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bw security resume Robert J Pederson. Senior SAP Security Consultant. P.O. Box 3895, Cary, NC 27519-3895. Career Objective? Consulting experience: 15 Years. SAP Security experience: 12 Years. SAP Basis and Oracle: 15 Years. SAP Implementation Projects: 17.

SAP Project Go-Lives: 9. Total IT experience: 31 Years. SAP Security Experience Summary: #9658; SAP HCM Structural Authorizations. #9658; Upgrades from oasis prize 4.6C to ECC 6. Career Essay? #9658; Proven Team Leadership Experience. #9658; Business Warehouse (BW / BI) 3.5/7.0. #9658; Enterprise Portal on NetWeaver 7. #9658; SAP Solution Manager Roles. #9658; Central User Administration (CUA) #9658; Extensive Profile Generator (PFCG) experience. #9658; Virsa/GRC, Approva, Security Weaver, Securinfo SOX/SOD Products. SAP Basis Experience Summary: #9658; Upgrades from 4.6C to ECC 6. #9658; Proven Team Leadership Experience. #9658; Business Warehouse (BW / BI) 3.5/7.0. #9658; Enterprise Portal on NetWeaver 2004s. Sep 2011 - Present. Southwire, Carrollton GA. Senior SAP Security Consultant. #9658;(Just started… details coming)

Jan 2011 – Jul 2011. Sikorsky Aircraft, Stratford CT. Senior SAP Security Consultant. #9658;Short-term project to assist with client’s SOD remediation effort. #9658;Analysis of oasis dissertation, existing ECC roles based on career, Approva SOD analysis. #9658;Modification of roles to isolate sensitive transactions. #9658;Testing and remediation of roles. Apr 2010 – Feb 2011. ITT Corporation, Annapolis MD and Hanover MD.

Senior SAP HCM Security Lead Consultant. #9658;Lead position, responsible for design and career goals college essay, implementation of all SAP Security for North American HCM project. Went live October 2010. #9658;Designed, developed, and maintained structural authorizations and standard/derived roles for objective essay, position-based HR security strategy, driven by complex span-of-control requirements for defense industries and commercial divisions. #9658;Implemented Personnel Administration and Organizational Management (PA and OM) modules of words, HCM. Objective? #9658;Developed and maintained roles and performed user administration for ECC, Solution Manager, BI, GTS, PI, and SCM development systems. #9658;Set up, configured, and format statement, maintained Central User Administration (CUA) landscape. Career Objective Essay? #9658;Performed gap analysis, conducted risk assessments, managed issues, designed and documented procedures. #9658;Security support for integration testing, user acceptance testing, and training efforts. Aug 2008 – Sep 2009. Oasis? Honda Aircraft Company, Greensboro NC. Senior SAP Security Consultant. #9658; Performed full analysis of client’s existing security solution, documented and implemented detailed remediation steps. Essay? #9658; Created new roles for ECC 6 systems: FI, CO, TE, HR, MM, PP, QM, and essay of children, SD modules, based on concepts of task roles and objective, position roles. #9658; Created new roles for Solution Manager 7 Service Desk. #9658; Analyzed and replaced existing roles with new roles accurately matching business needs. #9658; Configured and managed Central User Administration (CUA) environment. #9658; Performed SAP License Administration analysis, implementation, and submission to rogerian essay SAP. #9658; Supported phased Go Lives, October 2008 and career objective, September 2009. Oasis Dissertation Prize? #9658; Overhauled existing SAP Authorization procedures. #9658; Provided detailed documentation of SAP Security procedures to client. Mar 2008 – May 2008. Bealls Inc., Bradenton FL. Senior SAP Security/Basis Consultant. #9658; Represented Oxford Global Resources. #9658; Designed and developed Security solutions for HCM (HR), FICO, and objective essay, Real Estate modules. #9658; Developed Security design, configuration, and support for ECC, XI, BI/BW, and Solution Manager landscapes. #9658; Readied client for annual PCI Security audit. #9658; Set up Central User Administration (CUA) for 41 clients across 12 systems. #9658; Provided supplemental Basis support for all landscapes. Identify The Steps A Critical? #9658; Installed Pre-Configured Client (PCC) for HCM. Career Objective Essay? Jan 2008 – Feb 2008.

The Bon-Ton Stores Inc., Dayton OH. Transition Words For College? Senior SAP Security Consultant. #9658; Represented Signature Consultants LLC. #9658; Provided SAP Security design, configuration, and career, support for SAP NetWeaver systems running BI/BW 7.0 (NetWeaver 2004s) and WFM 3.0 (Workforce Management) (ECC 6.0) #9658; Set up Central User Administration (CUA) for 11 clients across 7 systems. #9658; Conducted comprehensive analysis of statement, existing Security environment. #9658; Identified Security issues, recommended and implemented solutions to problems. #9658; Fully documented security landscape, procedures, and notes for turn-over to client. Aug 2007 – Nov 2007.

Cadbury Schweppes Americas Beverages, Plano TX. Senior SAP Security/Basis Consultant. #9658; Represented ACS-Systech and SAP America. #9658; Provided SAP Security and Basis planning, implementation, testing, and support for career, upgrade of R/3 landscape from 4.6C to ECC 6.0. Format? #9658; Responsible for objective essay, all Security-related aspects of upgrade. #9658; Assisted primary Basis consultant with many technical aspects of upgrade. And Phrases? #9658; Customer Go Live December 2007. Career Objective? Feb 2007 – July 2007. Newell Rubbermaid, Atlanta GA. Senior SAP Basis Consultant. #9658; Represented ACS (acs-inc.com). #9658; Supported ECC 5.0, BW 3.5, APO/SCM 4.1, EBP/SRM 4.0, XI 7.0, and Solution Manager 3.2/4.0 systems. Transition Words And Phrases For College? #9658; Researched and analyzed performance issues related to AIX 5.3 operating system and DB2 8.2 database. Career Essay? #9658; Primary contact for all BW system troubleshooting, maintenance, and support. #9658; Maintained parameter and periodic job consistency between all systems. #9658; Coordinated transports across all platforms. #9658; Planned support pack upgrades for all systems/landscapes. Jul 2001 – Dec 2006.

North Carolina Dept. of Transportation, Raleigh NC. College Essay? Senior SAP Security/Basis Consultant. Essay? #9658; Represented SAP Public Sector. Of Children? #9658; Team Leader for SAP Security and Authorizations. #9658; Completely designed and implemented methodology for controlling end user access to plants, fund centers, cost centers, etc. Objective? Applied to both R/3 and rogerian thesis, BW environments. Designed security solution for FI (AR, AP, SD, FA), CO, FM, MM, QM, PM, PS, HR (Time Entry, Travel) modules. Career? #9658; Extensive customization of security solutions to match complex requirements. #9658; Created over career goals, 100 customized end user roles and menus, plus hundreds of mini-roles to allow for career objective essay, low-level modular access control. #9658; Set up security roles and user accounts for over 5000 End Users for primary Go Live. Set up security roles and user accounts for three follow-on projects, including Business Warehouse (BW 3.0B). #9658; Set up Central User Administration (CUA) to manage multiple systems/clients. #9658; Set up security for Enterprise Portal on NetWeaver, Solution Manager, and ERP systems. #9658; Introduced Sarbanes-Oxley and audit compliance issues to client. Led effort to obtain Securinfo and words essays, SAP Virsa products for career, security management and risk analysis of Separation of Duties issues. #9658; Developed methodology and programs for continuous reconciliation of End User Database and R/3 system. Career College? Continuously improved security configuration to reflect best practices and to prepare for system audits. #9658; Educated client personnel in R/3 Security and essay, general Basis knowledge. #9658; Client went live April 2003. Sep 1999 - Jun 2001. Essays? U.S.

Army, Picatinny Arsenal, Morris County NJ. Senior SAP Basis Consultant / Team Leader. #9658; Represented SAP America Public Sector and Education, Inc. Customer went live April 2001. Feb 1999 - Jul 1999. World Bank, Washington, DC. Senior SAP Basis Consultant. Objective? #9658; Represented IBM Global Services. Customer went live June 1999. Mar 1998 - Jan 1999. Delphi Automotive Systems, Detroit MI, and Dayton OH. Senior SAP Basis Consultant. #9658; Represented SAP America. Jan 1998 – Feb 1998.

Uniroyal Chemical Company, Middlebury CT. Senior SAP R/3 Basis Consultant. #9658; Represented SAP America. Oasis Dissertation? Customer went live January 1998. Jul 1997 – Nov 1997. U.S. Department of Energy / Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken SC. Senior SAP R/3 Basis Consultant. #9658; Represented Computer Sciences Corp (CSC) Mar 1996 – Jul 1997.

James River Corporation, Richmond VA. SAP R/3 Basis Consultant. #9658; Represented Computer Sciences Corp (CSC). Customer went live July 1996. Feb 1995 – Jan 1996. Career? ISSC (IBM), Research Triangle Park NC. SAP R/3 Basis Administrator. #9658; Two implementations: IBM PC Company and IBM Network Hardware Division.

Sep 1994 – Jan 1996. ISSC (IBM Global Services), RTP, NC. Unix System Administrator. Jul 1989 – Sep 1994. The Steps Essay? IBM, Kingston, NY. Advisory Programmer, AIX High End Systems Support. Dec 1986 – Jun 1989.

ETA Systems, Inc., St. Paul, MN. Software Engineer, EOS Software Development. Jun 1980 – Dec 1986. Control Data Corporation, Arden Hills, MN. Senior Field Support Analyst and essay, Systems Programmer/Analyst, Supercomputer Software Development.

Iowa State University, Ames, IA. Bachelor of Science Degree, Computer Science and career goals college essay, Mathematics, 1980.

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How to Earn an A+ on Your Career Goals Essay – MBA Prep School

Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis. Chapter 3: Bibliometrics, Citation and objective essay, Citation Analysis. Dr. Career Goals College! Ranganathan S. R. (1969) coined the term 'Librametry' and presented his concept in ASLIB conference held at Leamington Spa. He used the objective, term to include statistical approaches to study library and its services. However, the practice of using quantitative method to measure information sources were made even before Dr.

Ranganathan but under different terms or without any particular term but 'Statistical Analysis' was in common use before the term Librametry. Cole and Eales (1917) graphically mapped the literature and for college essays, called this method of analysis as 'Statistical analysis'. Hulme (1923) studied the literature and called it 'statistical bibliography', but the terms were found to essay be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken. Later the term was coined as bibliometrics by and phrases for college essays Pritchard (1969). 3.2 Different Terminologies in Use:- Many attempts have been made to define the career objective essay, term bibliometrics and its analogous terms since the on sexualisation, use of the term 'statistical bibliography' by Hulme (1923), and according to him 'the purpose of statistical bibliography is to throw light on the process of written communication and objective, the nature and course of development of a discipline (in so far as this is displayed through written communication) by means of counting and analyzing its various facets of written communication'. Raising (1962), in his article clearly defined the term statistical bibliography as 'the assembling and essay of children, interpretation of statistics relating to books and periodicals to demonstrate historical movements and to determine national and universal research, use of books and journal, and to ascertain in many local situations the general use of books and career objective essay, journals'. This definition is oasis prize, also treated as one of the essay, classical definitions of on sexualisation of children, bibliometrics. The term Bibliometrics was first coined by Pritchard (1969) in preference to existing terminology 'statistical bibliography' as he felt there is fair likelihood to misinterpret it as bibliometrical methods to books and other media of communication'. According to Fairthorne (1969), statistical bibliography was 'Quantitative treatment of properties of recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to it'.

British Standard Glossary (1976) of documentation explained the term bibliometrics as 'the study of use of career objective essay, documents and patterns of publication in which mathematical and rogerian thesis, statistical methods have been applied' which is essay, basically similar to essay on sexualisation Pritchard's original definition of bibliometrics. Hawkins (1977), in his on-line bibliometrics study interpreted bibliometrics term as 'The quantitative analysis of the bibliographic features of a body of literature'. Nicholas and Ritchie (1978), in their books entitled 'Literature on Bibliometrics' opined that bibliometrics provided information about the structure of knowledge and how it is communicated? They further added that bibliometrics studies fall mainly into two broad groups, describing characteristics or features of a literature (descriptive studies) and those examining the relationship formed between the components of literature (behavioural studies). More recently Plotter (1981) had defined bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship'. Schrader (1981), has also tried to define the term in a more simplified manner and stated that bibliometrics is 'the scientific study of recorded discourse.' Broadus (1987b) presented a historical overview of various definitions of bibliometrics and proposed an alternative definition for bibliometrics. According to him, bibliometrics is the quantitative study of career objective essay, physically published units or of bibliographic units or of surrogates of either. More explicitly Sengupta (1990), defines the term as 'organization, classification and quantitative evaluations along with their authorship by mathematical and statistical calculus'. A more elaborate concept of bibliometrics has been recently explained by Egghe (2000), as 'development and application of mathematical models and techniques to all aspects of communications.' From these definitions it is concluded that statistical bibliography is replaced by on sexualisation bibliometrics and career essay, it means study of measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship by means of using citation studies.

3.3 What is rogerian, Bibliometrics? The term 'bibliometrics' was first used by Pritchard (1969) in objective essay, his article 'Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics' published in the 'Journal of rogerian essay thesis, Documentation'. 'Biblio' means book and career, 'Metric' means a scale or measure. Bibliometric means application of statistical studies in library and information science. According to Pritchard (1969), bibliometrics is defined as 'the application of mathematics and statistical methods to books and other media of communication.' Potter (1981) defines bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication pattern of all forms of oasis dissertation, written communication and career objective essay, their author'. In Bibliometrics and Librametry as an area in which studies 'information process and information handling in libraries and information canters by oasis prize quantitatively analyzing the characteristics and behaviour of documents, library staff, and library users.' The study of career, bibliometrics and Librametry include bibliometric distribution, citation analysis, library use studies, etc. It is also a quantitative study of literatures as reflected in bibliographies. Dissertation Prize! Bibliometrics is the use of quantitative analysis and statistics to describe patterns of publication within a given field or body of career objective, literature. Bibliometrics is a set of methods to quantitatively analyze scientific and technological literature (Bellis 2009). The commonly used bibliometric methods are citation analysis and content analysis. Content analysis or textual analysis is a methodology used in the social sciences for studying the transition and phrases for college, content of communication. Earl Babbie (2010) defines it as the study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws.

According to Farooq Joubish (2011), content analysis is considered a scholarly methodology in objective essay, the humanities by which texts are studied as to authorship, authenticity, or meaning. Rogerian Essay Thesis! Later subject includes were philology, hermeneutics, and semiotics. Lasswell (1951, p.525 ) formulated the core questions of content analysis and stated that 'Who says what, to whom, why, to what extent and with what effect? Ole Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of content analysis as any technique for making inferences by career objective objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages. Kimberly (2002) offers a six-part definition of content analysis:Content analysis is rogerian thesis, a summarizing, quantitative analysis of messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to objectivity, inter subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalisability, replicability, and hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to the types of variables that may be measured or the context in which the messages are created or presented. Garfield (1983) and Richard (2010) defined citation analysis as 'the examination of the frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in articles and essay, books'.

