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occasional essay The broader definition of an essay as given in Webster's dictionary is this: A short composition that deals with a single topic. To add more content to this here is an excerpt from Learning Essay Writing by descriptive my backyard Marvin Eicher (Rod and Staff.) The four kinds of prose (nonpoetic) writing are expositiion, argumentation, description, and narration. An EXPOSITION explains an idea or process; an ARGUMENTATION sets out to prove a particular point of view; a DESCRIPTION shows the reader how something looks, sounds, or feels; and a NARRATION tells a story. It is possible for one essay to speech contain elements of all the above. From my experience younger children deal best with the last two, description (e.g.
This is my best friend and what we do together. or, My Favourite Hobby), and narration ( e.g. Our Trip to descriptive Oregon, or a story from democracy vs representative democracy, their own imagination. The more stories they read, the better their stories become.) Hey, Maybe my child has already actually started writing essays! you say. But, is descriptive essays there a particular format to follow? And, how can they improve in research, their essay writing? In brief, yes, there is a format and by my backyard becoming acquainted with the following steps to writing a person's writing is vs representative bound to improve.
Step 1. GETTING STARTED What is the descriptive essays my backyard first question a prospective writer asks? We have all heard it before. What am I going to write about? Yes, The first thing is to choose a topic. That takes a little thought, maybe a little prompting or a list of suggestions. Step 2. It is important at this stage to keep the student TOPIC narrowed down to a manageable field. E.g. 'Literature' is a very broad topic. 'Literature in the 19th Century' narrows it down.
Choosing one specific author from that century would narrow it down further 'Horatio Alger, A Favourite Author of the 19th Century'. Step 3. My Backyard! Make an OUTLINE. The writer should ask, What ideas do I have about this topic? Asking questions about the topic helps a great deal. Write these ideas down in point form as they come to mind. E.G. Coping Paper! Horatio Alger.
where did he live? date of birth and death did he have a family? what were some events of his early life? when did he start writing? what was he like? what influenced his writings? why were his writings such a big hit? my favourite Alger story is ______ etc. etc. Step 5. Descriptive Essays My Backyard! Write an direct vs representative INTRODUCTION. This is the part that my children usually left off. Focusing on it for a few days in their daily writing and helping with suggestions, giving them models in other writings helped significantly. Here is an e.g. from our 8 year old daughter Rose's composition book: I have a little sister who's name is Leah Grace Jagt. or I like squirrels. These of course are very simple, but, they do the job.
Following the e.g. of the Horatio Alger essay one could write, Some of the greatest literature was written in the 19th century. Horatio Alger was one of those authors. He wrote exciting and descriptive my backyard adventureous stories about boys in America that even girls, like myself, love to jokes read (a suggestion from Rose). Descriptive! Who was Horatio Alger, and jokes how did he come to write such great stories? The introduction has to, of course, lead to what is coming next.
Step 6. The BODY of the essay is what comes between the introduction and conclusion. It could be one or more paragraphs, depending on how many ideas you have. Descriptive Essays! Go back to the outline and write about each of the ideas that are there. Some research, more or less, depending on the age and ability of the child, could or should happen at essay jokes this point. Research, even from one source (such as the Book of descriptive Knowledge) helps ideas to be accurate, answers questions the essay hooks about writer had about the topic and developes the idea. It may spark new ideas as well that you then add to the outline. Use the outline to write the body of your essay. Warning: This may be a very sloppy process . but. it does not end here. Step 7. Write a CONCLUSION. This could simply be one sentence or thought. E.G. from Horatio Alger: I believe Alger's stories are sure to be around for another 100 years.
They are true classics. E.G. from My Baby Sister: Babies are a lot of fun! Certain lengthier essay's may need to descriptive essays conclude with a summary. Step 8. Jokes! REREAD your essay. Correct all the errors you find. Do I need to suggest a few? Check spelling (dictionary), check capitalization and punctuation (Learning Grammar Through Writing, is our favourite child-friendly help), take out unnecessary words (e.g. In my opinion, I think that. is saying the descriptive essays my backyard same thing twice, and starting every sentence with Now or Then ) , and change any sentences or words that do not seem right. Some parental help at being an international this point is very helpful in building better essays. Step 9. If necessary, REWRITE the descriptive essays my backyard essay and hand it in. Now it will look great.
Way to go! Since introducing the outline and essay about roughcopy approach with our 12 year old son he has commented that it has become EASIER to write an descriptive essays my backyard essay. Yeah! Planning ahead is sure to improve the final product too! (And it has.) A Teachers Course 11-16-1972. Introduction by Rev. About Life! Thoburn. It is a privilege to essays introduce tonight brother Rousas J. Rushdoony who is at home in many fields including education.
He's written a couple of books on education: The Messianic Character of speech American Education and Intellectual Schizophrenia as well as many other works that deal with education, science, politics and so forth. But tonight he is going to speak to us on the subject of composition, a Christian approach to essays composition. Rush, thank you very much for being with us tonight. Writing and life Culture. I'm a little hesitant about talking on teaching composition to all of you who do more teaching of it than I ever do. But Mrs. Thoburn felt that I should speak on this subject. As a professional writer I do have some ideas on the subject. And, perhaps, some of the things I say may be relevant to descriptive essays my backyard you in your work as teachers.
First of essay all, teaching composition simply means, teaching good writing. It's as simple as that. Second, we must say that good writing is clear thinking. Muddled thinking and muddled writing is a headache in any and every area. In fact, one of the problems of our day is that, as at the end of every age, thinking is descriptive essays my backyard muddled and therefore writing is muddled. It's a curious, but very significant fact. But in the days before the fall of Greece there was no good writing and no good thinking. Before the fall of Rome there was no good writing and no good thinking. As the medieval era came to a close, again, there was no good thinking and no good writing. We have the same problem today. Good writing is coping research clear thinking.
This is why in essays my backyard, a Christian school you can teach good writing in direct democracy democracy, a way that you cannot in a state school. The whole philosophy of humanistic man is such, today, that it militates against clear thinking and therefore good writing. Examples of Muddled Writing. Look at the major magazines in the country today. When I pick up, for example, a copy of a National Review I find it infuriating reading. The style is so bad. Descriptive My Backyard! The points are made in such a peculiar and involved way. Direct Democracy! These are conservative writers. I find myself usually in somewhat of an agreeable position to what they have to descriptive essays say. But I very often simply throw the hooks magazine aside and refuse to go ahead any further because I find that it's too irritating, too aggravating to me to read that kind of muddled writing. I read Harpers and the Atlantic Monthly . These two periodicals are supposed to represent the essays best in American literary standards.
They are, definitely, superior to much else. And yet, here again, we have this same problem. More than once I've gone to my wife with a paragraph and I have thrust it in front of her and I've said, Read it and tell me if it makes any sense to you. And she has to agree with me that somehow there isn't a coherent and a consistent point made. At the end of every age there is a collapse of speech culture, a collapse of thinking and it reflects itself in the writing. This is why I think composition can only be properly taught in this day and essays age in a Christian school; precisely because the speech Christian school, in my opinion, represents the wave of the future. It represents that agency which, alone, is teaching the consistently good leadership for tomorrow; only there can you teach good composition. Bad Writing in Colleges.
I do a great deal of lecturing on descriptive, secular college and university campuses and, once in a while, as this week, at a Christian college campus. On some of these secular university campuses I have had occasion at times to see some of the papers that some of the students are doing and the superior grades they get for hooks life them. And it is appalling to see the essays my backyard kind of garbage that is turned in. And I mean garbage in terms of any kind of literary standard. The inability to think straight, and then to express that, is english essay jokes one that is more and more apparent in our culture.
We must say, further, that the essays my backyard purpose of an international essay good punctuation and good grammar is simply to further clear thinking. This is the emphasis we must make when we teach grammar and punctuation. I had the usual problems that children do with grammar and punctuation. I think I was better than most. I was getting A's. But it wasn't until I encountered a teacher who simply explained what each punctuation mark did and what the rules of grammar did for clear thinking that suddenly the essays purpose of it all came home to me and I never forgot, thereafter, the rules so that when you explain the rules of punctuation and of grammar, emphasize their function in democracy democracy, teaching clear thinking. The structure of my backyard a paragraph: It's a body of thought. An International Student! It is not a false syllogism.
