, one could incorporate the ammunition above (even dropping the odd direct quote from Latour) and portray the critique and legwork to be their own, as none of the other authors are cited. The authors are only used for their citation context. With a process such as this, there is an assumption surrounding a consensus of a citation being retrievable. At this point, I return to Small's 1978 paper of cited documents as concept symbols, where he looked for a percentage of citing contexts sharing the popular view of a cited document (uniformity of usage).

In doing so, Small noticed how journals (on average) had a higher uniformity of usage compared to books. First Flight? This trend is hardly a surprise as books cover more ground than a journal article but what it gets me thinking about is the importance of commemorative outline, using appropriate concept symbols in narrative essay first flight, Google Scholar to retrieve a relevant sample for analysis. I return to Google Scholar. Figure 2: Google Scholar co-citation search of Latour (1987) and Gilbert (1977) For figure 2, I opted with co-citation (papers citing two papers I consider seminal for my purpose; in this instance those by Latour (1987) and compare and contrast essay and socialism, Gilbert (1977)) as a retrieval strategy. Figure 2 is an narrative essay flight, attempt to retrieve papers concerned with the persuasion hypothesis (Gilbert, 1977) and Latour's thoughts on citation. Some of the first few papers are the same as Figure 1 but now having retrieved 67 papers with my precise parameters I have gone down a specific path, with information potentially catered toward more specific interests. It is worth stating that uniformity of and contrast essay on capitalism, citation may not be retrievable in all samples as there are many options to consider. What is comprehendible is that obtaining the uniform use of a citation can potentially be retrieved with the correct strategy and if there is enough (but not too much) scholarship out there. Naturally using concept symbols to be as specific as possible helps but that errs towards fudging a sample to get a desired outcome based on set of assumptions.

Google Scholar throws a spanner in the works as it essentially relies on things typed in a box. My own experience of using the platform to narrative essay first look at the context of a concept symbol found many chance occurrences with no relevance when looking at the results qualitatively (Natt, 2013). In a few simple steps I was able to retrieve chunks of information that has been organised, prioritised and emphasised by peers. The extent of which this can be done ranges from an idea to personal reflective essay an interpretation of essay, a monograph according to a particular sensibility. Commemorative Essays? While I am for open access (OA), I express concern with how future generations of academic writers at the formative stages will keep track of narrative first flight, intellectual debts. There a risk of a realignment of acceptable citation practice and a generation of academic writers pilfering the contextual citations of peers to reduce effort and get away with it.

An easy comeback is the use of software that can check levels of plagiarism but I would argue that it only catches out a certain type of plagiarist and at this point I return to patchwriting. Howard's (1993, p.236) opinion of patchwriting is that of 'a healthy effort to gain membership in gcse, a new culture' (which one could consider as academia). Howard's (1993, 1995) idealism sees the teaching opportunity to convert patchwriters to accomplished academic writers and that is it just a stage in the student journey. While I sympathise with the student journey and the aim for students to become accomplished academic writers, I also see the principle of least effort. So if a student instead of essay first, reading, reflecting then writing is instead cramming, not making use of summary writing and producing their output in the last minute, it produces a different kind of output as well as increase the likelihood of corner cutting. My own take on tips patchwriting is that it provides an opportunity to reframe the doom and gloom that surrounds discussion on plagiarism. By discussing patchwriting the student and lecturer can learn from each other and actually address academic writing which I still consider to be important. I also think of the narrative essay first flight paper by narcissistic personality disorder, Pecorari (2003) that looked at the writing of postgraduate students (including PhD students) and examples of patchwriting. If the researchers of tomorrow are 'at it' what is there to narrative essay say that the researchers of today are not?

The technological innovation of the word processor, being able to essay copy and paste or use CTRL + F to look up a concept symbol should not be underestimated. The moment we rely on narrative essay first flight a technological supplement or tether toward convenience reading, corner cutting instantly occurs. Only the purist and most classically trained are not 'at it'. Patchwriting, reframing and playing the citation game are tools in the armoury of the initiated. In An? The initiated can be stealth-like and if they play the game right can be protected by the social constructs they operate within.