Content analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links to other works or other researchers. Citation analysis is one of the format of thesis, most widely used methods of bibliometrics. Martyn (1976), defined citation analysis as, 'Analysis of the citations or references or both which forms of objective, part of the scholarly publication.' According to Baughman (1974), 'Citation study is a systematic enquiry into the structural properties of the literature of the subject' he explains that the structure of literature is of a good quality. Bibliometric method is most often used in the field of library and information science; as well it has an equal applicability in identify to writing, other areas also. In fact, in many research fields use of bibliometric methods is essay, carried out to explore the impact of their field, the on sexualisation of children, impact of a set of researchers, or the impact of a particular paper etc. Bibliometrics are now used in quantitative research assessment exercises of academic output (Henderson et al 2009). The UK government is considering using bibliometrics as a possible auxiliary tool in essay, its Research Excellence Framework, a process which may assess the quality of the research output of UK universities and on the basis of the assessment results, allocate research funding (http://www.ref.ac.uk/) Bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. Citation analysis, which involves examining an item's referring documents, is used in searching for materials and analyzing their merit. Citation indices, such as Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Science, allow users to career college essay search forward in time from a known article to more recent publications which cite the known item.

Today citation analysis tools are easily available to compute various impact measures for scholars based on data from citation indices. These have various applications, from the identification of expert referees to review papers and career, grant proposals, to providing transparent data in essay of children, support of academic merit review, tenure, and promotion decisions. Nicholas (1978) in his article 'Literature and Bibliometrics' explained the objective essay, importance of citation analysis and goals college essay, its applications in LIS. He pointed out career objective that information scientists and librarians use citation analysis to quantitatively assess the core journal titles and watershed publications(less used or border lined publications) in particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from different institutions and schools of thought; and related data about the academia. Some more pragmatic applications of oasis dissertation, this information includes the planning of retrospective bibliographies, finding the age of material used in a discipline (Half life) , and comparison between use of recent publications versus older ones, comparing the essay, coverage of secondary services which can help publishers gauge their achievements and competition, and can aid librarians in evaluating the effectiveness of their stock. There are also some limitations to the value of career college essay, citation data. They are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected manually (which is expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is required to truly understand the rationale behind citing to allow it to be confidently applied. Thus it is revealed that bibliometric method is very useful to analyze the impact of objective essay, literature in any subject areas and in LIS it is useful to decide the policies for different activities like acquisition, organization, stacking, introduction of new service, ranking of dissertation prize, periodicals, half life of literature in any subject discipline formatting and collection development policies and related policies etc. 3.4 Laws of Bibliometrics:-

The three most commonly used laws in bibliometrics are. 1) Bradford's Law of Scatter: - which describes how the literature of a subject area is distributed in its journals and which forms the basis for calculating how many journals contain a certain percentage of published articles? 2) Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity: - A formula for measuring / predicting the productivity of scientific researchers. 3) Zipf's Law of Word Occurrence: - which describes the frequency of the appearance of certain words or more specifically, suggests that people are more likely to select and use familiar rather than unfamiliar words. Among all these three laws, Bradford's Law is career objective essay, more useful to LIS professionals and related to citation analysis. 3.4.1 Bradford's Law of Scatter:- Bradford (1934), pointed out that if scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of articles on a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and several groups and zones containing the same number of articles as the oasis dissertation prize, nucleus when the objective, number of periodicals in the nucleus and succeeding zones will be 1: n: n2. Rogerian Thesis! Bradford's Law states that journals in a single field can be divided into career, three parts, each containing the same number of articles: * A core of journals on the subject, relatively few in number, that produces approximately one-third of all the articles; * A second zone, containing the same number of articles as the first, but a greater number of journals, and. * A third zone, containing the same number of articles as the second, but a still greater number of journals.

The mathematical relationship of the of thesis, number of journals core to career objective the first zone is a constant n and to goals college essay the second zone the relationship is n. Objective Essay! Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n. Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of geophysics, covering 326 journals in the field. Career Essay! He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and 258 contained 404 articles. Objective Essay! So it took 9 journals to contribute one-third of the articles, 5 times of 9, or 45, to produce the next third, and 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to produce the last third. Career Goals College! Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to librarians in determining the career, number of career essay, core journals in any given field. Bradford's Law is not statistically accurate, but it is still commonly used as a general rule of thumb. 3.4.2 What is career objective, Citation:- Citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source).

More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g. Newell84) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an essay on sexualisation of children entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears. Objective! Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). A prime purpose of a citation is intellectual honesty to attribute prior or unoriginal work and essay thesis, ideas to the correct sources and to allow the reader to determine independently whether the objective, referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way. 3.4.3 What is oasis dissertation, Reference:- Reference is derived from Middle English referren, from Middle French rfrer, from Latin referre, to carry back, formed from the prefix re- and ferre, to objective bear. Format Statement! A large number of objective essay, words derived from this root, including referee, reference, referendum, all retaining the basic meaning of the original Latin as a point, place or source of origin.

A referee is the provider of this source of format of thesis statement, origin, and a referent is the possessor of the source of career objective, origin, whether it is statement, knowledge, matter or energy. Because of its meaning, the word reference is used in every sphere of human knowledge, adopting shades of meaning particular to the contexts in which it is used. References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, space-time coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an career energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of defining references within the scope of the various fields that require an origin, point of departure, or an original form. This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in cryptography. Citations are measured to find the career, different use patterns like author, chronology, geography, subject, forms etc in career, LIS.

An essential part of research papers, particularly in science is the list of references indicating towards prior publications. Ziman (1968) has rightly indicated 'a scientific paper does not stand alone; it is transition words and phrases essays, embedded in career objective essay, the literature of the oasis prize, subject'. Similarly Nann (1976) defines 'A reference is the acknowledgement that one document gives to another; a citation is the career objective essay, acknowledgement that one document receives from another'. Malin (1968) says 'A citation implies a relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' From these statements of stalwarts it is very clear that citation has an importance while publishing scientific or research communications. It is must to cite the author from which data is used. The research activity built on citing papers and using previous knowledge. The use of citation and its study reveals many concepts useful for developing libraries properly. Citation analysis is the area of bibliometrics which deals with the study of their relationships which might be useful for bridging research. Weinstock (1974) identified reasons for citing and quoting references in research study as under. 1. Career College! Giving homage to pioneers. 2. Giving credit for related works (Homage to Press.)

3. Identifying methodology, equipment etc. 4. Providing background reading. 5. Correcting one's own work. 6. Essay! Correcting the work of others. 7. Criticizing previous work and statement, adding quality and innovation.

8. Substantiating claims. 9. Alerting to forthcoming work. 10. Providing leads to poorly disseminated or poorly indexed or uncited work. 11.

Authenticating data and classes of fact-physical constants etc. 12. Identifying original publications in objective essay, which an idea or concept was discussed. 13. Identifying original publication or other work describing a concept or term (e.g.HODGKIN'S Disease Pareto's Law, Friedel-Crafts reaction etc.) 14.

Disclaiming work or ideas of others. (Negative Claims) 15. Disputing priority claims of others. (Negative Homage) Apart from these points references appended in the research study is valid indicator of its significance. The facts stated in the research needs to be supported by earlier citations (studies) and there is always a relation between citing theses or book or an oasis dissertation prize article indicating similarity of the research. 3.4.4 Importance of Citations:- Ziman (1968), Price (1968), Narin (1976), Marin (1968) had opened that citations plays an important role in research. Father they added that scientific paper or scientific research does not go alone, but it is embedded in the subject of literature, as a reference (citation) which is acknowledgement for the use of career essay, information by the another author who cites in his writing. The relation of cited and citing document stating 'a citation implies relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' Citation analysis is the identify the steps a critical, area dealing with the bibliometrics and deals with study of relationship of cited and citing document and such studies are essential to track the scholarly development in any subject field. 3.5 Citation Analysis:- When one author cites another author, a relationship is established.

Citation analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links. Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries. Citations both from and to objective a certain document may be studied. Career Goals! One very common use of citation analysis is to determine the impact of a single author on a given field by counting the career essay, number of oasis prize, times the author has been cited by objective others. One possible drawback of rogerian essay thesis, this approach is that authors may be citing the single author in career objective essay, a negative context (saying that the author doesn't know what s/he's talking about (Osareh 1996). 3.5.1 Co-citation Coupling:-

Co-citation coupling is a method used to establish a subject similarity between two documents. If papers A and B are both cited by dissertation paper C, they may be said to be related to one another, even though they don't directly cite each other. If papers A and B are both cited by many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. The more papers they are cited by, the stronger their relationship is. 3.5.2 Bibliographic Coupling:-

Bibliographic coupling operates on a similar principle, but in a way it is the mirror image of co-citation coupling. Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the same articles, so that if papers A and B both cite paper C, they may be said to be related, even though they don't directly cite each other. Career! The more papers they both cite, the stronger their relationship is. 3.6 Reasons to conduct Bibliometric Studies:- Historically bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. The bibliometric research uses various methods of citation analysis in order to establish relationships between authors or their work.

The Bibliometric studies are conducted to identify the peers, social change and the core journal, etc. indexing and Thesaurus, research, formulating search strategies in case of automated system, comparative assessment of the secondary services, Bibliographic control, preparation of retrospective bibliographic and library Management. Collection development includes planning, implementation and evaluation of collections (Baughman, 1977): Planning is to map information needs, to develop aims and make decisions about priorities. Knowledge about the structure of a subject field and about the information resources used in the field is needed for planning the collection. Bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, co-word analysis and format, co-citation analysis can be used to career essay map the knowledge structure and the use of literature. Implementation of the collection includes library routines, communication and of children, information provision. A working indexing language, which reflects the modern terminology, is needed to organise the collection. Knowledge about the important themes in objective essay, a field gives a base for developing the terminology. These themes are based on the knowledge structure received by bibliometric methods. Collection Evaluation is analysis and assessment of the collection according to its aim and functions. Different bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, analysis of the college, scattering of articles to journals and analysis of the obsolescence of literature are used for this purpose.

Application of bibliometric research identified by Wallace (1989), indicated that the use is for developing libraries. - Improving the objective essay, bibliographic control of literature. - Identifying a core literature especially journals. - Classifying a literature. - Tracing the spread of ideas and growth of a literature. - Improving the efficiency of information handling services.

- Predicting publishing trends and needs. - Describing patterns of book use by patrons. - Developing and evaluating library collections. 3.7 Strengths of Bibliometrics as a Research Approach:- Bibliometric studies are useful and have a quantitative base. The method helps analysis status and strength is in: ' Methods are objective and repeatable. ' Results have a wide range of potential practical value.

' Does not require human subject interaction. ' High reliability in data that are collected unobtrusively, from the goals college essay, published record, and can be easily replicated by others. 3.7.1 Limitations of bibliometrics as a research approach:- Following few limitations of the study are observed by. Results are only career objective valid to extent that citations are assumed to represent significant link between citing and cited documents. ' Technical issues related to data obtained from citation indexes and bibliographies. ' Variations and misspelling of transition essays, author names, authors with same name, incomplete coverage of essay, non-English publications. 3.8 Application of Bradford's Law in oasis dissertation, Library and Information Science Research:- Bradford's law is used to solve problems in journal collection management as well as resource development in any libraries.

The basic concept is to conduct Bradford analyses of journals i.e. to sort the journals in Bradford zones and thus identify which belong to the core and which does not. Any Bradford analysis involves three steps. 1. Identify many or all items (usually articles) published in this field; 2. List the sources (usually journals) that publish the articles (or items) in career essay, rank order beginning with the source that produces the words essays, most items; 3. While retaining the order of the sources, divide this list into groups (or zones) so that the number of items produced by each group of sources is about the same. The 'most obvious potentials' of Bradford analyses are: ' Defining the career essay, core. ' The law of diminishing returns. ' Calculation of cost based on various coverage. ' Setting priorities among journals. Bradford's law is used to solve practical problems related to information seeking and essay of children, retrieval. Objective! An automatic option for sorting the output from of thesis, online searches of journal literature, which he argued would help online users. 'Computerized sorting of hits by the journals in which they appear, and then of journals, high to low, by the number of hits appearing in each'.

Special libraries and career essay, information officers make good use of data generated using bibliometric techniques in selecting and maintaining collections of the most needed serials. Bradford's law, Lotka's law, Zipf's law, and citation analysis have contributed to the steps to writing a critical the effective operation of special libraries' From the career objective essay, various studies it is analysed major thrust areas of research in Library and Information Science are using application of format, bibliometrics and the reasons are: 1. Identify the quantum and structure literature on a specific subject during a particular period. 2. Career Objective Essay! Examine the growth literature output in a subject during a period of time. 3. Identify the source and country-wise distribution of research literature in a particular subject. 4. Compare and measure the growth rate of literature on a particular subject in various countries. 5. Analyze the authorship pattern of literature on a particular subject published from college essay, various countries.

6. Analyze the degree of single versus multiple author publication and study the trend in authorship pattern. 7. Apply Lotka's authorship productivity concepts on the frequency distribution of essay, authorship productivity. 8. Track the development of research literature on a particular subject and its language of publication during the period of coverage and analyze the the steps essay, trend in the language of publication. 9. Study the language of the publication in objective, the context of quantum of pages. 10. Study the frequency distribution of applications in the context of country-wise breakdown. 11. Analyze quantitatively the annual literature output on a specific subject. 12. Identify the variety of research publication on a particular subject.

13. Analyze the trend among the of children, various types of publication. The recent developments and methods used and developed the techniques: 3.8.1 The impact factor:- The impact factor, often abbreviated as IF, is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to articles published in science and career essay, social science journals. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. In case of journals with higher impact factors deemed to career goals college be more important than those of lower ones.

The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now part of Thomson Reuters. Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and listed in . In a given year, the essay, impact factor of a journal is the average number of citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years.[ For example, if a journal has an impact factor of 3 in 2008, then its papers published in 2006 and 2007 received 3 citations each on average in 2008. The 2008 impact factor of identify the steps to writing a critical response, a journal would be calculated as follows, 2008 impact factors are actually published in 2009; they cannot be calculated until all of the 2008 publications have been processed by the indexing agency. A = the number of times articles published in career objective, 2006 and 2007 were cited by indexed journals during 2008. B = the total number of citable items published by that journal in 2006 and 2007. (Citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B. If is used by transition and phrases for college many libraries as a tool for selecting Journals for subscription, similarly researcher try to contribute in using it journals for credits. New journals, which are indexed from their first published issue, will receive an impact factor after two years of indexing; in this case, the citations to the year prior to objective Volume 1, and the number of articles published in the year prior to Volume 1 are known zero values.

Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the of children, first volume will not get an impact factor until they have been indexed for three years. Annuals and other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in a particular year, affecting the count. The impact factor relates to a specific time period; it is possible to calculate it for any desired period, and the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor. The JCR shows rankings of journals by impact factor, by discipline such as organic chemistry or psychiatry. Career Essay! The terminology used later and becomes popular is Infometrics which covers: The h-index is an index that attempts to measure both the productivity and impact of the published work of a scientist or scholar.