It is important, therefore, in teaching good composition to stress thinking in descriptive my backyard, the composition and the content thereof so that besides being grammatically correct and correct as far as punctuation is The Ancient 3500 BCE to 400 CE concerned, it is descriptive clear, logical thinking; that it does not involve false syllogisms. Now, in case you don't know what a false syllogism is, it's a proposition which is seemingly logical but which leads to an illogical conclusion because the various aspects of speech pmr essay it are improperly phrased, involve too much and therefore lead to false conclusions. I can illustrate with this: A. Man is a two-legged animal. B. A chicken is a two-legged animal. C. It follows, therefore, that a chicken is a man. Now, that's a false syllogism. You have begun by defining man in descriptive essays, terms of being a two-legged animal, which is true.
Man is a two-legged animal. But he is more than a two-legged animal. And your definition, thus, leads to a false conclusion. Now, this is important because so much of our writing, so much of the argument you hear nowadays in politics, on television talk shows, magazine articles, involves this kind of illogical thinking; false syllogisms. That's why it is important to stress this kind of thinking, clear headed, avoiding false syllogisms with the child. Thinking Before Writing. A paragraph is a logical, consistent body of thought. And thought must precede writing always. Thought must precede writing. It's important, therefore, to think something out before it is speech written. When I sit down to write, for example, I have been dealing with a subject for some time so that when I go over a chapter that I have written for essays any one of my books-I write in long hand-on rare occasions I may make a correction.
Very often my chapters will appear exactly as I wrote them in the book. Paper! The reason, of descriptive essays my backyard course, is research paper I have thought the descriptive my backyard subject through backwards and forwards so that when I sit down to write it's just a question of letting it flow. You can have logical writing, good writing, when you have given as much time as possible to jokes thinking beforehand. And this is why it is important for children to be taught they must think before they write. I had a teacher once who tried a novel experiment with us. Descriptive My Backyard! Everyone in the class was to get up and being an international student give a five-minute talk. That talk was criticized and then we were to write it. Descriptive Essays! The whole point was to coping paper see how our writing reflected the thinking of the oral composition-and we'll come back to descriptive essays that subsequently-in terms of the criticism of the kind of argument we had used. The point was to english essay improve our thinking before we came to writing.
It was a very healthy exercise especially because the class was encouraged to be ruthless with everyone who was up in front talking. They took to that very quickly. And it was good discipline. Next, a very important point; one which is never stressed nowadays: the question of propositional truth. A few of you may be familiar with this subject because there are some who deny that the Bible gives us propositional truth. My Backyard! But what we must say is that all language is propositional. All language is propositional. Every word involves a proposition concerning reality. Take, for example, the word sovereign. The word sovereign properly belongs to God: ultimate, absolute, final, Lord over all things.
When men begin to use the word sovereign for english jokes the state or for state's rights or for man, they have thereby made man or an institution of man into God. The word is descriptive my backyard is propositional. The word is says there is being, present being. That's a proposition. All language is inescapably propositional. As a result we must say the emphasis in modern writing, modern composition, modern literature on BCE to 400 CE, mood writing is utterly ridiculous. It is false. My Backyard! You cannot even convey a mood without, first of all, having a proposition. As a result, it is very, very helpful to stress the use of a dictionary, a very precise emphasis on definitions, the very careful limitation of words to their precise and jokes original meaning in order to further good composition. Using Correct Language.
When I was a senior at the university I took a course in Advanced Composition from one of the most wonderful men I ever studied under. He was an old Scotchman with a Scotch burr, G. Dundace Craig; an elderly white-haired man who peered over his glasses with his eyes twinkling, just the essays ideal kind of professor, the kind you dream about and rarely, if ever, see. And I shall never forget the time when we had been given a number of democracy essay words to use in a sentence. And he picked up my paper and read something that I had written that I had been raised in California and Michigan . And he looked at me and descriptive he said, Mr. Rushdoony, we raise hogs. We rear children. I've never misused that word again. You see, the significance there of the proper use of words. Our failure to coping research paper teach this kind of thing has led to a blurring of descriptive my backyard language. Of course there's a reason for this. Pmr Essay! I said, earlier, that language is propositional.
Very few people ever teach that. In fact, let me say I've never heard anyone stress this in any teaching of composition. Essays! And yet one of the reasons why there is the being an international student effort to break down language is precisely because it is propositional. Marcel Duchamp's War on Language. One of the most interesting figures of this century was Marcel Duchamp; D-U-C-H-A-M-P. Anyone ever hear of him? Yes. Now, Marcel Duchamp was a French artist who was very famous in the early years of the century-I think it was 1913, the Armory Show in New York -where his painting Nude Descending a Staircase created a sensation.
It was the first example of modern art of an extreme variety that this country had seen. And so millions of people heard about it across the descriptive my backyard country. Thousands lined up to see the Armory Show and to figure out being an international essay where the nude was in that painting. They couldn't see a nude. Marcel Duchamp, as a champion of modern art, was totally anti-God and, as a result, ultimately anti-art.
Later on instead of painting anything or sculpting anything, he would go to the dump, pick up any random article and bring it and display it. Descriptive Essays! Finally, he would have nothing to do with art and he retired. He dedicated himself for some years to an effort to create a new language in which words would have no meaning. Because, he said, language as it exists today with its meaning, is propositional and it ultimately points to the total world of meaning that is God. He wanted a logically atheistic language. He worked for years to create a language in which words would have no meaning, no propositional character and finally decided if he invented it there would be no one he could communicate with. It was an impossibility and he gave up.
And he did nothing more the rest of his life. To do anything would have meaning and 3500 would point to descriptive God. Now, Marcel Duchamp was, at least, knowledgeable as far as the significance of speech language. Essays! Language is propositional. Language does point to a world of an international meaning and to God.
Man is the creature who has language and is, therefore, the creature who worships God and is related to God. Ideas for descriptive my backyard Composition. For this reason it is coping extremely important to stress the propositional character of language. We must, therefore, say that compositions dealing with ideas are, thus, more useful than compositions dealing with What I did on my vacation. A composition on Why capital punishment? or Should schools have corporal punishment? That might get them very interested. Deal with ideas. And this is the kind of writing you need to encourage because good writing and good thinking are inseparable. And you're not going to teach good writing unless you stress good thinking. Some day, perhaps, our composition textbooks will begin by teaching elementary logic.
This is important. It is essentially related to the teaching of composition. Because good thinking is so basic, it is important for children to have good models. I have been upset several times in recent years when I have found that some child or other has been reprimanded for a composition because they copied so much of it out of an encyclopedia. My Backyard! I think that's good. In fact, I think it's a good discipline to assign, say, a 10-page article or to about mimeograph one and then tell the descriptive essays my backyard child to take and being essay condense this into two or three pages. They have, first of all, a model of descriptive essays good thinking. Then, they have, further, the discipline of getting to the heart of that article in their condensation. The more a child can go to models like an hooks about life encyclopedia article and work with it to restate it, even though he restates, say, his two or three page condensation largely in the words of the essays original writer, he is learning something thereby. He is learning how to assess the original article in direct vs representative democracy, terms of its significance and importance, the descriptive essays central points thereof, and paper then to condense it. Frankly, I did a great deal of my learning as a child precisely in that way.
I thought it was one of the most helpful things I did. Every time I had a paper I would go to an encyclopedia and, essentially, condense it. Descriptive My Backyard! I learned a great deal thereby. Essay! I knew that I had to descriptive essays understand what that article said no matter how much I followed the wording thereof. You can take these articles and then go over them with the children in terms of the original article-if you have mimeographed a copy for World, 3500 400 CE everyone in the class-in order for them to understand what the essential points are, to see where they went astray, to enable them to essays my backyard think so that they can write better. Speaking as Composition. I mentioned earlier giving five-minute talks and then writing. Oral composition is a form of composition. It is excellent training. Talking is composition. What I'm giving you now is a composition, an oral composition.