The uninitiated student is typically less schooled when it comes to the manipulation of academic information. They also have the disadvantage of social constructs making them the easier target when it comes to narrative essay academic misconduct. Firstly, I'd like to stress that I am not condoning cyberplagiarism nor is this some sort of confessional. I am condemning cyberplagiarism and the demonstration is an attempt to acknowledge the elephant in the room and personal reflective tips, express concern with normative citation practice. It is narrative essay first flight, easy to pin plagiarism on the internet or the lowering of academic standards but while there is some validity with such judgements, there are other considerations. What I would like to emphasise is how the longer one operates within the social constructs of academia, the essay tips more socialised one becomes to not only essay first, produce quality work but to potentially corner cut and get away with it. I am not saying that everybody engages in personal reflective, deviant citation behaviour but rather that the values when it comes to science (Merton and essay, Lewis, 1971) or knowledge production are and have been changeable. We do not bat straight all of the compare and contrast essay and socialism time. We bat straight enough and know when to play across the line. It gives us free reign to have the narrative essay first odd slog now and then, thinking it is absolutely normal.

Technology and citation behaviour is one example of this change in values and while Google Scholar has the potential to look at a concept symbol within a paper, there is the issue of where the information comes from and how it is ranked. Open Access adds to this issue and with the information being easier to obtain, it is for dialogue, also easier to manipulate. Thinking back to Carr's (2008) article on Google and the change in human cognition, I propose that the relationship between technology and effort can create a conflict for the academic writer. The academic writer becomes aware of narrative flight, a new path (as demonstrated) in citizenship coursework, conjunction with all of the other paths they can comprehend and potentially go down. Plagiarism and deviant citation practice has gone on essay flight long before Google Scholar or the internet. It is coursework, just that this new path brought about by technology in conjunction with the ever expanding amount of scholarship can be counterproductive and result in essay first, behaviour associated with least effort rather than efficiency. Barrie, J. M. and citizenship, Presti, D. E. (2000) 'Digital plagiarism the Web giveth and the Web shall taketh', Journal of Medical Internet Research , 2(1) [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 31 May 2013). Carr, N. (2008) 'Is Google Making Us Stupid?', The Atlantic [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 31 May 2013). Eysenbach, G. (2000) 'Report of a case of cyberplagiarism and reflections on detecting and preventing academic misconduct using the Internet, Journal of Medical Internet Research , 2(1) [Online].

Available at: (Accessed: 31 May 2013). Gilbert, G. N. (1977) 'Referencing as Persuasion', Social Studies of Science , 7(1), pp. 113-122. Narrative Essay First? Howard, R. (1993) 'A plagiarism pentimento', Journal of narcissistic personality disorder, Teaching Writing , 11(3), pp. 233-246. Howard, R. Flight? (1995) 'Plagiarisms, authorships, and the academic death penalty', College English, 57(7), pp.788-806. Kralik, D. (2003) 'Editor's note: Cyberplagiarismwhat is it?', Journal of Advanced Nursing, 43(6), p.539. Essay? Latour, B. (1987) Science in narrative essay first flight, Action: How to commemorative outline essays follow scientists and engineers through society , Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. Leydesdorff, L. (1998) 'Theories of citation?', Scientometrics , 43(1), pp. 5-25. Narrative? Luukkonen, T. (1997) 'Why has Latour's theory of citations been ignored by narcissistic, the bibliometric community? discussion of sociological interpretations of citation analysis', Scientometrics , 38(1), pp.

27-37. MacRoberts, M. H. and MacRoberts, B. R. (1996) 'Problems of citation analysis', Scientometrics, 36(3), pp. 435-444. Merton, R. K. (1983) 'Foreword' In Garfield, E., Citation Indexing Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology, and Humanities , Philadelphia: ISI Press, pp. Narrative Flight? v-ix. Merton, R.K. and Lewis, R. (1971) 'The competitive pressure: the race for advantages privatization essay priority', Impact of narrative essay flight, Science on Society , 21(2), pp. 146-175. Natt, A. Citizenship Coursework B? (2013) 'What is business information literacy and can the corporate librarian contribute anything to the discourse?', Journal of Business and Finance Librarianship, 18(2), pp. 146-174. Oliphant, T. (2002) 'Cyber-Plagiarism: Plagiarism in essay first flight, a Digital World', Feliciter , 48(2), pp.

78-80. Pecorari, D. (2003) 'Good and original: Plagiarism and patchwriting in academic second-language writing', Journal of essay, Second Language Writing, 12(4), pp. 317-345. Narrative Flight? Pupovac V, Bilic-Zulle L and Petrovecki M. (2008) 'On academic plagiarism in Europe: An analytical approach based on four studies', In Comas, R and Sureda, J. (eds.). Academic cyberplagiarism, Digithum , 10 [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 31 May 2013). Robins, R. W., Gosling, S. D., and Craik, K. Gcse Citizenship? H. (1999) 'An empirical analysis of trends in psychology', American Psychologist , 54(2), pp.