The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications. Statement! The index can also be applied to the productivity and impact of a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country. The index was suggested by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist, as a tool for determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and career objective essay, is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The h-index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools. Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and the Web of Knowledge provide automated calculators. Harzing's (2011) Publish or Perish program calculates the h-index based on Google Scholar entries. In July 2011 Google trialed a tool which allows a limited number of dissertation prize, scholars to keep track of their own citations and also produces a h-index and an i10-index (Google Scholar Blog, 2011), the I10 index indicates the number of academic papers an career author has written that have at least ten citations from others.

It was introduced in July 2011 by prize Google as part of their work on Google scholar. A search engine dedicated to academic and related papers. Each database is career objective, likely to produce a study different h for oasis the same scholar, because of different coverage: Google Scholar has more citations than Scopus and Web of objective, Science but the smaller citation collections tend to be more accurate. In addition, specific databases, such as the Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) can automatically calculate h-index for researchers working in transition and phrases, High Energy Physics. Infometrics is the study of quantitative aspects of information. This includes the objective, production, dissemination and for college essays, use of all forms of information, regardless of objective essay, its form or origin. Statement! As such, infometrics encompasses the fields of. ' Scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of science; ' Webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the World Wide Web; ' Cybermetrics, which is similar to webometrics, but broadens its definition to include electronic resources; ' Bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of recorded information.

Scientometrics and webometrics are the latest methods. Scientometrics covers quantitative fashion of the development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research. ' Emphasizes investigations in which the development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research is studied by means of (statistical) mathematical methods. ' Publishes original studies, short communications, preliminary reports, review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. ' Includes the objective, Journal of Research Communication Studies.

Scientometrics is concerned with the quantitative features and identify the steps to writing response essay, characteristics of science and scientific research. Emphasis is placed on investigations in which the objective, development and mechanism of science are studied by statistical mathematical methods. Essay! The journal publishes original studies, short communications, and preliminary reports, and review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. Due to its fully interdisciplinary character, the journal is indispensable to career research workers and research administrators. It provides valuable assistance to librarians and format statement, documentalists in central scientific agencies, ministries, research institutes and laboratories. Scientometrics includes the objective, Journal of Research Communication Studies. Consequently its aims and scope cover that of the latter, namely, to bring the results of such investigations together in transition words and phrases, one place. Bibliometrics and scientometrics are two closely related approaches to measuring scientific publications and science in general, respectively. In practice, much of the work that falls under this header involves various types of citation analysis, which looks at career objective, how scholars cite one another in publications. Rogerian! This data can show quite a bit about networks of scholars and objective, scholarly communication, links between scholars, and the development of areas of knowledge over essay time. Bibliometrics are also one of the key ways of measuring the impact of scholarly publications.

If an article is published in a journal with a high impact factor, which is determined in career essay, part by the number of college, citations to articles within a particular journal, this raises the publishing profile of the author. The number of citations to that article over time is also a key measure of the productivity and the impact of that scholar. These techniques are very well developed for traditional citations among journal articles, but are much less clear for new types of outputs, including data sets, websites, and digitized collections. For items such as these, when researchers have used the materials to support their publications, they often don't have clear methods available to them to cite the material. Many of the style guides do not have clear guidance for how to cite a database, for instance, or whether to cite a digitized resource in a way to identify its digital location, or that cites the original item, whether or not the researcher actually consulted it. 3.9.2 Webometrics (Cyber metrics):- The concept of webometrics is based on bibliometrics, because like the bibliometrics study, one can measure the different quantitative aspect of the web in webometrics study. Essay! Secondly it is based on Infometrics. The Infometrics study is such type of study, which measures the quantitative aspect of any type of information and through webometrics study one can get the information about web (web site). That's why the statement, above phrase is used. The science of webometrics (also Cyber metrics) tries to career objective essay measure the World Wide Web to get knowledge about the career college, number and types of hyperlinks, structure of the World Wide Web and usage patterns.

According to Bjrneborn and Ingwersen (2004), the definition of webometrics is the study of the quantitative aspects of the construction and use of information resources, structures and technologies on the Web drawing on bibliometric and Infometrics approaches. The term webometrics was first coined by objective Almind and Ingwersen (1997). Rogerian Essay! A second definition of webometrics has also been introduced as the study of web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals using techniques that are not specific to objective one field of study (Thelwall, 2009), which emphasizes the rogerian essay thesis, development of career, applied methods for use in the wider social sciences. The purpose of this alternative definition was to help and publicize appropriate methods outside the information science discipline rather than to replace the original definition within information science. Similar scientific fields are bibliometrics, infometrics, scientometrics, virtual ethnography, and web mining. One relatively straightforward measure is the Web Impact Factor (WIF) introduced by Ingwersen (1998). The WIF measure may be defined as the number of web pages in rogerian essay thesis, a web site receiving links from other web sites, divided by the number of web pages published in the site that are accessible to the crawler. Essay! However the use of oasis prize, WIF has been disregarded due to the mathematical artifacts derived from power law distributions of these variables. Other similar indicators using size of the objective, institution instead of number of web pages have been proved more useful. There is career goals, one electronic journal, Cyber metrics published since 1997 by the Spanish National Research Council that is devoted entirely to essay this discipline.

Cyber metrics is a branch of knowledge which employs mathematical and on sexualisation of children, statistical techniques of quantity web sites or their components and concepts, measure their growth, stability, propagation, and use examines the authenticity of career objective, content, establish laws governing these factors, studies the efficiency of cyber information services and systems, services and products and assesses the impact of cyber age on society. Citations in scholarly works are used to of thesis statement establish links to other works. It is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics and studies reference to and from documents Gooden (2001). The benefit of bibliometrics and citation analysis is expressed by Van Raan (2003), which is reinforced by the studies (Lal and Panda, 1996, Aksnes 2006) that have used this method of research enquiry to evaluate a library collection. Citation analysis reveals interesting information about knowledge producers in terms their information seeking behaviour and career essay, usage of various information sources. It can highlight the familiarity, awareness and usage of knowledge producers regarding the online and oasis dissertation, print information sources.

Citation analysis examines the frequency, patterns and graphs of citations in articles and books (Garfield, 1983). This chapter satisfy the objective set for the study i.e. 'To study the significance of citations as well as citation study and bibliometrics'. This chapter elaborates the detailed study of citations, reference, need of citation study and laws etc. ' Aksnes, D.W. (2006), Citation rates and perceptions of scientific contribution. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(2), p.169-185. ' Bellis, De Nicola (2009).

Bibliometrics and citation analysis: from the Science citation index to Cybermetrics. Scarecrow Press, p.417. Career Objective! ISBN 0-8108-6713-3. Located at http://books.google.com/books/about/Bibliometrics_and_citation_analysis.html?id=ma4YjaKyM9cC accessed on 23.08.2011. ' Bhughman J C (1974), A structural analysis of the literature of sociology, Library Quarterly, Vol. 44 (Oct), p.293-308. ' Birger Hjrland and Jeppe Nicolaisen 'Bradford's Law of Scattering: Ambiguities in the Concept of Subject Royal School of Library and Information Science, Birketinget 6, DK-2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark @db.dk.

' Bradford, S.C. Sources of information on specific subjects. Rogerian! Engineering, 1934, 137 (3550), p.85-86. ' British Standards Institution. British standards of documentation terms. BSI; London; 1976, p.7.

' Broadus R N (1987a), early approaches to bibliometrics, journal of the American society for career essay information science, 38, p.127-129. ' Cole, F J and Eales Nellie B (1917), the history of comparative anatomy: a statistical analysis of the literature, Science Progress (11), p.578-596. ' Earl Babbie (2010), the words and phrases essays, practice of social research, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9. ' Egghe L (2000), Lectures Potter, W G (1981) Introduction to Bibliometrics. Library Trends Vol 30, p.5. ' Egghe L (2000).

A heuristic study of the first-citation distribution. Scientometrics 48(3), p.345-359. ' Fairthorne, R. Objective! A. (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for oasis dissertation bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319'343. ' Fairthrone R A (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions for bibliometric description and career objective essay, prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319. ' Farooq Joubish and thesis, Ashraf Khurram (2011), outlook on some concepts in objective, the curriculum of goals college essay, social studies, World Applied Science Journal 12(9), p.1374-1377. ISSN 1818-4952. ' Garfield, E (1974), Citation Indexing: Its theory and application in science, Technology and career, Humanities, New York, Wiley, ' Garfield, E. (1983). Citation Indexing - Its Theory and oasis, Application in Science, Technology and Humanities. Essay! Philadelphia: ISI Press. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from Located at http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ci/contents.pdf. accessed on oasis dissertation prize, 12.04.2011. ' Garfield, E.(1983) Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities Philadelphia's Press.

' Gooden, A.M. (2001). Citation analysis of chemistry doctoral dissertations: An Ohio State University case study. Retrieved October 13, 2008 Located at career objective, http://www.istl.org/01-fall/refereed.html accessed on 27.12.2011. ' Google scholar blog (2011), Google scholar citations open to essay thesis all, Google. Objective Essay! Located at http//en.wikipedia.ogr/wiki/I10-index accessed on 03.09.2011. ' Hawkins D T (1977), Unconventional uses of on-line information retrieval system on oasis dissertation, line British metric studies. Journal of American society for objective information science, 28(1), p.13-18. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. The Steps A Critical Response! (2009).

The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at career essay, small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. Essay On Sexualisation Of Children! 3, p.149'167. ' Higher Education Funding Council for career England, Located at http://www.hefce.ac.uk/Research/ref/. and http://www.ref.ac.uk/ accessed on 12th May 2012. ' Hjreppe, P (1982), Supplement to bibliography bibliometrics and citation indexing, 4, p.241-273. ' Hjreppe, R (1980), a bibliography of bibliometrics an identify the steps to writing a critical dictation indexing and analysis, Royal institute of Technology library, Stockholm, Sweden. Located at http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/ palmquis/courses/biblio.html#Laws and http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics accessed on 25.08.2012. ' Hulme, E.W. Essay! (1923), Statistical Bibliography in Relation to the Growth of Modern Civilization, Grafton, London. p9. ' Kannappanavar, B U (1991), Citation analysis of the doctoral dissertation in library and career goals college essay, information science accepted by the universities in Karnataka, Karnataka University, Dharwad, p. 88. (Ph. D Thesis) ' Lal, A., Panda, S (1996). Research in plant pathology: A bibliometric analysis.

Library Science with a Slant to career essay Documentation and Information Studies, 33(3), p.135-147. ' Lasswell Harold (1951), the essay on sexualisation of children, analysis of political behavior: An empirical approach, Rautledge, London, p.525. ' Lotka A J (1926), the frequency distribution of scientific productivity, Journal of the objective essay, Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 16 (12), p.317-323. ' Malin M V (1968), the science citation index: A new concept in prize, Indexing, Library trends, Vol.

16, p. 376. ' Martin, M U (1968), Science citation index: A new concept in indexing, Library Trends, Vol. 16, p.376. ' Martyn L A (1976), Use studies in career objective, library planning, Library Trends 24(30). ' Nann F et al (1976), Evaluative bibliometrics: The use of publications and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, cherry Hill, N J, Computer Horizon Inc, p.334-337. ' Narin, Francis and et. Al. (1976), evaluative bibliometrics: the rogerian, use of publication and citation analysis in career, the evaluation of scientific activity, Cherry Hill, New Jercy, Computer Horizon Inc. p.334-337. ' Neuendorf, Kimberly A. (2002), the essay thesis, Content Analysis Guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978), Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.28-29.

' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978). Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.12-28. ' Ole R. Holsti (1969(, Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ' Potter W G (1981), Introduction to bibliometrics, Library Trends, Vol. 30, p.5. ' Pritchard A (1969), Statistical bibliography an interim bibliography, New Western Polytechnic school of Librarianship, London. ' Pritchard A (1969), statistical bibliography; an interim bibliography, North-western polytechnic, school of Librarianship, p.60. ' Pritchard, A and Witting, G R (1960), Bibliometrics: A bibliography and index (1874-1959), Aaih Books, Westford, ' Raising L (1962), Statistical bibliography in the health sciences, Bulletin the medical library Association, 50, p.450-461.

' Ranganathan S. R. (1969) Librametry and its scope. DRTC Seminar (7) paper DA Bangalore: DRTC, ISI and objective essay, Sarada Ranganathan Endowment of Library Science. Reprinted in : JISSI : The International Journal of Scientometrics and essay, Infometrics; Vol.1, No.1 (1995), p.15-21. (ISSN-0971-6696) ' Rubin, Richard (2010). Foundations of library and information science (3rd ed.). New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55570-690-6. Objective! Accessed at http://books.google.com/books?id=Pk1TSAAACAAJ accessed on rogerian essay thesis, 09.02.2012. ' Von Sara Ungern-Sternberg Applications in teaching bibliometrics, PhD, Senior lecturer, Abo Akademi University, Department of Library and Information Science, FINLAND.

' Schrader, Alvin M. (1981) Teaching Bibliometrics, Library Trends 30, p.151-172. ' Sengupta I N (1990), Bibliometrics and its application in career objective, information science and rogerian, libraries, Atlantic, New Delhi, p.256. ' Swapna Kumar Patra and Prakash Chand (2006), 'Library and objective essay, Information science Research in India: a Bibliometric Study' Annals of Library and Information Studies, Vol 53, December, p.219-223. ' Van Raan, A.F.J. (2003). The use of bibliometric analysis in research performance assessment and monitoring of interdisciplinary scientific developments. Technikfolgenabschatzung, Theories und Praxis/ Technology Assessment- Theory and Practice, 12(1), p.20-29. ' Weinstock M (1974), Citation Index, Encyclopedia of library and information science, Vol.5, New York, Dekker, p.19. ' Ziman John M (1968), Public knowledge: An essay concerning the the steps to writing response, social dimension of science, Cambridge, Cambridge university press, p.58. ' Zipf, G. K. (1949) 'Human Behavior and the Principle of career essay, Least Effort' Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley Publishing co, p.34. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in of thesis statement, LIS. Chapter/ Section Description Pages.

4.1 Introduction 104. 4.2 LIS Education : Global Overview 104. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India 105. 4.4 Historical Development 107. 4.5 Present Scenario of LIS Education in India 108. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education 109. 4.7 Levels of Education 110. 4.8 First Course of Library Science in India (Certificate, Diploma and Training Courses) 112. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma Courses 113.

4.10 Degree Courses 114. 4.11 Documentation Research and essay, Training Centre (DRTC) 114. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS 115. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India 115. 4.14 Specialization 116. 4.15 Syllabus 116. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part 116. 4,17 Practical Exposure 117.

4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research 117. 4.19 LIS Research in India 117. 4.20 LIS Research: Global Overview 119. 4.21 Research Trend in Indian Universities 128. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS.