When we give an oral composition we are put on our metal because in an oral composition we see the english results immediately. We know whether people are getting bored and going to sleep or getting restless and looking at the clock. My Backyard! And it's a good test of democracy vs representative whether we are getting the essays point across and getting it across properly, creating interest and empathy as we do. Debating is a form of composition. Research! When we debate or when we speak it is necessary for us to have some thing to say and to say it clearly and descriptive my backyard well. Thus, in teaching oral composition a very good way of doing it is to ask the children to give a how to do it talk and pmr essay then to write a how to descriptive do it paper. This is the most difficult type of oral and The Ancient written composition.
Transferring Ideas with Little Common Ground. We all know how to descriptive essays my backyard do something, but when it comes to telling someone else to do it, it is clearly a problem. It requires thinking the matter through so that a person who knows nothing about it will know precisely what to do: how to bake a cake, how to play basketball. This sounds simple until you try it. It does call for clear headed thinking. Have a child explain playing baseball to someone from France who has no idea what baseball is or what a baseball diamond is about. This type of thing requires them to The Ancient 400 CE look at their writing carefully to make sure that such a person will understand what they have to descriptive essays my backyard say. Of course, outlining, short essay, locating topic sentences, recognizing how important topic sentences are, and coping research paper analyzing sentence structure not only grammatically, but in terms of a complete thought are important. Developing Basic Ideas. Then, again, it is important to teach a child how to develop an idea. The composition is an idea or a series of ideas.
They need to, therefore, to take a basic idea and develop it. Descriptive My Backyard! At this point the essay Bible is a very convenient and useful textbook. The book of Proverbs, for example; take Proverbs 13:24: He that spareth his rod hateth his son: but he that loveth him chasteneth him betimes. What is the idea there? Let the child develop it. Or, in Proverbs 28 here are a couple of verses I like. Verse four: They that forsake the essays law praise the wicked: but such as keep the law contend with them. He that turneth away his ear from hearing the law, even his prayer shall be abomination.
Verse nine. There are lots of marvelous verses in Proverbs which set forth an idea. Essay About! The child can be assigned such a verse and descriptive essays asked to democracy essay develop the descriptive essays my backyard idea, to about analyze what Scripture is saying, to apply that idea concretely, to illustrate it, to essays learn, in other words, to read clearly and then the develop the implications of The Ancient World, 3500 BCE to 400 CE what he reads. I indicated earlier that the study of the meaning of words is important. Essays! I cited Dr. Craig's teaching that the meaning of words to us and english essay how he made me remember in an unforgettable way that I was not raised. I was reared.
The use of a dictionary is essays my backyard important. It should be stressed. English Essay Jokes! Children should be given a number of words to look up then to use in descriptive essays my backyard, a sentence. Destructiveness of Creative Writing. Then, finally, what we need to stress in teaching composition is not creative writing, but good writing.
I do not believe in creative writing. I think more harm has been done in the name of creative writing the past generation than in any other way in our culture. It has encouraged anarchy of democracy essay mind and descriptive essays anarchy in coping, composition. Descriptive Essays My Backyard! I very early realized when I was a student that these were courses to stay away from. I recognized the students who had potentiality as good writers were very quickly spoiled by such courses. Man cannot think creatively. Creativity is an attribute of God. God, alone, is Creator. Democracy Democracy Essay! God, alone, can bring something out of nothing. Man's thinking is essays not intended to be creative, but intelligent.
In creative writing you have, precisely, what you do today in the arts: striving after novelty. Creativity has been stressed for a few generations now. English! And in every area of art there is descriptive my backyard a straining after endless novelty. An International Student Essay! In painting there is a new style in almost every year: hop art, pop art; the idea being that unless you have something new you are not creative. The same is true in writing styles.
There is a continual straining after novelty so that if you read some of these avant-garde periodicals you find that it is very difficult to follow what they are saying because they speak in esoteric language. Unless you have kept pace with the changing styles of writing, the my backyard writing is somewhat esoteric. Of course, the same thing, today, we have in styles. A hundred years ago a woman could spend a sizable amount on several dresses and be sure that she could use those dresses for 10, 20 years. She would simply introduce variations with some of the accessories. 3500 BCE To 400 CE! Those dresses were works of art. Perhaps you have seen some of them in some museums.
They were beautiful. Because there was no straining after continual novelty there could be a development of beauty and of quality. The same is true of writing. Descriptive Essays My Backyard! If there is coping research no continual straining after novelty-such as you have today in the arts-there can be a development of descriptive quality and of beauty. About a year or two ago I had trouble keeping my temper with the professor of English in a so-called Christian college. There were several pieces of being student essay writing that I regarded as of great beauty and character. They were the work of a Christian writer of the last century. I called them to his attention. He brushed them aside contemptuously and said, The language is old-fashioned and trite. Who could be interested in that? His interest is in avant-garde literature.
To be one step ahead of all his colleagues, he is now spending his time studying Russian literature and finding special revelations there. In fact, he's beginning to get a reputation across country-unfortunately a very high reputation, which says very little for academic circles-because he reads all kinds of esoteric evangelical Christian messages in the Russian writers. Descriptive Essays My Backyard! He has a theory that some of them must be underground or secret Christians because he reads a symbolism into their characters and into speech pmr essay their themes. My Backyard! It's pure rubbish, of course. But it's the kind of rubbish that goes over well today.
And the kind of thing he reads into some of being an international essay our avant-garde American writers is on the same level. There are profound spiritual levels with their hatred of life, with their contempt for all our old standards. He nevertheless sees a tremendous spiritual breakthrough. They are disillusioned with our material civilization and are on the verge of descriptive some kind of spiritual breakthrough. This is nonsense, of course. When you stress creativity you will wind up with this kind of nonsense and you will forsake beauty and art. In one exhibition of being paintings recently which I visited I was very struck with a beautiful landscape, very much. Descriptive! I knew the part of California the artist had portrayed and speech pmr essay I thought he had caught something of its very haunting beauty, a fall sunset mood. When I was looking at essays it I overheard some people as they went by look at it with contempt, My God, it's beautiful. That was the worst thing they could say about it.
I think that sums up what we have today: creativity in the arts, creativity in composition, continual novelty to prove that, somehow, you are the god-man who can come up with something new faster than anyone else. At a Christian school we are not interested in creativity. About! We are interested in intelligent writing, clear thinking, and propositional thinking. This is what constitutes good composition.
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Tips for Academic Writing and Other Formal Writing. It is a long list. People have a lot of problems. Some of the items sound picky or trivial, even to me. Descriptive. Yet bad grammar, bad style, and paper poor organization will make it very difficult for you to convey your ideas clearly and professionally, and will limit your academic and professional success. I strongly recommend that you work to eliminate any of descriptive my backyard these problems that may apply to your own writing. -- Dr. James A. Essay. Bednar. Rules for formal writing are quite strict, though often unstated.
Formal writing is used in academic and scientific settings whenever you want to convey your ideas to a wide audience, with many possible backgrounds and assumptions. Unlike casual conversation or emails to friends, formal writing needs to be clear, unambiguous, literal, and essays my backyard well structured. Formal writing is not just dictated conversation In general, it is inappropriate simply to write as you would speak. World, BCE To 400 CE. In conversation, the listener can ask for my backyard clarification or elaboration easily, and thus the being speaker can use imprecise language, ramble from descriptive essays, topic to topic freely, and so on. Formal writing must instead stand on its own, conveying the author's thesis clearly through words alone. As a result, formal writing requires substantial effort to construct meaningful sentences, paragraphs, and arguments relevant to a well-defined thesis. The best formal writing will be difficult to write but very easy to read. The author's time and effort spent on writing will be repaid with the time and paper effort saved by the (many) readers. Make your thesis obvious throughout An essay, article, or report should have one main topic (the thesis) that is clearly evident in essays the introduction and conclusion. Of course, the thesis may itself be a conjunction or a contrast between two items, but it must still be expressible as a single, coherent point. In a short essay, the main point should usually conclude the introductory paragraph.
In a longer essay, the main point generally concludes the introductory section. Direct Vs Representative Democracy. The reader should never be in descriptive essays any doubt about research, what your thesis is; whenever you think it might not be absolutely obvious, remind the my backyard reader again. When in doubt, use the recipe: introduce, expand/justify, conclude Paragraphs, subsections, sections, chapters, and books all use the same structure: first make the topic clear, then expand upon it, and finally sum up, tying everything back to the topic. At each level, you need to tell the hooks about reader what you will be trying to say (in this paragraph, section, etc.), then you need to cover all the my backyard relevant material, clearly relating it to your stated point, and finally you need to research, tie the descriptive my backyard subtopics together so that they do indeed add up to direct essay, establish the descriptive essays my backyard point that you promised. Stay on topic Everything in your document should be related clearly to an international student, your main thesis. You can write other papers later for anything else you might want to say.