117-128. Small, H. G. (1978) 'Cited Documents as Concept Symbols', Social Studies of Science , 8(3), pp. 327-340. Smith, C.B. (2003) 'Fighting cyberplagiarism', Library Journal, 128(12), pp. 22-23. Essay First? Szabo, A., and Underwood, J. (2004) 'Cybercheats: Is Information and Communication Technology Fuelling Academic Dishonesty?', Active Learning in Higher Education , 5(2), pp. 180-199. White, H.D. (2004) 'Citation analysis and discourse analysis revisited', Applied Linguistics, 25 (1), pp.

89-116. Zipf, G. K. (1949) Human behavior and narcissistic personality, the principle of least effort: an introduction to human ecology , Mansfield Centre, CT : Martino Publishing, 2012. Volume 3 Issue 2 - July 2013 Citation Matters: Two Essays on the Student Journey of Citation and first flight, How Google Scholar and the Principle of personal essay, Least Effort Can Affect Academic Writing.

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Create and essay first flight, consume an app service. Learn how to write a Universal Windows Platform (UWP) app that can provide a service to other UWP apps, and how to coursework consume that service. Starting in Windows 10, version 1607, you can create app services that run in the same process as the host app. This article focuses on creating app services that run in a separate background process. See Convert an app service to run in the same process as its host app for more details about running an app service in narrative first, the same process as the and contrast essay on capitalism, provider. Create a new app service provider project. In this how-to, we'll create everything in narrative essay flight, one solution for simplicity. In Microsoft Visual Studio, create a new UWP app project and name it AppServiceProvider . (In the New Project dialog box, select Templates Other Languages Visual C# Windows Windows Universal Blank app (Windows Universal) ). This will be the app that makes the app service available to other UWP apps.

When asked to select a Target Version for the project, select at on capitalism and socialism, least 10.0.14393 . Essay First! If you want to use the new SupportsMultipleInstances attribute, you must be using Visual Studio 2017 and target 10.0.15063 ( Windows 10 Creator's Update ) or higher. Add an app service extension to package.appxmanifest. In the AppServiceProvider project's Package.appxmanifest file, add the following AppService extension inside the lt;Applicationgt; element. Commemorative Essays! This example advertises the com.Microsoft.Inventory service and is what identifies this app as an app service provider. The actual service will be implemented as a background task. The app service project exposes the service to other apps. We recommend using a reverse domain name style for the service name.

Note that the xmlns:uap4 namespace prefix and the uap4:SupportsMultipleInstances attribute are only valid if you are targeting Windows SDK version 10.0.15063 or higher. Flight! You can safely remove them if you are targeting older SDK versions. The Category attribute identifies this application as an advantages privatization essay, app service provider. The EntryPoint attribute identifies the namespace qualified class that implements the service, which we'll implement next. The SupportsMultipleInstances attribute indicates that each time the narrative flight, app service is called that it should run in a new process. This is not required but is available to you if you need that functionality and are targeting the 10.0.15063 SDK ( Windows 10 Creator's Update ) or higher. It also should be prefaced by the uap4 namespace. An app service can be implemented as a background task.

This enables a foreground application to invoke an app service in another application. To create an app service as a background task, add a new Windows Runtime Component project to the solution ( File Add New Project ) named MyAppService. (In the Add New Project dialog box, choose Installed Other Languages Visual C# Windows Windows Universal Windows Runtime Component (Windows Universal) In the AppServiceProvider project, add a project-to-project reference to the new MyAppService project (In the Solution Explorer, right-click on commemorative outline essays, the AppServiceProvider project Add Reference Projects Solution , select MyAppService OK ). This step is critical because if you do not add the flight, reference, the app service won't connect at runtime. In the MyappService project, add the following using statements to the top of Class1.cs: Replace the stub code for Class1 with a new background task class named Inventory : This class is narcissistic essay, where the app service will do its work. Run() is called when the background task is created. Narrative Essay Flight! Because background tasks are terminated after Run completes, the code takes out a deferral so that the background task will stay up to gcse citizenship coursework serve requests. Narrative! An app service that is implemented as a background task will stay alive for about 30 seconds after it receives a call unless it is called again within that time window or a deferral is taken out. If the app service is implemented in the same process as the caller, the lifetime of the app service is tied to the lifetime of the caller.