Higher education in each country has its own unique form of system and varies from streams or branches of knowledge. Higher education is imparted by universities and in colleges having equal facilities. Academics in higher education plays an important role in a critical, making the society strong as stated different policies are adopted in different countries similarly LIS is a specific subject discipline which support in all educational branches through library systems. Schools of library science provide useful professional education universally and develop library and information professionals to manage the libraries efficiently. The LIS schools have more emphasis towards developing technical and managerial skills through the LIS education. Following paragraphs briefly narrated the status of LIS education. 4.2 LIS Education: Global Overview: Tsuji et al (2006), pointed out it in his study that the main theme in LIS education Japan was developed qualified librarians (Shisho) and assistant librarians (Shisho-ho) for essay public libraries and as well as qualified teacher librarian (shisho-kyouyu) for school libraries. There is no formal education system for academic and special libraries. Oasis! In education field life line learning, library management, information reference service, information retrieval, library organization, copy right, information literacy etc. were more focused. Wilson (2012), in his article 'Fifty years of LIS education' in career objective essay, USA and conducted a survey of research productivity and LIS educators during the period 1959-2008.

Author narrated the progress of LIS education in USA and stated that prior to 1960s practicing librarians were teaching LIS education according to syllabus and examination conducted by library associations and similar status was also in Australia and Library Association Australia (now Australia library and of thesis, information association (ALIA) was taking care of the education system.. Latter LIS education moved to objective essay higher education institute since 1980. Chu (2006) in his paper 'Curricula of essay, LIS programs in career objective, the USA: A content analysis' in which the syllabi was reviewed by essay author from 45 ALA accredited LIS master programs in USA. This study brought to the notice that more elective courses offered in LIS education in USA, while number of core requirement is reduced to few. Author has also pointed that 10% of the objective, LIS courses in USA are designed in such a way to words for college deal will emerging subject and objective essay, latest development in the field of LIS. Thus subjects covered in the syllabus deals with knowledge organization, reference and information sources services, management, research in LIS, ICT, collection development, information use etc. As indicated by author in USA education system is transition and phrases for college, giving more emphasis on career objective essay, elective subject like ICT, librarianship, resources and services, technical services etc. to manage latest situation. Now LIS courses clusters were introduced, which covers: - Information seeking behaviour. - Digital publishing etc. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India:- LIS education in essay, India is completing a century of its existence during the period progress have been achieved in objective, developing LIS education to tune with current practices.

Radhakrishanan Commission, Kothari Commission, National Knowledge Commission, UGC, NAAC put more efforts in education sector including LIS by establishing advisory commission for libraries, national policy for library etc. Career! Curriculum Development Commission (CDC) continues grading and objective, upgraded of LIS education in India. Rogerian Essay Thesis! The progress from certificate courses to research level through regular and distance mode took leading developing education in India (Joshi, 2010). There has been enormous growth in education and higher education around the career objective, globe. Every country worth its name and transition, has developed a system of education and infrastructure to educate its people, and India is no exception. There has been a fast growth in institution of higher education since the dawn of twentieth century and more particularly, after India attained independence in 1947. The new India started its development program to achieve the new educational, cultural and economic objectives at the national level. Such developments at career, these institutions contributed to the development of more libraries, which in dissertation, turn had to accept new responsibilities to meet society's changing needs and objective, demands. Libraries are recognized to career goals college play an important role in education, scientific research and social-economic development of a country. This envisages the need for professionally qualified personnel to career essay manage and run the libraries and information centres effectively and efficiently.

In order to identify the steps a critical essay feed the growing number of libraries, more trained library professionals were needed. For this purpose, library science departments started springing up, and library science developed into a distinct field of specialization with its own normative principles, theories, techniques, and career, practices that were deemed sufficient to meet the growing dimensions of library services. Handling of recorded knowledge in essay thesis, modern libraries has given birth to the functional aspects of collecting, organizing and promoting the use of career objective, reading materials relevant to the users through information transfer activities. These activities, no doubt, assist in defining the spectrum of studies for librarianship. Words For College! The basic tenet of LIS education is to career essay provide balanced training, integrating theory with practical exercises, and to cover all aspects of essay of children, professional work with equal emphasis embracing new frontier of librarianship. LIS education aims at providing trained manpower to manage different types of libraries, information and documentation centres which, over objective a period of time have undergone changes in terms of needs, functions, types and range of response essay, services offered as well as tools and techniques being used when offering the services. Research in library and career, information science in India is essays, not deep rooted. Career Objective Essay! In the beginning it was in the form of a trial and oasis dissertation prize, error method. It was Padamashree S R Ranganathan (1889-1972) father of objective, library science who lifted trail librarianship to the level of format, a science with the formulation of laws of library science, and establishment library schools and research centres. He even graded them as normative principles, fundamental laws, canons, principles and postulates. Essay! Ranganathan cut new grounds and blazed new practices in library and information science initially by solo research.

This is evidence from the oasis dissertation, published literature that Ranganathan era's is characterized by career objective essay a period of intellectual contribution to the library and information science, particularly library classification. The root of the library and information science research in India were off shoots from the country first LIS intellectual workshop (i.e., Department of Library and Information Science, University of Delhi) instituted by Dr S R Ranganathan a day of library science profession in India in 1946. Oasis Dissertation! The first research degree in the library and information science in the country and even in the commonwealth countries was awarded by the University of Delhi in 1957 to D B Krishna Rao for his thesis 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the supervision of Dr. S R Ranganathan. 4.4 Historical Development:- The modern period in the history of education for librarianship began in the mid-1800s as librarians around the world recognized that systematic education and training were required so that proper order could be brought to the collections that had been growing in career objective essay, all libraries.

The need for professionally qualified personnel to manage these libraries effectively and efficiently was duly recognized during the first half of the present and consequently, the library education programme had been started at several places much before Independence. The history of the education of library science in India may be traced far back as the prize, year of 1911 with the starting of a short term training programme in career essay, library science in the Baroda State, under the patronage of Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda, who, impressed by the splendid work done by public libraries in the West, secured the oasis dissertation, services of an career objective essay American librarian Mr. W. A. Borden as Director of the State Library Department. Mr. Bordon had been a pupil of Mr. Melvil Dewey, who established the first library school in the Columbia College, New York in 1887. In 1915, another student of Dewey, Mr. A Dickenson, the then librarian of Punjab University, Lahore started a three months apprentice training programme for working librarians. Before Independence, only a critical essay five universities namely the objective, Andhra University, Banaras Hindu University, Calcutta University and essay, Madras University were offering diploma course in library science. Library education was given a new status and design by Professor S. Objective! R. Ranganathan in 1920, when the first systematic programme in library education was started under the auspices of the Madras Library Association in collaboration with the Madras University. This library school was subsequently taken over by the Madras University in 1931 and in 1937 the course was converted into Postgraduate (PG) Diploma in dissertation prize, Library Science.

This was the first diploma programme in Library Science in India. University of Delhi was the first university to essay establish a full-fledged Department of Library Science just before independence in 1946, and started admitting students to the PG Diploma in 1947. In 1951, the diploma was changed to Master in Library Science (M.Lib.Sc). Essay Of Children! Later, between 1956 to 1959, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, M.S.University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. Since 1960s, the number of LIS departments has continued to increase. Objective! After Independence the stimulus for the growth and development of libraries and library science education has come from the progress in on sexualisation, and extension of education, scientific research and programmes of socio-economic development which started in 1951 with the commencement of the First Five-Year Plan. As a result of these developments, Library and Information Science today is a well-recognized discipline of study and research at the post-graduate level in more than hundred universities in the country. The Baroda and Nagpur universities started training course in library science in 1956 and the Vikram University in 1957. 4.5 Present scenario of essay, LIS Education in India:- Since its inception decades ago, LIS education has grown and developed into identify to writing essay, a full-fledged multi-disciplinary subject.

LIS courses at bachelors, masters and research level are being impacted by different institutions ' university departments, colleges, library associations and specialized institutions. There are now 96 universities in India imparting Library and Information Science education as independent departments in objective, different levels. The list is shown in appendix. Apart from these departments, there are also specialized RD organizations imparting library and response, information science education. Worth mentioning is the two years Associateship in objective, Documentation and Information Science (ADIS) imparted by Documentation Research and Training Institute (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (Karnataka) and National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) formerly INSDOC, New Delhi which is equivalent to Mater degree of Library and Information Science (LIS). In addition to, these universities/departments there are several other open universities imparting library education as distance education. The professional associations such as Delhi Library Association (DLA) and the polytechnic institutions throughout the country are also imparting LIS education as lower level such as Certificate/Diploma in Library and Information Science. Identify The Steps To Writing Essay! With the realization of the importance of higher education and research, research in Library education is not lagging behind like other disciplines. The University Grants Commission (UGC) and the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) are promoting to research activity in library and objective essay, information science by awarding scholarships to essay of children research and objective essay, doctoral students. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education:- The goal of library and transition words essays, information science education is the career essay, preparation of personnel for the task of successful performance at different levels of competence in rogerian essay thesis, different types of libraries with an insight into the role of these libraries in a fast changing society.

It should impart a thorough grounding in the intellectual foundations of the profession and competence in career, the technical and identify response, technological skills required for their day-to-day practice in different positions. Career Objective Essay! In other words, education for library and information science should be both knowledge and theory oriented task or practice oriented. The two aspects of theory and practice blend harmoniously in a sound programme of for college, library and career objective essay, information science education because on this aspects LIS education depend the effectiveness and success of the programme. In achieving this objective the methods of teaching and evaluation employed are as important as the quality of the essay thesis, faculty. The main objectives of LIS profession are to provide training for building up leadership qualities among the LIS profession develop knowledge on the latest techniques of information storage, transfer and retrieval of information help to career acquire necessary skills in handling information, accessing and application of electronic resources, tools and media; and help to know the latest developments in the Information Technology (IT) To sum up, the basic aims of library and information science education may be as follows. ' To develop necessary technical skills; ' To develop administrative skills; ' To develop service orientation; ' To develop thorough knowledge of format of thesis, various sources of information, necessary to give traditional and modern library services. ' To develop professional awareness. 4.7 Levels of Education:-

Out of the 96 university departments, 56 departments conduct one-year Bachelors degree and objective essay, one year Masters Degree in Library and Information Science at the postgraduate level. Thirteen of these universities conduct two years integrated Masters Degree in Library Science. These programme further leads to M.Phil. and PhD levels. The levels of LIS education in India are discussed as follows in essay on sexualisation, brief: 1.7.1 Certificate/Diploma in Library Science (C/D. Lib. Sc.):- Many polytechnic colleges, schools and Library Associations impart the low level of library science courses in India having duration of six months to one year. The basic qualification for career objective essay these courses is 10+2. This course prepares students for low level professional positions in libraries such as Library Attendant, Library Clerk, etc.

1.7.2 Bachelor of Library and Information Science (BLIS) after any graduation:- This is a one-year post graduate degree course. The basic eligibility is a three years degree from any discipline. This course prepares students for junior professional positions at all types of libraries and they perform technical libraries. 1.7.3 Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS):- In the early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by working under the more experienced practitioners. But, gradually the tasks performed by librarians became more complex and transition words and phrases for college, more dependent on technology. As a result, the career objective essay, study of format of thesis statement, library science has moved from the objective, work-setting to professional schools in dissertation, Universities. The first ever library school was started by career essay Melvil Dewey in USA in 1887 at Columbia College (now Columbia University). In 1889 the programme moved to the New York State Library in essay thesis, Albany when Dewey became the Director there. The success of Dewey's training programme and the publication of Training for Library Service, a book by the economist Charles Williamson in objective essay, 1923, led other universities, institutes of technology, and large public libraries to establish their own professional degree programmes in library science.

Master of Library and Information Science is imparted as a one-year post graduate degree course in some universities while in some, it is on sexualisation of children, conducted as a two years integrated course. Many universities which offered one year BLISc and MLISc courses are now switching to two years integrated MLIS course in the line of other masters degree courses. The North East Hill University (NEHU), RTM Nagpur, Punjab University Chandigarh, Karnataka University, Dharwad, etc are now offering two years MLISc course. This course trains persons for senior professional position in libraries, documentation centres and/or information centres and teachers as well. 1.7.4 Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS):- The Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore (Karnataka) offers two years Associateship in Documentation and objective, Information Science (Now know as Master of Science in Information Science). The National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi , formerly INSDOC also impart two years documentation programme i.e., Associateship in Documentation (AID) after graduation. The course offered by the DRTC and NISCAIR have upper age on the courses as offered by the university departments in terms of ICT syllabus and intake of the enrolments.

1.7.5 Master of Philosophy in Library and Information Science (M.Phil):- In Library and Information Science prepares a student for essay further advanced research in objective essay, LIS. The basic eligibility for admission for this programme is minimum 55% MLISc or any equivalent degree recognized by the UGC. With candidates having more qualifications are being preferred for format of thesis superior position, many students are opting for M.Phil. Courses to better equip them for better positions and develop research activity. 1.7.6 Doctor of Philosophy of career, Library and Information Science:- This is an advanced level of research programme being offered after the completion of MLISc or M.Phil.

The general aim of goals, a research degree, whether M.Phil. or Ph.D. is to provide training in career objective essay, doing research as well as to develop in the candidate a critical and analytical process of thinking with the of thesis, purpose that they would be able to provide leadership in career essay, the profession. They would also be able to help librarians and information scientists to develop techniques and rogerian thesis, skills required to meet their requirements of the fast changing society. They should be able to identify the objective, needs, set objectives, identify and analyze the problems and find appropriate solutions. They would also be in a position to participate in the planning, organization and implementation of programmes at words for college, various levels. 1.8 First Course of essay, Library Science in India(Certificate, Diploma and Training courses):- In India the existence of in service training was initiated by John Macfarlane, the essay, first librarian of the Imperial Library (Now National Library) at Calcutta from 1901-06, as mentioned in some reports.

In subsequent years, the training programme was opened to the staff of other libraries and career, even those interested in librarianship who deals with books and rogerian essay, other documents. 1.8.1 Baroda School:- In 1911, Sayajirao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the ruler of Baroda state called the American librarian Mr. William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of career objective essay, Melvil Dewey to create a cadre of men for format of thesis statement the newly established libraries in the state library system. In 1912, he initiated the first training school in objective essay, library education in India. In 1913, another training class for working librarians of town libraries was started. These classes continued even after the departure of Borden.

1.8.2 Lahore School:- In 1912, the Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Asa Don Dickinson (1876'1960) from statement, USA. He started the second educational course of three month duration in library science in the year 1915. Career Objective Essay! This happens to be the first university course in India. Career Goals College! Mr. Asa Don Dickinson later becomes the Librarian of essay, Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915'1916.

1.8.3 Andhra Desha:- The Andhra Desha Library Association (founded in 1914) started conducting 'training classes for the library workers' at Vijayawada in 1920. The classes covered a module on running adult education classes in addition to library technique. 1.8.4 Mysore State:- In 1920, a course for the training of librarians was conducted at format of thesis, Bangalore under the objective, 'program of library development' initiated by the then Dewan of Mysore Mr. M. Visweswaraya. 1.8.5 Madras Library Association:- A summer school for college librarians and lecturers in charge of college libraries in Madras was held in 1928 and repeated in 1930.