The reason your reader is reading this particular paper of yours is that he or she wants to know about essays my backyard, your main topic, not simply about everything you might want to being, say (unless for some narcissistic reason everything you might want to say is your clearly stated main topic). Conversely, there is no need to bring up items simply because they relate to your main topic, if you do not have anything to say about them. If you do bring something up, say something important about it! Staying on topic does not mean being one sided To avoid being misleading, you will often need to acknowledge some weaknesses in your argument or discuss some merits of an opposing argument. It is quite appropriate to essays, discuss such opposing views when they are relevant, i.e., when they relate directly to 3500 BCE to, the main topic of your paper. For instance, if you are reviewing a paper and arguing that it was not written well overall, it is usually a good idea to point out the few things that were done well, e.g. so that the reader does not get the descriptive impression that you just like to The Ancient World, 3500, complain :-) . Descriptive. Often such opposing observations fit well just after the introduction, providing a background for the rest of your arguments that follow.
Whenever you do include such material, i.e. things that go in the direction opposite to your main thesis, be careful to being essay, put it into only a few well-defined places, reorganizing your argument to achieve that when necessary. Jumping back and descriptive essays my backyard forth will confuse the reader unnecessarily. In every case, try to make your point as clearly as possible, while at the same time not overstating it and not pretending that no other valid viewpoints exist. Transitions are difficult but very important Each sentence in essay hooks life your document should follow smoothly from the preceding sentence, and each paragraph should follow smoothly from the descriptive preceding paragraph. The world is arguably an unstructured jumble of ideas, but anything that you expect the english jokes reader to read from start to finish needs to be a linear progression along one single path. Transition words and essays my backyard phrases are what make it possible for a reader to follow you easily as you explore the various ideas in your paper. Research. Without good transitions, the descriptive reader will end up backtracking repeatedly, which will often cause your point to be lost or your paper to be tossed aside altogether. One clue that your writing needs better transitions is if you find that you can cut and english essay jokes paste paragraphs from one section to another without doing substantial rewriting of how the my backyard paragraph begins and essay hooks life ends.
If making such rearrangements is easy, then you have not been linking your paragraphs into essays my backyard a coherent narrative that reads well from start to finish. In practice, making smooth transitions is very difficult. Learning to do it takes a lot of practice at jokes, first, and actually making the transitions smooth takes a lot of effort every time you write or revise something. One rule of thumb is that whenever you switch topics, you should try to provide a verbal clue that you are doing so, using transitions like However, . , As a result, . Descriptive. , For comparison, , etc. If you notice that you have to add these words between most of your sentences, not just the paragraphs, then you are bouncing around too much.
In that case you need to reorganize your document to group related thoughts together, switching topics only when necessary. Once the organization is good, all you can do is read and reread what you write, rewording it until each new item follows easily from speech, those before it. Write what you mean, mean what you write Speakers use many informal, colloquial phrases in my backyard casual conversation, usually intending to speech pmr essay, convey meanings other than what the words literally indicate. For instance, we often speak informally of my backyard going the extra mile, at the end of the day, hard facts, things being crystal clear or pretty convincing, someone sticking to a topic, readers being turned off, something really being the case, etc. Avoid such imprecise writing in formal prose -- whenever possible, the words you write should literally mean exactly what they say. If there were no miles involved, do not write of The Ancient World, 3500 BCE to extra ones; if there was no crystal, do not write about its clarity. Among other benefits, avoiding such informal language will ensure that your meaning is obvious even to those who have not learned the currently popular idioms, such as those for my backyard whom English is a second language and those who might read your writing years from World, 3500 400 CE, now or in descriptive my backyard another part of the world. Formal writing should be clear to as many people as possible, and coping paper its meaning should not depend on descriptive essays, the whims of coping research your local dialect of essays English. It is a permanent and public record of your ideas, and an international should mean precisely what you have written.
Avoid redundancy Unfortunately, specifying minimum page requirements encourages redundancy, but please try to avoid that temptation. When two words will do, there is no need to use twenty. Whenever you finish a sentence or paragraph, read over it to essays, see if any words or sentences can be eliminated -- often your point will get much stronger when you do so. Hooks About. In the essays academic community, your ability to write concisely is student essay, far more important than your ability to fill up a page with text. Academic courses specify page minimums to ensure that you write an essay of the appropriate depth, not to test whether you can say the essays my backyard same thing a dozen different ways just to The Ancient 3500, fill up space. In the real world, you will see many more page maximum specifications than page minimums. Be professional and diplomatic When writing about another's work, always write as if your subject may read your document. Your essays for a course assignment will probably not be published, but genuine scientific writing will be, and the subject of your paper may very well come across your work eventually. Thus it is crucial to avoid pejorative, insulting, and descriptive my backyard offensive terms like attempt to, a waste of time, pointless, etc. If some of the essays I have seen were read out loud to the author under discussion, a fistfight would probably result. At the research very least, you would have made an descriptive my backyard, enemy for life, which is rarely a good idea.
In any case, your points will be much more convincing if you can disagree professionally and diplomatically, without attacking the author or implying that he or she is an imbecile. And, finally, no one will publish your work if it is coping research paper, just a diatribe and not a sober, reasoned argument. To avoid these sorts of problems, it might be good to descriptive, pretend that you are the author under discussion and re-read your essay through his or her eyes. It should be straightforward to figure out which parts would make you defensive or angry, and you can then reword those. Avoid imperative voice Use imperative voice sparingly in a scientific paper, because it comes across as rude (as do many of the sentences in what you are reading right now!). E.g. do not say Recall that . . Of course, an occasional imperative in parentheses is not objectionable (e.g. (see Walker 1996 for more details).).
A formal document needs to be structured at all levels, whether or not the english essay jokes structure is made explicit using section labels or other visible clues. Overall structure The standard format for an effective essay or article is to: (1) present a coherent thesis in the introduction, (2) try your hardest to convince the reader of essays your thesis in the body of the paper, and (3) restate the thesis in The Ancient 3500 400 CE the conclusion so that the reader remains quite sure what your thesis is, and so that the reader can decide whether he or she was convinced. Using any other format for a formal article is almost invariably a bad idea. The introduction and conclusions do not always need to be labeled as such, but they need to be there. My Backyard. Note that an abstract is no substitute for an introduction; abstracts act as an World, 3500 BCE to 400 CE, independent miniature version of the article, not part of the introduction.
Each paragraph is descriptive, one relevant sub-topic Each paragraph in a document should have one topic that is clearly evident early in the paragraph. Every paragraph should have a clear relationship to speech pmr essay, the main topic of essays my backyard your document; if not, either the coping research paper paragraph should be eliminated, or the main topic should be revised. Use complete sentences Except in extraordinary circumstances, sentences in the main text must be complete, i.e., they must have a subject and a verb, so that they express an entire thought, not just a fragment or the beginning of a thought. Note that most -ing words are not verbs. The light turning green is just a fragment, i.e., a start to a sentence or a part of one.
To be a sentence that you could use on its own followed by a period, it would have to be The light turned green, which has both a subject and a verb. Put appropriate punctuation between sentences. Two complete sentences can be divided with a period, question mark, or exclamation point, or they can be weakly connected as clauses with a semicolon. Essays My Backyard. However, they can never be connected with a comma in formal writing! To see if your writing has this problem, consider each of your commas in turn. Hooks. If you could replace the descriptive essays my backyard comma with a period, leaving two complete, meaningful sentences, then that comma is an error -- a comma can never be used like that! Instead, replace the english jokes comma with a semicolon, in case you have two sentences that need to be linked in some generic way, or make the linkage explicit with a conjunction, or simply use a period, to leave two complete and independent sentences. Section titles Section titles for descriptive essays my backyard an article should say exactly and succinctly what the reader will get out of that section. Direct Vs Representative. In most relatively short documents, using a standard set of descriptive my backyard section titles is speech pmr essay, best so that people can scan through your document quickly. Section standards vary in different fields, but a common set is: Introduction, Background, Methods (for an experimental paper) or Architecture (for a modeling paper), Discussion, Future Work (often merged with Discussion), and Conclusion.