The lifetime of the advantages privatization, app service depends on the caller: If the caller is in foreground, the app service lifetime is the same as the caller. Narrative Essay First! If the caller is in narcissistic personality disorder, background, the app service gets 30 seconds to first run. Taking out a deferral provides an additional one time 5 seconds. OnTaskCanceled() is called when the advantages essay, task is canceled. The task is cancelled when the client app disposes the AppServiceConnection , the client app is suspended, the OS is shut down or sleeps, or the OS runs out of resources to essay first flight run the task. Write the gcse b, code for the app service. OnRequestReceived() is where the code for the app service goes. Replace the stub OnRequestReceived() in narrative flight, MyAppService's Class1.cs with the code from this example.

This code gets an index for essay, an inventory item and passes it, along with a command string, to the service to retrieve the narrative essay, name and the price of the specified inventory item. For your own projects, add error handling code. Note that OnRequestReceived() is async because we make an awaitable method call to SendResponseAsync in commemorative outline essays, this example. A deferral is taken so that the service can use async methods in the OnRequestReceived handler. It ensures that the essay first flight, call to OnRequestReceived does not complete until it is done processing the message. SendResponseAsync sends the speech outline essays, result to the caller. SendResponseAsync does not signal the completion of the call. Essay First! It is the completion of the advantages privatization essay, deferral that signals to narrative essay flight SendMessageAsync that OnRequestReceived has completed. The call to commemorative speech SendResponseAsync() is wrapped in a try/finally block because you must complete the deferral even if SendResponseAsync() throws an exception. App services use a ValueSet to exchange information. The size of the data you may pass is only limited by system resources.

There are no predefined keys for you to use in your ValueSet . You must determine which key values you will use to define the protocol for your app service. The caller must be written with that protocol in mind. In this example, we have chosen a key named Command that has a value that indicates whether we want the app service to provide the first flight, name of the narcissistic disorder essay, inventory item or its price. The index of the inventory name is stored under the ID key. The return value is stored under the Result key. An AppServiceClosedStatus enum is returned to the caller to narrative essay first flight indicate whether the call to the app service succeeded or failed. An example of how the call to the app service could fail is if the OS aborts the service endpoint because its resources have been exceeded.

You can return additional error information via the ValueSet . In this example, we use a key named Status to return more detailed error information to the caller. Deploy the service app and get the privatization, package family name. The app service provider app must be deployed before you can call it from flight a client. You will also need the package family name of the app service app in narcissistic personality disorder essay, order to call it. One way to get the package family name of the app service application is to call Windows.ApplicationModel.Package.Current.Id.FamilyName from within the narrative essay first flight, AppServiceProvider project (for example, from public App() in App.xaml.cs) and note the for dialogue essay, result. To run AppServiceProvider in Microsoft Visual Studio, set it as the startup project in the Solution Explorer window and first, run the project. Another way to get the narcissistic disorder, package family name is to deploy the solution ( Build Deploy solution ) and note the first flight, full package name in the output window ( View Output ). You must remove the platform information from the string in the output window to gcse coursework derive the package name. For example, if the full package name reported in the output window was Microsoft.SDKSamples.AppServicesProvider.CPP_1.0.0.0_x86__8wekyb3d8bbwe , you would extract leaving Microsoft.SDKSamples.AppServicesProvider.CPP_8wekyb3d8bbwe as the package family name. Write a client to call the app service. Add a new blank Windows Universal app project to the solution with File Add New Project . In the narrative first flight, Add New Project dialog box, choose Installed Other languages Visual C# Windows Windows Universal Blank App (Windows Universal) and name it ClientApp . In the ClientApp project, add the following using statement to the top of MainPage.xaml.cs: cs using Windows.ApplicationModel.AppService; Add a text box and a button to MainPage.xaml. Add a button click handler for the button and add the keyword async to the button handler's signature.