The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from 1929. Then in 1931, University of Madras took up the rogerian, training course of MALA in 1931 and career objective, started offering the course on a regular basis. 1.8.6 Andhra University:- Andhra University started a certificate course in 1935, which was letter abandoned. 1.8.7 Imperial Library, Calcutta:- The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the supervision of oasis dissertation, its librarian Mr. K. Career Objective! M. Asudulah in 1935. It was a full time regular Diploma course in librarianship at the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata). It continued till 1946.

4.9 Post Graduate Diploma courses:- University of Madras, in 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in place of the certificate course of three month duration. This was the first P G Diploma in library science in India. The second university to start a post graduate diploma course was the Banaras Hindu University in 1942. University of of thesis statement, Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to Banaras Hindu University in 1943.

A training course for the staff working in various government organizations was started in objective, 1953. This course was recognized as equivalent to the university diploma courses. 4.10 Degree Courses:- In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib. Science Course for the first time in the country. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full fledged Department of Library Science in 1946. It also instituted the first post diploma degree course in 1948. In 1949, the structure was changed. The programme of Master of Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the first year leading to Bachelor of the steps to writing, Library Science. In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and career objective essay, Vikram University. Identify Response Essay! In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to B.Lib.Sc.

Degree course. By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of university of Madras following the recommendation of Review Committee Report of essay, UGC in introducing different degree courses. The Government Polytechnique for women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, and goals college, Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of two years duration in late 1960s. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Previously DRTC courses were of 14 month duration which was later on moved to two years programme. INSDOC conducted a short term course for Asian Documentalists in 1963. In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in objective essay, Documentation and Reprography leading to 'Associateship in Documentation and Reprography'. In 1977, the programme was renamed as 'Associateship in Information Science (AIS)'.

On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the prize, National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM) and was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR). At present, it is conducting 'Courses in Information Science'. The DRTC and NISCAIR concentrate on the training of professionals for special and objective, industrial libraries and information centres. Their course contents are biased toward information science and technology. The programme of these two institutes are class apart from other similar programmes offered by various institutes. In India advanced professional education has remained attached to universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of a few months duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in library science to train paraprofessionals.

At present, about 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and polytechnics, have library science education courses. Out of these, M. Lib. I. Sc. course is being offered by more than 75 universities. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS:- In 2010, University of Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in rogerian, Library and Information Science and thus becomes the first university to launch such course in LIS domain. The entry qualification for this course was set at Higher Secondary (10+2) in Arts / Science or Commerce. Launching of this course will force the learners to choose the LIS by choice and career objective, not by chance. It will again help the students to grasp and understand the contents for LIS in a better and on sexualisation, exhaustive way. 4.13 Present Status of career, LIS Education in on sexualisation, India:- Only few departments and associations now provide Certificate Courses in Library and Information Science (CLIS) and Diploma in Library and Information Science (DLIS).

The others provide BLISc and objective essay, MLISc courses. In most of the universities, the prerequisite for admission into the Bachelor or Master degree course in words for college, Library and Information Science is 10+2+3 years of education from any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). Objective Essay! The majority of the essay, universities generally conduct two separate courses for the Bachelor's degree followed by the Master of Library and Information Science of one year (or two semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated courses of four semester duration. The University of Calcutta went a step ahead and introduced five years integrated course in LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Similarly IGNOU and YCMOU are also playing major role in imparting LIS education along with deemed and formal universities. Students in most schools of library and information science have the opportunity to develop at least some degree of specialization. Some may take advanced courses in particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to a particular type of library, such as a course in medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship.

In simple, there are many different courses available in LIS. It makes the professionals available to work at all levels of career objective, library irrespective of type, structure and function. The University Grants Commission (UGC), from time to time recommended the broader outlines of essay on sexualisation of children, courses of Library and career objective essay, Information Science. The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and other higher bodies now give emphasis to semester system rather than annual system, and credit-based rather than marks-based system.

Every university being autonomous is free to frame its own course of rogerian, studies, and syllabi of many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to career essay educate librarians share certain characteristics. Programmes typically offer courses in the history of books and librarianship to give students a background in the profession's past. It also includes courses in knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing abstracting, Metadata, semantic syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and management of the essay, collection (preservation conservation of documents). Career Objective Essay! It also includes contents related to scholarly communication (bibliometrics, Infometrics, scientometrics, webometrics), digital libraries and ICT. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part:- Technology is entering in a very big way in rogerian thesis, every sector and in LIS where it has been used extensively to store and retrieve information in different forms and structures. This new dimension is reflected in career objective essay, the course structure of almost all universities that provides courses in LIS. The courses include topics that impart new skill in organizing web resources, and providing web-based services. 4.17 Practical Exposure:-

All courses provide scope of on sexualisation of children, practical knowledge rather than restricting to only theory. Even some universities make it compulsory for career objective essay their learners to undergo some apprenticeship before practicing the librarianship. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research:- 4.18.1 Limited Accommodation Capacity:- All universities which provide Library and Information Science courses witness a great flow of learners. Format Statement! But they are able to objective accommodate only a limited number of such desired students. 4.18.2 A Very Competitive Entrance Examination:- In most of the universities, students desire to study the LIS has to go through a very competitive entrance examination for admission.

4.18.3 Limitation as a Professional Subject:- LIS is a professional course and format of thesis, so it has the limitations of any other professional courses. The non-inclusion of career objective, Library and Information Science in UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is oasis dissertation, a very common. The other problems include lack of a standard cohesive syllabus of LIS and low level of awareness among the general people about this course. 4.19 LIS Research in India:-

The LIS research briefly means the collection and analysis of original data on a problem of librarianship, done within the library school according to scientific and career, scholarly standard. Research in this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at the doctoral, post doctoral and research staff level, It also includes in house or action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and documentalists, etc. Rogerian Thesis! The aim of research in LIS, like any other discipline is to contribute towards the advancement of subject and contribution to the existing knowledge. 4.19.1 Dr. S. R. Ranganathan's Effort:- The era of LIS research in essay, India started with S. R. Goals College! Ranganathans efforts. He performed individual research for several years. His works that lead to some of the fundamental and theoretical principles have dominated the objective essay, research activities for five decades. Format! His idea of classification and cataloguing becomes the area of research in different library schools all over the world. The library and academic community of those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in LIS.

Some of his worth notable contributions are. a) Five laws of library science. b) Colon Classification. c) Prolegomena to library classification. d) Classified Catalogue Code. e) Documentation and objective essay, its facets.

f) Library administration, etc. In India research activity to reflect in two programs. 4.19.2 M. Phil Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- University of Delhi was the oasis, first to introduce M. Phil programme in Library and Information Science in 1980. Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil programme. The duration of M. Phil programme in almost all universities in this country is one year. 4.19.3 PhD Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- The credit for introducing the doctoral degree programme in library science in India goes to Dr. S. R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started PhD program in Delhi University in objective essay, 1958. The university offered first doctoral degree in Library science to format D. B. Krishan Rao for his 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the guidance of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan.

In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the second Ph.D. Today more than 125 Universities in India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore.

Since its inception, it has been carrying out essay research studies on documentation and related areas. iii) Library Associations:- The contribution of library association of India towards research activities is negligible but they restrict their activities in the field of publication of journals, organization of seminars, conferences and workshop, etc. for making ground to do research in of thesis, LIS. Objective! IATLIS, NASSDOC, ILA, IASLIC are the format of thesis statement, mentionable among them. iv) Funding of LIS Research in India:- The University Grants Commission (UGC) is promoting LIS research by awarding different kinds of career essay, fellowships to essay the students. Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) and Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by career essay awarding scholarship to doctoral students. v) D.Litt Programme:- In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to Dr. B. B. Shukla.

It claimed to be the first such degree in library science all over the world.(Kumar, 1998) 4.20 LIS Research : Global Overview:- Rochester and the steps response, Vakkari (2003) conducted various national studies of different countries to career analyse the trends in LIS research at global scenario and record the format of thesis, research trends in LIS research at global level based on career essay, the analysis. The different national studies in research were conducted by these two authors as an assignment of IFLA project during 1997-1998 and compared national and international trends in LIS research and recorded the essay, development in research. Career! The countries covered in the analysis were basically European countries Japan, China, UK, USA etc. The analytical study conducted and results reported by IFLA provided a descriptive account of research conducted in various prominent countries of the world. The author's analysis on the research activity and broad subject in which prominent research covered during the period 1965-1995 indicated that the major focus in LIS research at International level was concentrated mainly of the following topics. 1. Of Children! Information storage and retrieval (87)

2. Library and career objective, information services (77) 3. Information seeking behavior (8) 4. Other LIS topics (25) Thus out of 197 research studies it was reflected that ISR, LIS services and ISB were in format statement, prominent areas. Though these are common during the period the trend was almost similar in other countries also. European countries covering Finland, Spain etc had research activity in library services, information seeking behaviour, information services and retrieval where as in UK the career, same situation was reported. In Spain 1995 LIS degrees were recognized as academic degrees in universities. Information science research took leading position in European countries. The research trends in Australia reflected in the steps, LIS services, information seeking and history were more prominent (74). In China principals in LIS , LIS services, information industry were the major research areas, were more considered but library and information services area was more popular. The most popular sub topics on which research was conducted more during 1965-1995 in China were : ' Library management and administration.

In China during the period 1979-1985 it was known as revolver phase of LIS research, 1986-1990 flourishing phase and 1991 onward developing stage and essay, information service, library education were the prominent areas. A comparative study conducted Vakkari (1996) for LIS research in career goals college essay, Scandinavia countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Spain etc. also reflected European trends in LIS research. Thus it was reflected that major countries noted below during this period involved more in research concentration at broad information topics. It was found that research at international level had orientation towards solving information problems. In LIS many authors reviewed the research methods used by career LIS scholars for conducting effective research and noticed that the among the different methods in which descriptive research covering survey (66), historical conceptual research element (79) as well as discussions, mathematical methods, literature review were the the steps to writing a critical response, prominent methods. In UK, LIS research was examined by Layzell Ward (1998) and pointed out the research trends and informed that research output was low initially and increased latter after establishment of library association which setup research committee 1946 and from 1960 Government funding made available for LIS research. Since the establishment of British Library 1994 the growth in research gradually increased after 1980 and information technology, information storage and retrieval become more popular topics. From the career, above global study it is noticed that LIS research progress was slow and different topics were grouped in to three areas based in traditional practices and words and phrases essays, since 1990 area were shifted towards modernization covering : 1. Library history: Library profession, Library administration, Library education, Analysis of libraries, Publishing and book industries. 2. Library and essay, information services: Circulation, Collection development, Information and seeking behavior, User education.

3. Information storage and retrieval: Cataloguing, classification and indexing, Information retrieval, Bibliographic databases. 4. Information seeking behavior: Methods of information dissemination, Information sources, Information seeking behavior in different subject, Information use, Information management. 5. Scientific and professional communication: Scientific publication, Citation pattern and structures, Methods of format of thesis, communication. At the end of objective essay, 2001 centre for information research at university of central England, Birmingham examines the research landscape in LIS domain. Oasis Dissertation Prize! They have reviewed LIS research 2002-2005 and recorded potential gaps in LIS research activities. The survey using questioners covered LIS organizations links public library, universities libraries, schools and colleges, government libraries etc. the survey was focused on core areas in career, LIS. The centre reported that in LIS research domain may be local regional, national and international have a practice or academic focus. Hayns et. al (2000), pointed out that strategic research, basic research, exploratory research, action research, applied research are the major types of research.

Strategic research deals with practical applications, basic research relate to theoretical investigation and helps in understanding principals of information management where as exploratory research generate new ideas with practical applications. Applied research creates applications or products as well as transferable knowledge. Action research covers findings solutions to problems at work places worked of different services in 1984 Stewert felt that research area in rogerian, LIS. This covers resources and services, new technologies, management of change, library services, staff skills, literacy, staff motivations etc. thus the essay, prominent areas in LIS research was predicted was information retrieval, library co-operation, digital resources, information services, preservation and access to knowledge, information providers, public library etc. Till 1995 prominent research was conducted in oasis dissertation, above areas using different research methods for conducting research in LIS like, historical method, survey method, qualitative, evaluation, action (case) research method, content analysis, citation analysis, bibliometric methods, secondary analysis (Literature review) and objective essay, experimental research, bibliographic methods etc.

The data collection techniques used by researcher while conducting the study during 1965-1995 mainly covers questioner, observation, interview, content analysis, citation analysis, historical resources analysis and secondary analysis. In UK research conducted mainly in the area public library, library management, user studies, technical processing, information storage and retrieval etc. Rogerian Essay! (Meadows 1994, 1995). Peritz (1977) conducted a study in which analysed research articles published in 39 core journals published during the period 1950-1975 from career, LIS to find out the publishing trends in and phrases for college, the stream. Author analysed about 900 journals articles and recorded the research trends. Similar study was also performed by Atkins (1988) and career, he analysed subject trends in transition and phrases for college, LIS research carried out during the essay, period 1975-1984 using questionnaire. Essay On Sexualisation Of Children! The purpose of the author in objective essay, conducting this study was to find past, present and on sexualisation, future trends in objective, LIS research. Atkins in his study presented a table indicating popularity of the subject in which research articles were publish and these were treated as a base to conduct LIS research.

The areas isolated by him are : 1. Library management. 2. Information retrieval. 5. Public library. 6. Library automation. 7. Library history. 8. Library finance. 9. Oasis Dissertation Prize! Collection development. 10.

Information services. 15. Citation studies. 16. Special libraries. 17. Research libraries. 18. Library education. 19. University library. 20. Library building. 21. Special collection. 22. National library. 23. Library security.

The author opined that in developed countries till 1980 traditional concept were considered and since 1980 emphasis was given on latest trends related topics which were in currency like databases, ICT applications. The growth of OCLC, RLIN and WLN gave more attention towards research in the advanced topics and modernization, automation, database developments etc were considered more by the researcher. 'Citation analysis' was the subject area proved more popular and reported more studies as compared to other topics in LIS, due to its applications in the field to manage libraries and provide better services to users and uses in library at its highest potential. Mcnicol and Nankivell (2003), in their study 'The LIS research landscape: A review and prognosis' conducted a survey of research in LIS covering the period in two parts 1997-2002 and 2002-2005. The comparative analysis of the study leads to find out trends in research in LIS. This study highlighted LIS research landscape to identify trends and analysis as well as the gaps in research. Slewart (1984) in career objective, his study prepared a research agenda and indicated few research areas in LIS which are not yet considered. 1. Resources utility and user and services requirement. 2. New technologies. 3. Management change.

4. Library services. 7. Retraining staff. 8. Restructuring libraries. Sumsion (1994), also focused on the following research topics and career goals college, also opined that there is a need to work on the current development to get the quicker solution . 1. Library principals. 2. Identify trends. 3. New user needs. 4. New type of services. Pluse and Prythech (1996), studied and analysed LIS research conducted during 1990-1996 and identified few prospective areas like:

1. Operational management. 2. Standards and benchmarking. 3. Use of internet. 5. Staffing pattern. Few authors pointed out areas of research conducted in career, UK, USA during period 1996-2002 after a study and reported few of the prominent areas considered more in developed countries are: 1. Information retrieval. 2. Information skill. 4. Professional development.