If you do not use the standard titles, e.g. Descriptive Essays My Backyard. if you have labeled lower-level subsections, you should be quite explicit about democracy essay, what is in that section. Such labels should make sense to someone who has not yet read that section, and make it clear why they should read it. For instance, a section about adding a second eye to a simulation of single-eye vision could truthfully be called Multiple eyes, but that title is essays, meaningless to someone scanning the document. Instead, it should be something like Extending the model to explain stereo vision whose meaning will be clear to the type of person likely to be reading the paper. Everything important goes in your introduction and conclusion Everyone who looks at your paper will at least skim the introduction and conclusion, and those who read it in depth will remember those two sections the best. So make sure that your most important points are quite prominent and unmissable in The Ancient 3500 BCE to those sections. Say it, never just say that you will say it In the introduction, conclusion, and abstract (if any), do not merely describe what you are going to say or have said; actually say it! For instance, do not just state that I will discuss and evaluate this paper if you will later argue that (for example) it is my backyard, not convincing. An International. Instead state that the paper is unconvincing, and (in brief) why you believe that to be the case. Then you can elaborate on my backyard, that point in subsequent paragraphs. Subsections If you have sections 1, 1.1, and 1.2, there must be introductory material between 1 and english essay 1.1 that explains briefly what is in the subsections, mentioned in the order of the subsections.
That is, 1.1 should never follow just after 1 without some intervening text. If you have 1.1, there must always be a 1.2; otherwise 1 and descriptive 1.1 should be merged. Each 1.x subsection should end with a concluding statement of what has been established in pmr essay that subsection, wrapping things up before moving on to the next subsection. Figure captions Different communities have different expectations on what to put into figure captions. Some journals, like Science , have very long captions, which are meant to be readable independently of the main article. Descriptive Essays. That way, readers can skim articles and only look at interesting figures, before deciding whether to read the whole article.
In such cases, you must ensure that all of the main points of the figure are also mentioned in hooks the text of the article, so that someone reading the article straight through will not miss them. Other journals and other publications like books, theses, and descriptive my backyard proposals tend to have very little in The Ancient BCE to 400 CE the caption, with the descriptive essays figures being understandable only an international student essay, when reading the main text. Even in such cases, I myself prefer to put all the graphical details like the dotted line represents in the caption, plus enough context so that the import of the figure is essays, clear. Research. You are welcome to have your own preferences, but you should be aware of essays my backyard what you are trying to research paper, achieve, i.e. whether you want the caption to be readable on its own. Try hard to descriptive essays my backyard, avoid ambiguous references Conversation is replete with ambiguous words like this, these, his, it, they, etc. These words have no meaning in themselves, but in conversation the meaning is usually clear from the context. In written text, however, the intended meaning is quite often not evident to the reader, because there are e.g. many possible interpretations of The Ancient World, 3500 400 CE it and this. It is a good idea to descriptive, read over english, anything you write, searching for this sort of word. For each instance, first ask yourself To what specific item does this term refer?.
For such a reference to make sense, the object, person, or concept must have been explicitly mentioned just prior to your reference. Often you will find that it or they refers to something vague that was not even discussed explicitly in your paper, in which case you should reword your text entirely. Even if the item to which you refer is descriptive, explicitly mentioned in an international student essay your paper, ask yourself whether there is any chance that the reader might not know to which of several items you might be referring. My Backyard. E.g. for the word he, were there two or three people being discussed? If so then state the actual name of democracy vs representative democracy each; he would be ambiguous. Often an ambiguous this or these can be disambiguated by adding a noun that specifies precisely the descriptive essays my backyard type of The Ancient BCE to object or concept to which you are referring. For instance, this argument or this paper is less confusing than simply this. That is, do not use this followed directly by a verb phrase, but you can use this before a noun phrase, as in this sentence is a good example of the use of the word 'this'. Watch out for homonyms Spell checkers are wonderful, but they are absolutely useless for detecting misused homonyms or near-homonyms, i.e., actual words whose meaning is essays, confused with other actual words.
As a result, homonyms are probably the speech pmr essay most common spelling errors in my backyard word-processed text. Even if you are lazy and let the spell checker fix all of your other words, make certain that you know the differences between words like: If you do not know the pmr essay difference, you must simply avoid using any of these words. Yet because the spell checker takes care of all the descriptive essays other words you may misspell, learning to use these few words correctly is surely not much of World, 3500 400 CE a burden, and is crucial for convincing your readers that you are competent and trustworthy. Avoid comprise Apparently the descriptive word comprise has now been used incorrectly so many times to democracy, mean compose that this usage is now becoming acceptable. But it is my backyard, much safer simply to avoid comprise altogether, as anyone who does know what it started out meaning will be annoyed when you use it to mean compose. But and speech however are not interchangeable The words but and however have similar meanings, but they are not interchangeable. If you take a grammatically correct sentence containing but and replace it with however, or vice versa, the result will almost always be incorrect, mainly because of comma punctuation.
I like oranges, but I do not like tangerines. I like oranges. However, I do not like tangerines. I like oranges; however, I do not like tangerines. I, however, do not like grapefruits. I like oranges however they have been prepared. If you exchange any of these buts and howevers, then the sentences would become incorrect, and in descriptive essays my backyard some cases meaningless. A point is a single item The word point can only 3500, be used for a single, atomic item.
Thus it is not appropriate to discuss a sub-point, part of a point, the first half of a point, etc. Descriptive. Instead use topic or section, etc. A research There is no noun phrase a research in English. Use a study or just research, never a research. Similarly, there is no separate plural form of research; researches is an English verb, not a noun. Avoid capitalization When in doubt, use lower case.
Capitalization is appropriate only for specific, named, individual items or people. Essay. For example, capitalize school subjects only my backyard, when you are referring to a specific course at a specific school: math is a general subject, but Math 301 is hooks, a particular course. Similarly: Department of Computer Sciences vs. a computer science department, the president vs. President Bush. When in doubt, use lower case. Avoid contractions Contractions are appropriate only for conversational use and for informal writing, never for technical or formal writing. Hyphenate phrases only when otherwise ambiguous In English phrases (groups of several words forming a unit), hyphens are used to group pairs of words when the meaning might otherwise be ambiguous. That is, they act like the parentheses in a mathematical expression.
They should normally otherwise be avoided unless they are part of a single word (or the dictionary explicitly requires them), i.e., it is a mistake to use a hyphen where the descriptive essays my backyard meaning was already clear and unambiguous. For instance, long adjective phrases preceding a noun sometimes include another noun temporarily being used as an adjective. Such phrases can often be parsed several different ways with different meanings. For example, the being student essay phrase English language learners as written means language learners from England, because, by default, language modifies learners, and English modifies language learners. But the my backyard phrase that was intended was probably English-language learners, i.e. learners of the English language, and coping research using the hyphen helps make that grouping clear. Note that there would never be a hyphen if the same phrase were used after the noun it modifies, because in descriptive essays my backyard that case there would be absolutely no chance of ambiguity: a learner of the 3500 English language ( NEVER a learner of the English-language; the hyphen effectively turns the noun phrase English language into an adjective, and a prepositional phrase starting with of the must be completed with a noun, not an adjective). Note that hyphens are used only in adjective phrases; they are not needed after an adverb (and are therefore incorrect). Descriptive Essays My Backyard. An adverb explicitly modifies the essay about life adjective immediately following it, never a noun. For instance, a quickly dropping stock cannot possibly be mistaken for a quickly dropping-stock, because adverbs like quickly cannot modify a noun phrase like dropping stock, and descriptive so quickly clearly must modify dropping. In general, there should never be a hyphen after an adverb ending in ly, though hyphens are sometimes necessary after some non-adverbial ly words like early (as in the correct examples an early-rising rooster or an early-rising English-language learner). You may want to search through your finished document for ly-; nearly all examples of research paper those three characters in a row will be mistakes.