Replace the stub of your button click handler with the following code. Outline Essays! Be sure to include the inventoryService field declaration. Replace the package family name in the line this.inventoryService.PackageFamilyName = replace with the package family name; with the package family name of the AppServiceProvider project that you obtained above in Deploy the service app and essay, get the package family name. The code first establishes a connection with the app service. The connection will remain open until you dispose this.inventoryService . The app service name must match the AppService Name attribute that you added to the AppServiceProvider project's Package.appxmanifest file. In this example, it is uap:AppService . A ValueSet named message is created to specify the command that we want to send to the app service. The example app service expects a command to indicate which of two actions to take. We get the index from the textbox in the client app, and then call the service with the Item command to reflective get the description of the item. Then, we make the call with the Price command to get the item's price. The button text is set to first flight the result. Because AppServiceResponseStatus only indicates whether the operating system was able to connect the call to the app service, we check the gcse coursework, Status key in the ValueSet we receive from the app service to narrative essay flight ensure that it was able to fulfill the request.

In Visual Studio, set the outline, ClientApp project to be the narrative essay first flight, startup project in the Solution Explorer window and run the solution. Enter the number 1 into the text box and click the button. You should get Chair : Price = 88.99 back from the narcissistic, service. If the app service call fails, check the following in the ClientApp: Verify that the package family name assigned to essay first the inventory service connection matches the package family name of the AppServiceProvider app. See: button_Click() this.inventoryService.PackageFamilyName = . ; ). In button_Click() , verify that the app service name that is assigned to the inventory service connection matches the app service name in proper for dialogue in an, the AppServiceProvider's Package.appxmanifest file. See: this.inventoryService.AppServiceName =; . Ensure that the AppServiceProvider app has been deployed (In the Solution Explorer, right-click the solution and choose Deploy ). Ensure that the solution is deployed before debugging because the app service provider app must be deployed before the service can be called. Narrative Essay Flight! (In Visual Studio, Build Deploy Solution ). In the Solution Explorer, right-click the AppServiceProvider project and coursework, choose Properties . From the Debug tab, change the essay flight, Start action to Do not launch, but debug my code when it starts . Disorder Essay! (Note, if you were using C++ to implement your app service provider, from the Debugging tab you would change Launch Application to No ). In the MyAppService project, in the Class1.cs file, set a breakpoint in essay first, OnRequestReceived() . Set the AppServiceProvider project to be the startup project and press F5. Start ClientApp from the Start menu (not from Visual Studio). Enter the number 1 into the text box and and socialism, press the button. The debugger will stop in the app service call on the breakpoint in your app service.

Follow the instructions in the preceding step to debug the client that calls the essay, app service. Launch ClientApp from the Start menu. Attach the debugger to the ClientApp.exe process (not the ApplicationFrameHost.exe process). Commemorative Speech Outline! (In Visual Studio, choose Debug Attach to Process. Narrative Essay First! .) In the ClientApp project, set a breakpoint in button_Click() . Gcse Citizenship Coursework B! The breakpoints in both the client and the app service will now be hit when you enter the number 1 into narrative first flight, the text box of the ClientApp and click the button. General app service troubleshooting. If you encounter a AppUnavailable status after trying to connect to an app service, check the following: Ensure that the app service provider project and app service project are deployed. Both need to be deployed before running the client because otherwise the client won't have anything to connect to. You can deploy from Visual Studio by using Build Deploy Solution . In the solution explorer, ensure that your app service provider project has a project-to-project reference to the project that implements the app service. Commemorative Essays! Verify that the Extensions entry, and its child elements, have been added to the Package.appxmanifest file belonging to the app service provider project as specified above in first flight, Add an app service extension to coursework package.appxmanifest. Narrative Essay First! Ensure that the AppServiceConnection.AppServiceName string in your client that calls the app service provider matches the uap3:AppService Name=. / specified in the app service provider project's Package.appxmanifest file.

Ensure that the AppServiceConnection.PackageFamilyName matches the package family name of the app service provider component as specified above in Add an app service extension to package.appxmanifest For out-of-proc app services such as the one in this example, validate that the EntryPoint specified in the uap:Extension . element of your app service provider project's Package.appxmanifest file matches the namespace and class name of the public class that implements IBackgroundTask in your app service project. If the debugger does not stop at breakpoints in citizenship b, your app service provider or app service projects, check the following: Ensure that the app service provider project and app service project are deployed. Both need to be deployed before running the client. First Flight! You can deploy them from Visual Studio by using Build Deploy Solution . Ensure that the project you want to debug is gcse, set as the startup project and that the debugging properties for narrative essay first flight, that project are set to not run the project when F5 is pressed.

Right-click the project, then click Properties , and then Debug (or Debugging in C++). In C#, change the Start action to Do not launch, but debug my code when it starts . In C++, set Launch Application to disorder essay No .