7. LIS education. 8. User development. 9. Electronic services. Thus research conducted in developed countries during 1996-2002 indicated increasing trends and it was highest since 2001. Further while indicating future research development themes for research activities suggested were, 1. Statement! Electronic information.

2. Information policy. 3. Multimedia policy. 4. LIS education. 5. Business information. Electronic resources and information services based on digital media is the need of the time including internet resource management. Few prominent subjects presented to undertake future studies are: 1. Impact of digital resources. 2. Digital library development. 3. Objective Essay! ICT and dissertation, school library. 4. Use of electronic resources.

5. Career Objective Essay! Community building. 6. Controlled vocabulary. 7. Information searching. 10. Semantic web and controlled terminologies.

The editorial of library and information science research (1997), in which research agenda beyond 2000 was highlighted by Burke and others and words, focused the areas in LIS research before 1997 and next bilinear were also highlighted. Information seeking and information retrieval, storage and preservation technology, information quality was covered more. The opinion of editorial board covers the major topics like economics, manage rising cost of career essay, journals, electronic publishing, information retrieval, internets and identify the steps to writing essay, its impact on libraries, bibliographic information resources, library services, quality information services, information need/assessment, managing organizational change due to application of information technology, digital information services, web technology, value added information services are the career objective, major core areas to be looked in to 2000 onwards. Samdani (2011), in goals college essay, his article narrated the status of doctoral research in LIS in Pakistan and appended the views indicating the LIS research was started in 1967 from university of Karachi. In Pakistan seven universities and one private university is offering doctoral research programme in LIS. Objective Essay! During 1967-1971 only five candidates admitted for research program and only one i.e. M A H Chishti completed his thesis and awarded degree in 1981 entitled 'Islamic libraries (749 AD-1257 AD)'. Words And Phrases! In 1992 second PhD degree was awarded to Nasim Fatima under the guidance of career objective, Dr. Jamil Jalibi from university of Karachi entitled 'cataloguing and standardization of Urdu manuscripts'. The third degree awarded to Munira Ansari in 2005 entitled 'Information needs and to writing a critical, information seeking behaviour of the media practitioners in objective essay, Pakistan'. The fourth degree awarded to Shamshad Ahmed in 2009 for entitled 'A study of library and format of thesis, archival record in directorate of career objective essay, Sindh archives Karachi'.

The ongoing research activity involve 13 candidates in research programme and their topics are information generating and handling, health science libraries, news paper library, digital library, library and information science education curriculum, reference and information sources etc. It is review that university of Karachi four PhD degrees awarded and 13 ongoing PhD research work. From university of Panjab, Lahor initiated doctoral research program in 1971. First degree awarded in 2004 and second degree awarded in 2005. The topics were funding model in library and collection management in libraries, at present till 2009, three students have submitted the thesis. Format Statement! In university of career objective essay, Sindh research programme started in words and phrases essays, 2001 first degree awarded in 2005 and presently four students have registered for ongoing research program and their topics school libraries, college librarianship, user survey/user satisfaction, digital libraries etc. From Islamia University started doctoral program in 1986 and first degree awarded in 1991 for university library and presently three students have registered for PhD ongoing research program. From university of Balochistan only one candidate having registered in 2003.

University of Peshawar, Urdu university of Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi research has been reflected only at essay, initial stage. Dissertation! It is thus reported that 19 PhD degrees in LIS were awarded during 1964-2010. From foreign university thus 1964-2010, 28 PhD degrees were awarded in 46 years duration, almost single degree in a twice year. During 2004-2010 total ten PhD were declared and this is the real contribution of Pakistan. The topics were covered academic library, collection management, library education, classification, cataloguing, library funding, school library, university library, user education etc. as compared Indian progress is career objective essay, excellent. Miwa (2011), in his article trends in Japanese LIS education is a critical essay, highlighted in objective essay, which more trace was given on LIS education to goals college maintain quality. The problem areas indentified were public library, academic library, special library, research activities, ICT, professional system etc. it has also same educational pattern followed in India i.e. any bachelor degree, bachelor degree in LIS, master degree and doctoral in LIS. In Sri Lanka (Chamani 2008), the major research covered till 2008 were library professional, library history, publishing, LIS education, Information system, information storage and retrieval, information seeking behaviour etc. The review of LIS research in different countries highlighted that till 2005 almost traditional research was focused more but since 2005 more research is covering latest trends in the profession.

From the review of India the same picture is reported except the ICT and technology based research initiated since 2009 onwards. 4.21 Research trend in Indian Universities: The research activity in essay, Indian universities is gathering momentum as there is a greater demand for the research in statement, the discipline. Career Objective Essay! During the recent past, quite a number of research activities have been carried out in the universities and dissertation, research institutions in career essay, various parts of the world. Format Statement! In India, due to the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC), AICTE and other similar bodies and their active support, many students are caring out M. Phil. and PhD degrees. During pre-independence, there were only few doctorate degree holders, but after independence the research output increased drastically in every field. In India about 125 universities and research institutions are offering PhD programs in LIS. Many researchers made an effort to career essay collect data from different universities and analyzed it to fix the essay, research productivity of the various universities in objective, India (Chandrashekara 2009). The credit for the formal institution of the doctoral degree program in library science in India goes undeniably to Dr.

S.R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). Rogerian Essay Thesis! In 1951, he started library science education at the University of Delhi. The University of Delhi awarded the first de jure degree in library science in 1957 to D.B. Krishan Rao who worked on 'faceted classification for agriculture'(Chandrashekara 2009, Gupta 2010). Doctoral research remained in the wilderness when Ranganathan shifted to Delhi in 1955. In 1960s and 1970s some doctorates in library related topics were earned by career essay library professionals under the guidance and supervision of of thesis, faculties belonging to the disciplines such as sociology, history, law, economics, management, and the like. The purpose of reviving and objective essay, furthering doctoral research facilities was assumed by J. S. Dissertation Prize! Sharma (1924'1993), the career essay, then university librarian and head of the library science department of the Panjab University, Chandigarh. The Steps A Critical! Under his guidance, the second de jure (de jure means devoting something and career objective, someone) Ph.D. in library science was awarded in 1977 after a gap of two decades.

Many universities followed with mostly individual efforts and enthusiasm and doctoral research raised since 1980s and gradual improvement in facilities paved ways for India to dissertation maintain its third world leadership in objective essay, library research and library literature. PhD programs thereafter, mushroomed even despite the lack of facilities or adherence to standards (Satija 1999, Gupta 2010). Chandrashekara (2009) collected the data from various authorized sources for the degrees awarded in Indian universities from 1957 to 2008 in LIS discipline and analyzed in proper manner in his paper. His results indicated that during the period 1957 to 2008 about 802 theses were submitted and awarded the degrees to the researchers. From his analysis it is very clear that LIS researches gained momentum since 1991 to 2008 and on the steps a critical, an average degree awarded per year were 36 and from 1957 to 1990 only 8 per annum average degrees were awarded.

The drastic change is reported since 2003 onwards and on an average 43 degrees were awarded per year in Indian universities. Career Objective! Even author had grouped decennial growth of research degrees awarded in Indian universities. The trends resulted from the data presentation indicated that the career goals college, real growth starts from 1980 to 2008 and during 1950 to 1979 only 15 degrees were awarded. The analysis of degrees awarded in different states and arranging them the top 10 states in India conducted LIS research are Karnataka (169), AP (96), MP (80), MS (58), West Bengal (56), Punjab (45), Orissa (43), UP(42), Rajasthan (41), TN (31) and other states contribution is (141). The analysis made by Chandrashekara and Ramashesh (2009) regarding the research conducted in India during the period 1957-2008 and career objective, found that research activity in Karnataka state is leading and Maharashtra is on sexualisation of children, ranked at 4th position. The library and information science deals with all aspects of information and career essay, knowledge which includes acquisition of materials, classification and cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, library services, preservation and conservation of documents and so on.

The library and and phrases for college essays, information science closely related to all other subjects. It forms its own foundation by taking the essay, help of some other subjects. Dr. S. R. Ranganathan is a pioneer in the field of Library and statement, Information Science in the world and India in particular. Career Objective! He contributed in almost all aspects of the library science. Nowadays many university and colleges provides different courses in Library and Information and its related subjects. It ranges from certificate course to PhD.

The research trends indicated the growth at global level and also in India. Format Of Thesis Statement! This chapter satisfies the objective 'To study research growth and research trends in LIS and compare it with current developments in LIS'. This chapter summarizes the progress in career essay, LIS education, LIS research at global and national level. ' Asundi, A Y and Karisiddappa C R (2007) Library and of children, Information Science Education in India: International perspective with special reference to Developing Countries. DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology Vol.

27(2) March, p.5-11. ' Atkins Stephen E (1988), Subject trends in library and information science research, 1975-1984, Library Trends, Spring, p. 633-658. ' Barman Badan (2012), Library and information science education, Accessed at career essay, http://www.netugc.com/library-and-information-science-education-in-india dated on 14.04.2012. ' Burke R M and others (1998), A research agenda beyond 2000, Library and information science research, Vol. 19(3), p. 209-216. ' Chamani G (2008), library and information science research literature in Sri Lanka: A bibliometric study, journal of the university librarians association of Sri Lanka, Vol. 12. ' Chandrashekara, M and Ramasesh, C P (2009) Library and Information Science Research in India.

Asia Pacific Conference on LIS education and practice, p.530-537. ' Gupta, D K and Bhardwaj, K (2010) Library Management Research in Indian Universities. Annals of Library and Information Studies. Vol. 57(Dec), p.333-338. ' Higgins, S E(2007) LIS education and research area for developing countries.

5th International CALIBER. Punjab University Chandigarh. 8-10 Feb. ' Jarvelin, K. and P. Essay! Vakkari. 1993.

The evolution of library and information science 1965-1985: a content analysis of journal articles. Information Processing and career objective, Management, 29(1): 129-144. ' Joshi Manoj K (2010), Library and information science education in India: Some government initiatives, DESIDOC journal of library and information technology, Vol. 30(5), Sept., p 67-73. ' Kumar PSG (1998), Doctoral studies in library and information science in India: A study, DESIDOC Bulletin of format statement, information technology, vol.18(1), p5-9. ' Layzell Ward (1998), Layzell Ward, P. (1997). The nature of UK research literature: Some thoughts arising from a bibliometric study. IFLA General Conference in Copenhagen, 1997. Library Theory and Research Section Open Forum paper accessed at http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla63/63rocm.htm accessed on 12.06.2012. ' McNicol; Sarah and Nankivell, Clare (2003) LIS Researchers and Practitioners: a Research Culture, Library and Information Research News 26(83), pp.

10-16. ' Miwa M et. al. (2011), Global LIS: An effort to describe trends in Japanese LIS education for global collaboration, Asia Pacific conference on career objective essay, Library information education and practice 2011. ' Naukri24 (2012), Library and information science education in India, Accessed at http://www.news24online.com/Library-and-Information-Science-Education-in-India--Options,-Opportunities-and-Places_career24_23.aspx accessed on 14.04.2012. ' Peritz (1981), the methods of library science research: some results from format of thesis statement, a bibliometric survey, Library Research2, p. 251-268. ' Pluse, John M., and Prythech, Ray (1996), Research in Public Libraries, Final Report of the Project on objective, Research in Public Libraries, British Library Research and Innovation Report 8, London: BLRIC.

' Rath, P (2010) Information and words and phrases for college essays, communication technology - Application in higher education with special reference to north Eastern region. Located at www.caluniv.ac.in/news/prabhakar.doc accessed on 23.07.2011. ' Rochester Maxine, and Vakkari, Pertti (1998), 'International LIS research: A Comparison of National Trends', IFLA Journal 24(3), pp. 166-175. ' Rochester Maxine K (1995), Library and information science research in Australia 1985-1994. A content analysis of research articles in the Australian Academic and Research Libraries 26, p. 163-170. ' Rochester Maxine K and Vakkari Pertti (2003), International library and information science research: A comparison of national trends, IFLA professional reports, Nr. 82. ' Samdani R A and career, Bhatti R (2011), doctoral research in LIS by Pakistani professionals: An analysis, Library philosophy and practice, accessed on http://inillibunl.edu/lpp accessed at 25.02.2012. ' Sumsion John (1994) strategic research areas and possible research models for UK public libraries, Library Review, Vol. 43(4), p 7-26.

' Tsuji Keita, Yoshida Yuko and Miva M (2006) Survey on essays, faculty of Library and Information Science education in Japan, Graduate school of library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 2-3, Kasuga, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8550. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of objective essay, us is qualified to a high level in our area of essay of children, expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Essay! Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in identify the steps a critical response essay, your email box, in as little as 3 hours.

This Science essay was submitted to us by career essay a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in rogerian essay, your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/science/bibliometrics-citation-citation-analysis.php [06-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.

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100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. Objective? VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and essay on sexualisation, easier. Need a great argument topic? Below I give over 100 ideas. You'll write faster and easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about can make research faster and easier.

Interest: Picking a question you want to know more about can make this paper more interesting. Available Sources: I give links to many sources. Check those for articles first and if you find some, your work is half done. I also save you time by giving you links to videos and sample student essays. Check out career essay my guides for writing papers too. Essay Of Children? Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to objective come back and tell me! 1. Instructions for how to (and how not to) pick a topic. 2. Lists of dissertation topic ideas (in the objective, categories of food and health, obesity and dieting, recycling and the environment, families and dissertation prize, relationships, and science and career objective, technology, with videos and many links to research and on sexualisation, student essay examples.

3. Step-by-step instructions for how to write your essay. Choosing a topic that everyone is talking about makes writing an argument essay easier. Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an answer people already agree on. Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to the choir. Career Objective? It also helps if the topic is something everyone has an opinion about: this will make it easier to get examples to back up your essay, either from articles or from people you interview. Finally, you probably want to oasis prize pick a topic that is interesting to you and that you care about. Steer clear of objective overused topics like abortion, gun control, and format, the death penalty. For one thing, your instructor has already read far too many of these essays and is not only probably bored with the career objective, topic, but also has already heard everything you might say. Moreover, although those may seem like easy topics, they really aren't, because most people are set in their ways about on sexualisation these issues and career objective essay, it is essay of children, hard to essay think of an identify essay argument that might change their minds. Is Deforestation Worth it?

Do the economic benefits of cutting down forests outweigh the environmental damage? What is Love? What kind of love leads to a lasting relationship? Stay-at-Home Dad: Is it a good idea for career objective essay, a father to raise his children full-time? What causes a man to become a stay-at-home dad and can it work out well for a family? Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and do more about the hunger faced by people around the world? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? What can be done to help children maintain a healthy weight? How can people lose weight and keep it off? Is weight gain caused by genetics, environment, or some other factor?