In some very complicated phrases, two levels of grouping can be achieved using an en dash, i.e. a slightly longer dash than a hyphen. For instance, a language-learning--associated problem would be a problem associated with language learning; the hyphen groups language and learning, while the en-dash -- connects language learning with associated. Without hyphens or without the en-dash, the phrase would be quite difficult to read. But in such cases it is descriptive, often clearer just to reword the sentence to avoid the ambiguity, as in a problem associated with language learning. In cases where the word grouping is quite obvious because the pair of words are so often used together, the hyphen can be omitted even when it would strictly be required to english jokes, avoid ambiguity. For instance chocolate chip cookies is descriptive essays my backyard, unlikely to be misread as chocolate chip-cookies, despite that being the literal interpretation, and so the coping research paper hyphen can usually be omitted from chocolate-chip cookies. In general, you should hyphenate a phrase when that particular sentence would otherwise be ambiguous. In any other case, even a nearby sentence containing the same phrase but e.g. after the noun it modifies, you should leave out the hyphen. I.e., the hyphen is not a property of the phrase, but of how you are using the essays my backyard phrase in the sentence. American vs. British English I myself am American by World, 3500 BCE to 400 CE, birth, despite lecturing in descriptive my backyard a British university, and I use American spellings by default (e.g. Paper. organization, not organisation).
Authors are generally free to use whichever spelling they prefer, although publishers will often change the spellings to make e.g. all the essays papers in a certain edited volume use the The Ancient BCE to same conventions. Thus please do not hesitate to my backyard, use whichever one of the (correct) spellings you are more comfortable with, as long as you keep it consistent throughout the direct democracy democracy essay document. Formatting and descriptive my backyard grammar rules When in The Ancient World, 3500 BCE to 400 CE doubt about grammar or page format, researchers in psychology and computer science generally follow the APA style guide; biological fields use similar standards. Descriptive My Backyard. Unfortunately, you do have to pay for coping research the APA guide, though it is now available in a less-expensive electronic edition. Pay attention to how your document looks Use readable, clear fonts and reasonable margins, following the typical format used for similar documents.
If your word processor cannot make the spacing regular between words (e.g. most versions of Microsoft Word), turn off right justification. Poor spacing makes the descriptive essays page look jumbled and seem incoherent, even if the writing is not. Nearly all formal writing should simply be stapled --- anything else looks unprofessional. For instance, using a fancy cover and binding for a short paper or report is english essay, distracting and my backyard makes it difficult to photocopy the being student essay paper; such binding is necessary only for long papers that a staple would have trouble keeping together. Descriptive Essays My Backyard. At the opposite extreme, it should be obvious that folding one corner is not an acceptable substitute for a staple. Authors are authors, not writers The people who perform a scientific study are called authors, never writers, even though the speech pmr essay results are presented in a written paper. Scientific authorship includes much more than the actual writing, and some authors may well not have written any word in the paper. Use last names Never refer to the authors by their first names, as if they were your friends.
They are not, and descriptive essays even if they were, it would be inappropriate to jokes, draw attention to that circumstance. My Backyard. Except in unusual cases to The Ancient World, BCE to 400 CE, avoid ambiguity or to discuss specific people (e.g. the original founders of descriptive essays my backyard a field of research), first names are not even mentioned in the body of World, 3500 400 CE a scientific text; the descriptive essays last names are sufficient. Author names are keys -- spell them properly In academic writing, an author's last name is like the key in a database lookup -- if the name is coping paper, misspelled (e.g. Davis for Davies), your reader will not be able to locate works by that author in descriptive essays my backyard the library or online. Moreover, it is direct democracy vs representative democracy essay, extraordinarily impolite to essays my backyard, misspell someone's name when you are discussing them; doing so shows that you have not paid much attention to speech, them or their work.
So you should make a special effort to spell author names correctly, double and triple checking them against the original source, and ensuring that you spell them the same way each time. Use appropriate pronouns Use appropriate pronouns when referring to essays my backyard, the authors. If there are multiple authors, use they or the english authors or the authors' last names, not he or the descriptive essays author. If there is being essay, only one author and essays my backyard you can determine the gender with great confidence, you may use he or she; otherwise use the author or the World, 3500 author's last name. Referring to other texts Use double quotes around the essays title of an article when you refer to The Ancient World, 3500, it in the text.
Italics are reserved for books or other works of similar length. Descriptive. Avoid underlining altogether --- underlining is just a way of indicating that handwritten or typewritten text should be typeset in italics, and being an international student essay is thus inappropriate when italics are available (as they are on essays, any modern word processor). Be very precise when discussing an author discussing another author For better or worse, academic writing often devolves into discussions of what one author said about another author. If commenting on such controversies, you should be extremely careful about using ambiguous terms like his, the author, etc. Very often your reader will have no idea which of the various authors you are referring to, even though it may be clear to you. When in doubt, use the actual last names instead, even if they might sound repetitive.
Avoid footnotes Footnotes should be used quite sparingly, and should never be used as a way to The Ancient 3500 BCE to 400 CE, avoid the hard work of making your text flow into a coherent narrative. Only when something genuinely cannot be made to fit into descriptive essays my backyard the main flow of the speech text, yet is somehow still so important that it must be mentioned, does it go into descriptive my backyard a footnote. Avoid direct quotes In scientific (as opposed to literary or historical) writing, direct quotes should be used only essay hooks about, when the descriptive essays precise wording of the original sentences is important, e.g. if the work is so groundbreaking that the words themselves have driven research in this field. In nearly every other case, paraphrasing is pmr essay, more appropriate, because it lets you formulate the idea in the terms suitable for your particular paper, focusing on the underlying issue rather than the descriptive essays way one author expressed it. Be careful with arguments about grammar If you are going to criticize the essay grammar or spelling of an author in writing, you should be extraordinarily careful to verify that you are correct. Reading a long rant from an essays, American about how a person of British upbringing has supposedly misspelled words like utilisation, or vice versa, can be quite painful. There is no need to mention explicitly reading the paper A lot of students use phrases like while reading this paper, I . and essay jokes In this paper the authors . . Try to avoid this redundancy.
If you use the descriptive word author you need not also use paper, and vice versa. Similarly, it is 400 CE, clear that whatever you discovered about the paper, you discovered while reading the paper; we do not need to descriptive, be reminded of this. Academic writing is always about papers and authors, and thus those topics should only coping research paper, be discussed when they are relevant. Discussing existing work Whenever you bring up an descriptive, existing piece of research, whether it is your own or someone else's, there is a standard way of doing it properly. First you say what the research showed, then you say what its limitations are, and then you say how your own work is going to essay hooks about life, overcome those limitations. I.e., say what has been done, what has not been done, and descriptive how you are going to do some of what has not been done. If you are doing a literature review rather than an original research paper, you just describe what you think should be done, rather than what you plan to do. Unless you want to make an enemy, you should always mention something positive about existing work before exploring the limitations, and you should always assume that the person you are discussing will read what you wrote. Of course, sometimes there is a good reason to democracy democracy essay, make an enemy, e.g. to descriptive, draw attention to essay hooks about, yourself by attacking someone famous, but you should be sure to choose your enemies wisely.
Discussing proposed work In a research proposal, it is never acceptable to announce only that you are planning to descriptive essays, study topic X. In the context of being an international student essay research, studying is descriptive essays, a vague and unbounded task, with no criterion for success and no way to tell if you are getting anywhere. Studying is essay life, something you do in a course, where someone can tell you what to focus on and can test you to see if you got the right answer; research is not like that. In research, you need to spell out the specific questions you are going to try to answer, the specific phenomena that need explanations, and so on -- it's up to you to define the question and essays the methods, and until you've done so, it's not research, just idle speculation. Discussion/future work In the jokes discussion sections of a research paper, be sure to discuss all topics that the audience expected to see in descriptive the paper, even if you yourself do not believe them to be relevant. The reader is more likely to assume that you have been sloppy about your literature review than to assume you knew about the work but believed it not to be relevant. Page restrictions can help here --- they provide a good excuse for omitting topics that you do not believe to be relevant.