How do naturally thin people stay that way? What is the goals college, relationship between food, exercise, and weight? Are low carbohydrate diets (like the Paleo, Adkins, and South Beach diets) really the best? Do planned-meal diets like Jenny Craig and Nutrisystem really work to help people keep weight off? Why are Weight Watchers and other calorie-counting diets often considered the best by doctors? Is controlling weight really a matter of calories in, calories out? What is the best diet for a young adult? Can vegetarian diets be healthy? Why are so many people now choosing to go on gluten-free diets? Is sugar really bad for you? Does restricting the objective essay, size of soft drinks that can be sold really help health?

Should schools have vending machines that sell sodas, candy, and transition words and phrases, other bad snacks? What can schools do to promote better health in students? Does intermittent fasting really help you to be more fit? How can morbidly obese people lose weight safely? Is the T.V. show The Biggest Loser helpful in career essay, motivating people to transition and phrases for college be healthy? Does the objective, show create negative or positive feelings about morbidly obese people? Does it exploit the contestants? What causes anorexia? How can it be prevented?

How can you help an anorexic friend? Why are more young men becoming anorexic? What is morbid obesity? How does morbid obesity affect a person's health? What should we do about the cost of healthcare for overweight people? Should there be a greater insurance premium for people who are obese? Is surgery a good method for people to lose weight? Are sugar substitutes helpful for dieting? Is fat really bad for you? Is a low fat diet the best? Research Articles on Obesity and Dieting.

Here are some professional articles and websites that can help you start. Essay On Sexualisation Of Children? Many of career objective essay these articles contain links to other sources also. Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by to writing essay Rena R. Wing and Suzanne Phelan, in American Society for career, Clinical Nutrition (2005). The National Weight Control Registry. An account of over 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of words and phrases essays weight and kept it off for career essay, long periods of essay thesis time. Career? Overweight and Obesity. U.S. government reports from the Centers for career college essay, Disease Control and Prevention. Diet Topic Articles from career objective Psychology Today . What can we do to words for college essays help people around the world have clean water to career drink?

Is hunting good or bad for the environment? Should the horns of wild rhinos be removed to prevent them from being poached? Can we protect wild areas and animals by promoting eco-tourism? Should the career essay, government discourage or regulate oil drilling in the gulf of Mexico? What are the dangers of fracking? Does recycling really make a difference? Should all states adopt a deposit on soft drink bottles and cans in order to promote recycling? Should schools require students to bring refillable containers for water and other beverages rather than disposable ones? Should supermarkets charge for plastic bags in objective essay, order to on sexualisation encourage the career objective, use of reusable bags?

Should your city (or campus) do more to encourage recycling? What causes people to litter? What could motivate people to clean up after themselves? What causes earthquakes? What can we do to reduce death or damage from earthquakes? Or how can we better predict them? Does being a vegetarian or vegan help the environment? Can using LED lights make a difference? How can composting help save the format of thesis statement, environment?

What is career objective essay, hazardous household waste and the steps to writing essay, why is it important not to throw it in the regular trash? What is deforestation? How does it happen? Can it be stopped? What is fracking? Is fracking worth the objective, risks?

Does fracking hurt drinking water? What is a carbon footprint? How can we change our carbon footprint? What are the dangers for people living in cities like Beijing with high pollution? Is nuclear energy really safe? What should be done with nuclear waste? What is the best way to handle our trash?

Are landfills a good idea? Where can we use solar, wind, and other alternative energy sources effectively? What is the best way to encourage alternative energy use? (Government regulations? Incentives? Helping companies that produce these products? Advertising?) The World Bank on Environment: Information and research about environmental issues around the identify the steps response, world. Objective? The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: On the science and goals, technology page, find research and information under different topics like water, pesticides, or ecosystems. Discover Magazine: Search the environmental topics page for your topic.

U.S. Government Recycling and Conservation: Statistics and information. Should mothers stay home with their children? Do long distance relationships work? How can divorce be prevented? Is divorce something that kids can recover from? Are teenage marriages a good idea?

Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children? How can you get out of the friend zone? How can you know you are in an abusive relationship? Why do people stay in abusive relationships? What are the career objective, effects of domestic violence on children? Who should do the chores in a family? What are helicopter parents and how do they help or harm their children?

Is it good to be an only child? Is doing sports together a good thing for families? How have video games impacted family life? Why do some people treat their pets as family members? Is this a good or bad thing? How important are grandparents to children today? How does interracial adoption affect a family?

Are large families better for children? How does birth order affect children? Do older people make better parents? Have cell phones and social media made families closer or not? How should (or shouldn't) you use social media in a dating relationship? How long should people date before they become engaged? What makes people have a happy, long-lasting marriage?

Are the expectations raised by romantic movies damaging to real relationships? Are Beauty Pageants Good for Kids? What is nanotechnology and how has it already changed our lives? How will nanotechnology affect dentistry or medicine? How can nanotechnology be helpful in developing new types of computers, cell phones, or data storage? Does using cell phones make people more or less connected? Do cell phones cause a cancer risk? What should the laws be concerning the use of cell phones while driving? Have social media and texting hurt or improved the lives of teenagers? Why are children better at understanding new technology than their parents are?

Do violent video games cause people to act out format of thesis violently? Should schools use video games as a teaching tool? Can students study better using digital textbooks than they can by using books, pens, and paper? Will paper and books become obsolete? What is the difference between reading on a screen and reading a book? Should everyone wear a microchip with their personal information to career avoid identity and credit card theft?

Should parents be able to choose the of thesis statement, genetics of their children? Are smart watches going to replace cell phones? What is the essay, next big leap in technology? Which is better, the PC or the on sexualisation, Mac? If we can help people live longer through technology, should we? Is there a balance between quantity and quality of life? How can 3-D printers be used effectively? SciTech Daily: Science and new technology news and research reports. MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of Technology's website for explaining new technologies.

If you want to write a quick and easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the career objective essay, lists above. Decide your answer to the question (this is format of thesis statement, your beginning thesis). Write down everything you know about the topic. Career Objective? Talk to your friends or family to find out what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the topic (have them give you the source if they know it). Look at some of the transition and phrases, research articles or web sites about objective essay that topic. Format Statement? Look back at objective essay your question and essay, refine your answer. After gathering information, you may want to change it.

Write down three or more best reasons for your answer (these are your topic ideas for the body of your essay). Using those reasons, look at the articles you've read or the ideas you've already written down for some evidence to support those reasons (this is the backup evidence for career objective, each topic sentence). Write your outline, then follow it to write your paper. Do you have to do research for your paper? 100 Great Psychology Research Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 2. Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas and Writing Prompts.

100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 22. College Essay? How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by career essay Virginia Kearney 55. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. How to Write an Argument Essay Step by words essays Step. by objective essay Virginia Kearney 15.

This is a great resource. Career College Essay? I've just entered into objective, college, and dissertation, didn't know where to begin writing my first argumentative essay. Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of anything to do with the argumentative essay of should smoking be banned because I have to objective essay do essays with research and I need some reliable sites. Virginia Kearney 3 weeks ago from United States. Hi Aashi! I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too. Transition Words And Phrases For College Essays? Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in your grade for several years. I will have to put together some topics for primary grade students. Career Objective? Until then, you might want to look at my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for your age too. I am in rogerian essay, primary school in career essay, grade 6 and I want some good topics for primary students.

Good job making this page. I don't know what to do at first. I was clueless and rogerian essay thesis, was browsing for answers but none of them made sense except for this. Thank you very much! I think the ideas are wonderful and career essay, are very helpful! I am a Junior in high school and I have to goals college write an argumentative paper. Your insight on how to do so has been extremely helpful. I wanted to thank you for career objective, your intelligence on to writing, how to career essay write an argumentative paper.

Thanks! This website was very useful for picking out a topic for oasis prize, my essay. Again, thank you for helping me out! King of career objective essay Stuff 8 months ago. I find this website very interesting and helpful. Thank you for making it! Your tips on writing essays is really helping me out. Statement? Mr. fluffypants 8 months ago. I love this article. Objective Essay? You have helped me with my school essay.

Thank you! letter pile 8 months ago. I LOVE this website. Thank you so much for writing it! It has helped me so much! Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from goals United States. Hi Nataly! You are welcome to shift the focus of the essay, questions to whether governments should take action. My questions and topic ideas are just a starting point. I teach my students that there are a variety of ways to solve problems and one of those is by having governments or larger groups take action. However, I want my students to identify to writing a critical essay focus more on how they and their audience can personally take responsibility and action, so often my questions are more locally written.

In my class, I focus on having my students address a very particular audience in career essay, their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from really thinking carefully about the thesis, viewpoint of the career objective essay, other person and developing points that would persuade that person. In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the student is using other sources as well. However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of source. Most people who do TedTalks have written out their arguments in papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to see if there is an online paper you can cite as well. I find your lists great and transition words for college essays, really appreciate the idea of providing useful links. Still, I would rather shift the focus of some questions so that they ask students to think more globally, from the point of view of the state and the society.

For example, should the state take actions to prevent high rate of divorces, which ones? Are people in developed states responsible for providing water and food to the starving people around the globe?, etc. Essay? I also wanted to ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources. Have you ever heard of any cases when professors forbid to use it? Thank you for a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago. This helped me so much with my homework, thank you! Great Efforts . Well done. should guns be allowed on school campus. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States.

This is an transition and phrases for college interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial. I'd love to hear how you would develop your thesis. preetyradd 14 months ago. i think this is cool i got a good grade on my essay thanks. Kanwal asif 14 months ago. Thank u so much God bless u. Virginia Kearney 17 months ago from United States. Objective? Glad this will help you three keys! ThreeKeys 17 months ago from Australia. Im about to try out your suggestions in this great article.

Im excited to see what the outcome will be in oasis, how I take a more pointed or comprehensive approach in a written debate so to speak. Thanks so much! Thank you it is career objective, really helpful. Thank you so much for transition for college essays, the topics. Career Objective Essay? Trisha Roberts 3 years ago from essay of children Rensselaer, New York. Love the great ideas! Absolutely love the objective essay, list you shared with us. Rogerian Essay Thesis? Thank you so much for career, this Article!

Kalai 3 years ago from Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Sometimes i find that the most easy or obvious topic the hardest to oasis prize argue about. The less the words the greater the headache. When we prepare for debates, each word has the ability to career essay make or break the case. Rae Saylor 3 years ago from Australia. Prize? What an interesting range of career objective essay ideas and tips! Massive thanks for writing this, pal! Voted up :) Eiddwen 3 years ago from Wales. A great hub Victoria ;thanks for sharing and I vote up. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago.

This is very useful to essay of children those who must teach essay writing (and to those who must write them). I know I will be using this next time I teach English Comp. Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from Illinois. Wow! This is career objective, a very impressive list and great instructions. I like how you were able to thesis write the questions without giving away your position on each topic. - Ginger. Eric Dierker 3 years ago from Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A. Very interesting.

Fun ideas and great food for thought. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Objective? Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of transition words and phrases their respective owners. HubPages ® is career objective, a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on essay, affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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MBA Career Goals Essay Examples? Top Ranked MBA Essay Samples

Role of the objective, nurse in rehabilitation. The role of the nurse in rehabilitation. Rehabilitation is an essay on sexualisation of children aspect of every nurses practice and as such warrants close consideration, Mallik et al (1998), p645. According to the above quote, every nurse adopts the role of rehabilitator and for the purpose of this essay I intend to critically analyse the career objective essay, nurses role within the area of rehabilitation. I will also include the nurses membership within the rehabilitation - multidisciplinary team. Within this document I will define terms such as rehabilitation and the nurses title. Does the format of thesis, nurse have a role in the rehabilitation process? According to research the role of the nurse in the rehabilitation setting has been under close scrutiny for many years by many professions, it is for this reason that I intend to discuss the issue by analysing various researchers views. To discuss the career objective, role of the goals essay, nurse in rehabilitation, I believe that it is paramount to clarify what nursing is.

Nursing can be described in many ways and essay, has been referred to goals college, as being multifaceted which the International Council for Nurses (1973) in Benson Duncanis (1995) agreed saying that the career, unique function of a nurse is to assist the response, individual, sick or well, in objective essay, the performance to these activities contributing to health or its recovery (or a peaceful death) that they would perform strength, will or knowledge. And to on sexualisation of children, do this in such a way as to help him/her gain independence as rapidly as possible. This quote suggests that the nurses role is to promote independence and to enable or empower the patient to adopt new skills, knowledge and where possible, to carry out everyday tasks such as washing and essay, dressing. In other words rehabilitating them. This reinforces the views of Mallik et al (1998). Prize! So why is the literature debating the nurses role in rehabilitation? I intend to reveal this matter fully, but firstly I will describe the nurses role in general to objective essay, form a foundation for this essay. The rehabilitation nurse works with the patient, the family, and other members of the the steps essay, rehabilitation team to satisfy current needs and anticipate potential and future needs as well. The rehabilitation nurse must have an career objective essay underlying knowledge base about the career goals college essay, ramifications of adjusting to altered life circumstances.

This knowledge base includes an understanding of normal anatomy and physiology. Furthermore, the rehabilitation nurse must understand group dynamics in order to essay, work effectively with professional and lay members of the format statement, interdisciplinary rehabilitation team, paraprofessionals, and members of volunteer, community, and governmental agencies, KFFCS (1988). Additionally, knowledge of career objective essay, educational principles and strategies is necessary for implementation of patient and family education. The philosophy, knowledge, and skills of the rehabilitation nurse are implemented through use of the rogerian essay thesis, nursing process, Waters (1994). Contemporary nursing requires that the nurse possess knowledge and skills in a variety of areas. In the past the principle role of nurses was to career objective, provide care and comfort as they carried out specific nursing functions, but changes in and phrases for college essays, nursing have expanded their role to include increasing emphasis on health promotion and illness prevention, as well as concern for the patient as a whole. The contemporary nurse functions in the interrelated roles of carer, decision maker, protector and patient advocate, manager, rehabilitator, comforter, communicator, teacher and essay, empowerer, Brillhart Sills (1994). Rogerian Essay! Some nurses see themselves as fulfilling a jack of all trades - master of none role and as a result they frequently felt undervalued.

Waters (1991) suggested that the nursing role is concerned with housekeeping and objective, administrative roles and carry on role seems to goals, be universally found in rehabilitation settings. Also see Appendix for conceptual view of the nurses role as a facilitator in a day hospital. As the essay topic involves rehabilitation it is career objective essay, paramount to look at this term. Rehabilitation was once available primarily for patients with illness or injury to the nervous system has expanded its scope of such services. Dissertation! Today, specialised rehabilitation services, such as cardiac rehabilitation programs, help individuals and their families adjust to necessary changes in lifestyle after heart attacks. Rehabilitation is the career essay, process by which health care workers facilitate an individuals movement toward health.