In a longer article or thesis without page limits you have no choice but to address the issue and explicitly state why the topic is not relevant despite the common belief that it is. Bibliographies Students often seem to think that bibliographies are mysterious, tricky things with rules far too complex to understand or remember. Being Essay. Although there is a vast array of different bibliographic formats, the underlying principles are actually not complicated at descriptive essays my backyard, all. Simply put, all bibliographies must have a certain basic minimum standard of information in order to fulfill their function of allowing people to locate the about specific item of descriptive my backyard reference material you cite. In particular, every bibliography entry needs an author, date, and title, every journal article absolutely must have a volume and coping research paper page numbers, and every conference paper must have the title of the conference proceedings, the essays my backyard page numbers, and essay life some indication of who published it. Without having every bit of this basic information, there is descriptive essays my backyard, no way to be sure that readers can find the one specific article that you are discussing. Conversely, you should not include anything not necessary or useful for locating the coping research paper article, such as the cost of reprints. As long as the correct information is included, there are many acceptable bibliography formats, though note that in all cases each entry ends in a period. Citations The bibliography or reference list in an academic paper must consist of precisely those sources that you cite in the text, without any extra sources and without omitting any. Each citation must provide enough information for essays the reader to find the correct source in the bibliography; beyond that, any number of democracy vs representative essay citation formats will do unless there is some specific standard you are told to follow.
One common approach is to use author-date citations like (Smith, Wu, and my backyard Tong 2008), but other approaches such as numbering the bibliography entries and then using bracketed or superscript numbers are also fine. If using numeric citations with brackets, note that there must always be a space before the first bracket, as in . known , ( not . known). If using author-date citations, you must remember that any item in parentheses does not exist , as far as the grammar of the sentence is concerned, and paper thus it cannot be used as part of the sentence. Thus the descriptive essays my backyard rule is simply to put the parentheses around the part that would be acceptable to omit when reading aloud, as in Carlin (1972) showed that. Speech Pmr Essay. or . as seen in rats (Carlin 1972). Descriptive Essays My Backyard. ( not (Carlin 1972) showed that. and not . as seen in rats Carlin (1972).). It is usually best to BCE to, have only a single level of essays parentheses, because multiple parentheses start to distract from the being student main text. Thus I would prefer has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson, 1905) to has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson (1905)). I and descriptive essays we Writing standards disagree about whether to use I and 400 CE we (and their various forms) in academic work. Some argue that those personal pronouns distract from essays my backyard, what should be objective and scientifically valid without recourse to any particular speaker, or even that they just do not sound scientific. Essay Hooks. Others argue that omitting I and descriptive essays my backyard we results in awkward, passive sentences rather than direct We did X sentences.
Personally, I believe that academic writing should use personal pronouns whenever what is being reported was an arbitrary and specific choice made by a human being, or for opinions or personal judgment, precisely because these pronouns emphasize that a human was involved in the work. When reporting universal scientific facts or observations, I would not use personal pronouns, because any reasonable observer would have reported similar results and pmr essay thus there is no need to emphasize the role of the authors. Thus, personally, I believe that I and we have their place in academic writing, i.e., to emphasize the human element where appropriate; in other circumstances I would discourage their use. Please note that I happen to disagree with a few of the rules commonly accepted for essays English text, and in the text on this page I happily use my own rules instead. You might wish to being student essay, follow the descriptive essays accepted usage in such cases, though I would much rather everyone used my own much better rules as listed below. If you do agree to democracy vs representative democracy essay, join my one-man campaign to fix the English language, I cannot accept any responsibility for essays my backyard points deducted by less enlightened folks. :-) Punctuation after quotations In American English (and in some cases for British English), punctuation following a bit of quoted text is traditionally placed inside the quotation.
However, I consider that rule an pmr essay, egregious violation of the whole notion of quotation, i.e. an obvious bug in the English language. For example, if I am quoting someone who said that life is hard, I always put the comma outside the quotation mark because they themselves did not necessarily have a pause when they said it; in fact, they probably had a full stop (which would be written as a period). Accepted American usage is to write life is hard, but the computer programmer in me just cannot be convinced to make such an essays, obvious semantic error. Spaces around dashes An em-dash is research paper, a long dash, longer than an en-dash and a hyphen. The traditional formatting for descriptive essays an em-dash does not use any spaces, as in life is essay hooks about, hard---then you die. However, I myself much prefer to put a space before and after the dash. Without the spaces the dash appears to be connecting two words like hard---then, which makes no grammatical sense. Grammatically, the function of the descriptive my backyard dash is to pmr essay, separate and connect phrases or clauses, not words, and I prefer to make that visually clear by putting spaces around the dash.
Again, in my opinion the accepted usage is a bug in the language. Dangling prepositions Officially, it is an error to end a sentence with a preposition, as in they arrived at the place they were heading to. However, in practice it is often very difficult and essays my backyard awkward to reword sentences to avoid dangling prepositions. Thus I consider this rule to be optional at best. Serial commas In Britain and some other less-enlightened countries, the an international essay comma is often omitted before an 'and' in a list.
For instance, they will write of ham, chips and eggs, rather than ham, chips, and eggs. I consider this an appalling, confusing construction, because it meaninglessly groups the last two items in descriptive the list together. Research. Lists are generally meant to be collections of equals, so there should be just as many separators between chips and eggs as between ham and chips. In many cases, omitting the serial comma is ambiguous. Moreover, in the very rare case where adding the comma is ambiguous, the sentence should be rewritten anyway. Descriptive Essays My Backyard. Oxford University Press, at least, agrees with me; see the coping research Wikipedia serial comma entry. Again, this insistence on using appropriate syntax is probably driven by descriptive, the computer programmer in me, but I think all right-thinking people should be offended whenever a serial comma is omitted. Commas after i.e. and coping e.g. Many grammar books state that a comma is always required after i.e. and e.g. used in a sentence, as in sentences often contain spelling errors, i.e., words spelled incorrectly. The inspiration for descriptive essays my backyard this rule is World, 3500 400 CE, that such abbreviations should be mentally expanded to the English translation of the Latin phrase for which they stand (i.e. translating to that is, and descriptive my backyard e.g. translating to for example, which in itself is an important distinction to know).
However, these terms come up very often in formal writing, and in many cases I consider it inappropriate to add symbolic pauses (i.e. commas) around them. Democracy Democracy. Such pauses break up the essays flow of the sentence, and The Ancient BCE to modern readers treat the abbreviations just as they would any other word, without internally translating them to descriptive essays my backyard, Latin phrases and then English phrases. Thus in many cases I prefer to omit the comma after the abbreviation, and sometimes also the one before it. Some people, even more pedantic than I, disagree. This document is in the public domain. You are free to copy it, redistribute it, modify it, or use it for any other non-fraudulent purpose.
If redistributing a complete copy or a lengthy excerpt, please (1) retain this notice, (2) clearly mark the original author, and (3) clearly mark any changes that you make as your own and not those of the original author.
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american flag essay Before July 4, the GOP. Essays! will attempt to do something that hasn't been done since our Nation was founded: they will try to pass legislation to change the First Amendment. When the Supreme Court says that a law is invalid under the Constitution, one solution is to change that document to validate the law. It's certainly not the best solution, but that is what America faces today -- a Constitutional amendment to criminalize the research paper ill-defined act of flag desecration. I think Senator Ted Kennedy put it best, when he said The words of the first amendment are simple and descriptive essays, majestic: 'Congress shall make no law abridging freedom of speech.' The proposed constitutional amendment would undermine that fundamental liberty. World, 3500 BCE To! Unfortunately, the issue of flag desecration has gone beyond simple liberty and become a partisan issue. An issue that the Republican majority in Congress is not likely to admit desecrates the Constitution. For about 4 months now, I have been operating a site on the World-Wide Web, the graphical section of the Internet, which addresses this issue.
By doing so, I have been exposed to many, many, people with interesting views on the subject. Although my correspondents are by no means a representative sample of all Americans, the responses I get make me wonder about the Republican claim that a vast majority of Americans support such legislation. Of the over descriptive essays, 160 electronic mails I have received, less than 20 of being student essay them oppose my views, and only 3 writers have actually stated that they support the amendment. In the course of answering this e-mail and tracking the legislation via the Internet, I have been exposed to nearly every potential argument for the amendment, and have written or read effective counter-arguments. It seems that there is no rational basis for supporting such a drastic change to the United States Constitution. Argument 1: Senator Bob Dole has stated since 1980 there is only one way to correct the situation, and that is to pass a constitutional amendment. Descriptive My Backyard! This is not the only way. Coping! Many laws exist that can be used to punish flag-burners.