Rehabilitation has been defined by many rehabilitation team members. However, a previously unpublished definition by McEachron, a rehabilitation nurse, captures the essence and philosophical approach taken in this text: Rehabilitation is a dynamic process of planned adaptive change in lifestyle in response to unplanned change imposed on the individual by disease or traumatic incident. The focus is of thesis, not on cure, but on living which as much freedom and autonomy as possible at every stage and in career objective essay, whichever direction the disability progresses. As well as being a process, rehabilitation can be identification as being a philosophy of care which should underpin all aspects of health care, Booth (1995) ; RCN (1994). Rehabilitation has generally been defined as being concerned with restoring the of thesis, abilities and functions of an individual to a prior level in social, physical, emotional and economic spheres, Baroch (1976). Career Objective Essay! Nichols (1980) in Diogo (2000) suggests that rehabilitation is the appropriate to embrace many physical, social, and organisational aspects of patient after care that require acute, short-term definitive care. Each of these definitions share common elements but if nurses are to become rehabilitators par excellence, Henderson (1980), they must understand the ways in which the definitions vary. The notion of restoration to prior health status is explicit in Baroch’s definition whereas Nichols tend to regard rehabilitation as after care. These definitions do however, include physical, psychological and social aspects of care.

Rehabilitation programmes may take place in many health care settings, including specific rehabilitation institutions, out patient settings, and the home. Frequently, people needing long-term rehabilitation have severe disabilities affecting their ability to carry out activities of living, Millar (1985). The goal of rehabilitation is to decrease the persons’ dependence on the care provided so that they assume responsibility for words and phrases for college personal care. Nurses in rehabilitation are committed to long-term continuity of nursing services and must be knowledgeable in their specialised area. Now that I have explained these terms I would like to discuss the career, literature reviewed with regards to the nurses role in rehabilitation. Henderson (1980) asserts that nurses are rehabilitator’s par excellence which is probably one of the most frequent sound bites appearing in the nursing literature on rehabilitation and this is reflected in the above composite quote which I have constructed from several sources which suggest the poll position that the profession putatively holds in rehabilitation care. Some years ago Myco (1984) questioned the basis of Henderson’s confidence, arguing that the nursing contribution towards rehabilitation was something of a chimera, a point since reiterated a number of times Gibbon (1991); O’Conner (1993) in Aston et al (2000) and essay on sexualisation, Wild (1994). These later authors contend that the nursing role lacks clarity and that a well researched solidly defensible set of interventions is not apparent.

Alluding to Stroke rehabilitation O’Conner (1993) in objective essay, Barer (1999) argues that nurses increasingly fulfil a non-therapeutic managerial role or a non-specific understudy role and that there are no unique rehabilitative interventions that can be called nursing. Henderson (1980) would be unlikely to have seen this as a problem, as she contended that there is considerable overlap between nursing and a range of both health care professions and a critical response, academic disciplines. To her the uniqueness of essay, nursing was the provision of on sexualisation, humanistic, basic nursing care on essay, a 24 hour, 7 day a week basis. Statement! She viewed modern health care as impersonal and objective, contended that one of the main nursing skills was to format of thesis, get under the essay, patients skin in order to deliver humanistic and psychosocial aspects of care as well as the technological age. For College Essays! Her thoughts were in many ways prophetic as her paper preceded the proliferation of debates about a specialist or extended role and in this context her arguments are equally relevant 20 years later. Fully acknowledging the importance of nurses working closely with medical and career objective essay, other colleagues, Henderson (1980) highlighted the resultant and inevitable overlap of roles, and admonished nurses, doctors and other health care professionals to continuously assess the role or function of every category worker so that patients would not suffer as a consequence of boundary disputes. She foresaw the present emphasis on evidence-based care and urged nurses to take full and active part in elucidating their practice, abandoning the identify the steps to writing a critical, cookbook mentality that she considered pervasive in nurse education. Underpinning her position however was the desire to develop the humanistic aspect of nursing. She believed this required a radical change in career, the focus and orientation of health care towards sections of society who were conspicuously neglected, such as the chronically ill, the mentally retarded, the prison population and format, the institutionalised aged, arguing that it was such groups who would most benefit from expert humanistic nursing, also the beliefs of Banta Fox (1972). Leading on career objective essay, from this, in health care, there also are many types of teams. Multidisciplinary teams consist of people from a number of disciplines who may not meet together to co-ordinate efforts.

In contrast, interdisciplinary teams meet and work together to co-ordinate the plan for rehabilitation and to meet the complex needs of individuals with disability and chronic illness. These terms will be used interchangeably within this essay. To have an effective rehabilitation team, it is important that each member of the team understands and respects each other roles. The team members then have to build effective relationships between themselves in order for the team to work as a whole. Within the rehabilitation team, there is general agreement concerning the words essays, broad areas as a team members professional identity and competency; however, the specific zones of responsibility are not always understood by all team members, Banta Fox (1972) and Lasswell Smith (1987). Nursing staff were seen as the co-ordinators of care within the multidisciplinary team.

They were the career objective essay, pivot around which all care is based. Oasis Prize! One reason for this was that they were believed to know the objective essay, patient, as nurses are in constant attendance, whereas other members of the team were seen to dissertation, come into contact with the patient for a specified period of time only, usually for therapy sessions or consultations, Mariano (1992). This co-ordinating role necessitates liaison with other members of the multidisciplinary team who are involved with the individual patient. According to Lippincott (1985) there is an overlap, to varying degrees with other professional roles and in objective, particular where nurses are expected to continue with treatment in the absence of the therapists. The nursing role would therefore continue to be that of central co-ordination.

In health care, there also are many types of teams. Multidisciplinary teams consist of people from a number of disciplines who may not meet together to co-ordinate efforts. In contrast, interdisciplinary teams meet and work together to co-ordinate the plan for rehabilitation and to meet the complex needs of individuals with disability and chronic illness. As previously stated rehabilitation nurses provide direct and indirect nursing care to prevent further disability maintain present ability, and restore lost ability. Essay! They teach individuals to use remaining abilities in adapting to or altering lifestyle. To accomplish these goals, they assess the patient as a total being, and objective, plan, implement, and evaluate nursing care.

As team members nurses share the nursing care plan and the patients responses with other team members, reinforce the care plans of other disciplines, and contribute to of thesis statement, the rehabilitation team care plan. Career Essay! Denham (1992) suggests with increasing emphasis on rehabilitation it is now appropriate to question whether nurses should still be in charge when the nursing role is seen by some to oasis dissertation, now be much reduced, suggesting that a physiotherapist might be a more appropriate leader. This argument can be questioned on two counts - firstly on the assumption that there has been a reduction in the importance of the nursing role, and secondly on its assumption that the nursing role does not include rehabilitation. It was suggested that therapists had secret knowledge to which nurses were not party, which empowered the therapy role at career objective essay the expense of the rogerian essay thesis, nursing role. Career Essay! This indicates the way in rogerian, which nurses under-valued their own role when compared with other disciplines. The nurses saw their role as basic in terms of skills, and the skills of essay, other team members as technical, but this view was not corroborated by other members of the transition for college essays, multidisciplinary team who saw nurses as experts in maintaining tissue viability, continence promotion and patient hygiene and monitoring. In this literature there was a perceived difference in career essay, attitude towards rehabilitation between therapists and nurses.

Nurses were believed to cut corners in rehabilitation if necessary, whereas it was felt that therapists would not. This is perhaps another example of reactive and multifaceted responsibility interfering with what the nurses would regard as a more satisfactory execution of the rehabilitation role. Non-nursing team members viewed the nurse as being competent, understanding of the others profession, highly concerned with the welfare of on sexualisation of children, patients, ethical, trusting of others professional advice, well trained, and maintained good relationships with other professionals. Also that nurses sometimes encroach on essay, non-nurse professional territory. Now it is pertinent to further discuss the nurses specific role, firstly looking at what the authors perceive the nurses role to be. Waters (1984) suggested that the co-ordination role of the identify the steps response, nurse was not solely related to addressing the needs of individual patients.

The responsibility of the nursing staff included a custodial role which encompassed the general well-being of all the patients, even in cases where there was no direct nursing input. It was the nurses role to ensure the overall comfort of the patient. The reactive nature of nursing was another factor which affected the nurses rehabilitation role. Career! As one nurse explained, when elderly disabled people want to go to the toilet they usually mean now; thus carefully planned rehabilitation programmes may be temporarily abandoned in the rush to make it to the toilet in time. The nurses tended to collude in this shelving of rehabilitation actions when hurried. Another nurse said I think what suffers sometimes is if people are busy, somebody who can walk are wheeled. The literature suggests that nurses are not generally seen as being involved in rehabilitation, Eagle et al (1991); Young Foster (1992) in format, Theuerkauf Schuster (1994) and Waters (1994) and some of the comments arising from the present study confirm that these nurses did not see themselves as providing active rehabilitation.

While nurses verbally denied the importance of their own contribution to rehabilitation, they demonstrated allegiance to a rehabilitation philosophy in career objective essay, their practice and in thesis, their communication with other team members. Career! To reiterate what was already said the nursing role involves co-ordination of care, providing rehabilitation support to therapists and where clinically appropriate, leading therapeutic programmes designed to reflect and meet patient need. Rehabilitation nurses provide direct and indirect nursing care to prevent further disability maintain present ability, and restore lost ability. To Writing Response Essay! They teach individuals to use remaining abilities in adapting to or altering lifestyle. To accomplish these goals, they assess the patient as a total being, and plan, implement, and career, evaluate nursing care. As team members nurses share the nursing care plan and the patients responses with other team members, reinforce the care plans of of children, other disciplines, and contribute to the rehabilitation team care plan. Looking at various areas of rehabilitation research, nurses already have a well established role in rehabilitation of people with arthritis. The nurse’s role within this area is well developed with studies suggesting that nursing interventions are more effective than those of medical staff on a range of variables, Nolan Nolan (1998), p22. So far the career essay, research indicated that nurses have an important role within rehabilitation, but according to Booth Waters (1995) believe that nursing does not appear to have claimed any distinct realm of responsibility other than the career essay, vague care function which, in a rehabilitation setting such as a day hospital is not necessarily appropriate.

Throughout the literature nursing tends to be described in terms of specific tasks. For instance, Brocklehurst Tucker (1980) list nursing treatment including injections, dressings, urine testing, blood pressure recordings, eye bathing and career essay, surveillance of diet. The Steps To Writing Response! There is no encompassing area of expertise according to these authors summarising that the essay, nurses contribution has nothing to offer as far as rehabilitating patients. All the sources reviewed for this essay aligh nursing with medicine, discussing rehabilitation as a separate entity, in the realm of the therapist’s from which nurses are excluded Cousings Hale (1983); Zeeli Isaacs (1988). However Brocklehurst Tucker (1980) identified some difficulties for nurses in accepting this situation, indicating that many would prefer to be more actively involved in for college, rehabilitation.

The aspiration of these nurses is supported by Skeet (1983), who suggests that rehabilitation is the particular responsibility of nurses working and that every action should be rehabilitation in intent. Rehabilitation is an important component of objective, nursing practice overall, but it also is an area of the steps response essay, specialised practice implemented within rehabilitation settings. The goal of rehabilitation nursing is to facilitate the movement of individuals toward independence while helping them satisfy their needs. Therefore the approach to rehabilitation is holistic, creative, caring, and career objective essay, optimistic. Nurses constitute the biggest group within the health service and are a key aspect of the rehabilitation process, Chamberlain (1988) in David (1993). Chamberlain recommends that it is the identify response essay, role of the objective, nurse to influence the morale and ethos of the team of nurses on the ward/unit/community. Prize! This may only career objective be achieved by promoting an atmosphere of interdisciplinary teamwork, continuing communication, education and free expression. It seems reasonable to hypothesise than increase in rehabilitation knowledge and rogerian, practice application by all professional groups in contact with patients could increase the amounts of therapy time patients receive and the potential for functional improvement. This would require a resolution of career, professional rivalry, which has been identified as a problem in furthering shared multidisciplinary team approaches to rehabilitation, KFFCS (1988).

Nurses have yet to define the parameters of format of thesis statement, their contribution in career, the rehabilitation context. Nurses believe they make a valuable contribution and that much of rogerian, their intervention is concerned with supporting and reinforcing the career objective, care implemented by others, especially the therapy staff. Essays! It can be suggested that if the nurses were taught and developed the confidence to objective, implement rehabilitation techniques in practice then continuity of care would improve, as would interdisciplinary relations. I cannot stress enough that rehabilitation is a multidisciplinary team effort which should revolve around the patient’s needs. Further studies are required to goals college essay, support the findings of the exploratory by Hill Johnson (1999) who agreed with this. Conclusion I will now give my own opinion on the nurses role whilst making recommendations. Firstly, a thorough knowledge of career objective, one’s own profession is essential in goals essay, communicating the disciplines strengths and objective, limitations within the multidisciplinary team. Effective multidisciplinary team work encourages mutual respect and individual autonomy among professionals, Mariano (1992). Rehabilitation nurses should be building on their knowledge base and essay on sexualisation of children, participating in research relevant to rehabilitation. Although nurses make a valuable contribution to the process of rehabilitation, the parameters of essay, that contribution have yet to be defined. Nurses and others should be aware that many patients do not recover to their pre-illness levels of ability, and rehabilitation may be a long and arduous for the patient, family, and staff.

The lack of clarity of the nurse's role has been previously noted, Myco (1986) and due to pre-registration nurse training through Project 2000, with the goals college, shift to incorporate both institutional settings, may go some way to overcoming this deficit. I would recommend that there should be increased recognition of the contribution of nurses to rehabilitation through acknowledgement of the hidden aspects of career essay, nurses work. Education in basic rehabilitation techniques should be available to this group of nurses in order that their potential for enhancing the outcomes of care can be realised. Rehabilitation is an important component of rogerian, nursing practice overall, but it also is an area of specialised practice implemented within rehabilitation settings. The goal of rehabilitation nursing is to career, facilitate the movement of individuals toward independence while helping them satisfy their needs.

Therefore the approach to rehabilitation is holistic, creative, caring, and optimistic and to achieve this goal a multi/interdisciplinary approach is statement, needed to take a bite out of career objective, all of the goals essay, disciplines and for each member of the team to reinforce the other. The professional practice of the rehabilitation nurse is wide and varied. Rehabilitation nursing is an exciting, challenging, and rewarding area of nursing practice that is likely to continue expanding in the coming decades. The ageing population and increasing numbers of physically disabled and chronically ill persons will increase demands for rehabilitative services and for knowledgeable rehabilitative nurses. Rehabilitative nurses who collaborate effectively with other members of career objective, health and social disciplines to bring patients to their full functional potential will see an increasing demand for their services.

After looking at all the research and becoming very confused as to words and phrases for college essays, whether the objective essay, nurse has a role in rehabilitation, I have come to the conclusion that the essay on sexualisation of children, nurse does have a role, if now the most important role within the multidisciplinary team. This is show by essay, the extent of dissertation prize, knowledge required by the nurse to empower the patient and their significant others. For example a doctor is required to know about their medicine, the occupational therapist is required to assist the patient with adaptive tools and the physiotherapist will encourage physical activity to aid improvement, whereas the career, nurse has to know all of these things and reinforce them when the for college essays, rest of the team has gone home. The problem with this scenario is that the nurses appear to be unappreciated by the other team members which will obviously cause resentment and conflict. I would recommend that all disciplines should be educated on objective essay, the subject of multidisciplinary membership and format of thesis, of course rehabilitation. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Coursework essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on essay, hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of rogerian, expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.

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