If a protester burns another individual's flag, let him or her be punished for vandalism. If the protest occurs in public, enforce applicable laws against arson. An amendment would be a drastic measure against descriptive my backyard, a type of protest that occurs only about eight times a year. Argument 2: Rep. Henry Hyde of Illinois, the chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, said as tombstones are not for democracy vs representative essay, toppling, nor churches for vandalizing, flags are not for descriptive essays my backyard, burning. Mashed potatoes are not for sculpting, either, but no one is considering a law against that.
Arizona's freshman Representative Matt Salmon expressed a similarly flawed reason -- that neither U.S. currency nor mailboxes could legally be destroyed. The flaw inherent in this argument is that none of those protected items are private property. Coping Research Paper! Destruction of government property (or, for that matter, churches or graveyards) is rightfully a crime. If this amendment passes, it would be the descriptive essays first time in America's history when a person could go to Wal-mart and purchase an item he could never legally destroy. Argument 3: In response to slippery-slope arguments about the potential criminal nature of sun-faded flag bumper stickers and sweaty flag bandannas, many of the amendment's supporters have stated that the laws would not cover any non-desecratory acts. Of the virtual flag desecration on the Internet, Rep. Sam Johnson, (R-Dallas), said A computer simulated version of coping research paper a flag burning, although it is descriptive my backyard just as deplorable, cannot be treated the direct democracy vs representative democracy same as the act of essays desecrating an actual flag, he said. This opens up two potential difficulties with the legislation.
First, the amendment merely states Congress and the States shall have power to prohibit the physical desecration of the flag of the pmr essay United States. There is no provision in descriptive my backyard that statement to prohibit any State from enacting laws against cutting cakes shaped like the coping U.S. flag, as silly as that may seem. In fact, such laws would likely be outside the realm of essays my backyard Supreme court appeal, after the amendment has been made specifically to justify them constitutionally. The other problem with this argument is the very insidiousness it implies. Democracy! The law will not be used against people who unwillingly desecrate a flag. It will not be enforced to stop Republicans from sweating into red, white and descriptive my backyard, blue socks. Democracy Essay! It will not be used against essays, the owners of stained and dirty flag-emblazoned T-shirts. Direct Vs Representative Essay! It will only be used against essays, those who are thinking anti-American thoughts during their desecration. Granted, the english line between accidental and my backyard, obvious desecration is a relatively easy one to see, but that fact that the law will actually be punishing thoughts, not acts, makes it a most dreadful proposition indeed.
After all, the coping only way to properly dispose of a worn flag is by burning it. Argument 4: Another of Matt Salmon's motivations for cosponsoring this amendment is the thought of Americans having died to my backyard protect the flag that protesters desecrate. As many Vietnam veterans have told me via e-mail, it was never the piece of cloth they fought for being an international student, -- it was what that flag stood for. Essays! The flag stands for speech pmr essay, the freedom each American has, including the right to burn that very symbol. Burning that symbol may be an obnoxious and descriptive essays my backyard, misdirected protest, but we have to protect the freedom of expression for all people, not just ones we agree with.
Argument 5: William Detwiler, National Commander of the American Legion, testified in Congress that this amendment will. . Research Paper! . clarify the importance of patriotism as an American value. Descriptive My Backyard! It will reinstate respect for the flag as one of the guiding principles of our nation. Actually, it will mandate respect for the flag. Respect that comes only through threat of imprisonment is neither earned nor deserved. Argument 6: Not every act of expression is democracy democracy protected. One cannot shout fire! in a theater. Of course not, but if flag burning were to descriptive my backyard be as serious a threat to human life as an incitation to riot, it would be treated as such. The Supreme Court would have ruled for such laws, as they have done with libel, slander, and obscenity. Essay Hooks! If a flag-burning protest was to escalate to such a level where lives or property were threatened, we already have laws to remedy that situation. Argument 7: The Supreme Court vote was a narrow one, 5-4. That is not a reason to overturn their decision with a permanent change to our Constitution.
That is the reason we have an odd number of judges. I've heard many more arguments, but those were the best. The rest fall apart on essays my backyard, their own merits, without need for debate. I think if the supporters of this amendment look at the situation with an hooks unbiased, non-partisan mind, they would understand that this is a legislative idea which is at descriptive essays my backyard, best unnecessary, and at worst, extremely dangerous. They would realize that they are blindly following a party line without rational or logical thought. They would see that, fifty years from now, this amendment, not the Congressional Accountability Act or the Risk Assessment and Cost-Benefit Act, would be the one that defines the 104th Congress in history books. Rather than change the Constitution to mandate respect for the flag, let's work together to make America even better. Perhaps then, flag-burning will be even less of a problem than it is now. I think that's an argument we can all agree on. This essay was submitted to the Tribune Newspapers on english, 6-19-95.
At 1239 words, it needed reduction. Here's the descriptive final version, as printed in being an international essay the 6-30-95 edition.
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contract resume As used in this subpart “Accrual of a claim” means the date when all events, that fix the alleged liability of either the Government or the contractor and descriptive essays permit assertion of the claim, were known or should have been known. For liability to be fixed, some injury must have occurred. However, monetary damages need not have been incurred. “Alternative dispute resolution (ADR)” means any type of procedure or combination of procedures voluntarily used to resolve issues in controversy.
These procedures may include, but are not limited to, conciliation, facilitation, mediation, fact-finding, minitrials, arbitration, and use of ombudsmen. “Defective certification” means a certificate which alters or otherwise deviates from the language in 33.207(c) or which is not executed by a person authorized to bind the contractor with respect to the claim. Failure to certify shall not be deemed to be a defective certification. “Issue in controversy” means a material disagreement between the Government and the contractor that (1) May result in a claim; or. (2) Is all or part of an existing claim. “Misrepresentation of fact” means a false statement of english essay jokes, substantive fact, or any conduct which leads to the belief of a substantive fact material to proper understanding of the descriptive essays, matter in being essay, hand, made with intent to deceive or mislead. 41 U.S.C. Essays. chapter 71, Disputes, establishes procedures and requirements for asserting and speech pmr essay resolving claims subject to the Disputes statute. In addition, the Disputes statute provides for (a) The payment of interest on contractor claims; (b) Certification of contractor claims; and.
(c) A civil penalty for contractor claims that are fraudulent or based on a misrepresentation of essays, fact. (a) Except as specified in pmr essay, paragraph (b) of this section, this part applies to any express or implied contract covered by the Federal Acquisition Regulation. (b) This subpart does not apply to any contract with (1) A foreign government or agency of that government; or. (2) An international organization or a subsidiary body of that organization, if the agency head determines that the application of the essays, Disputes statute to the contract would not be in the public interest. (c) This part applies to all disputes with respect to contracting officer decisions on jokes matters “arising under” or “relating to” a contract.
Agency Boards of Contract Appeals (BCAs) authorized under the Disputes statute continue to have all of the authority they possessed before the Disputes statute with respect to disputes arising under a contract, as well as authority to decide disputes relating to a contract. The clause at 52.233-1, Disputes, Disputes, recognizes the “all disputes” authority established by the Disputes statute and states certain requirements and limitations of the my backyard, Disputes statute for the guidance of contractors and contracting agencies. The clause is not intended to affect the direct essay, rights and obligations of the parties as provided by the Disputes statute or to constrain the authority of the statutory agency BCAs in the handling and deciding of contractor appeals under the Disputes statute. The Government’s policy is to descriptive, try to essay jokes, resolve all contractual issues in controversy by mutual agreement at the contracting officer’s level. Reasonable efforts should be made to resolve controversies prior to the submission of a claim. Agencies are encouraged to use ADR procedures to the maximum extent practicable.
Certain factors, however, may make the use of ADR inappropriate (see 5 U.S.C. 572(b)). Essays. Except for arbitration conducted pursuant to The Ancient 3500, the Administrative Dispute Resolution Act (ADRA), (5 U.S.C. 571, et seq .) agencies have authority which is separate from that provided by the ADRA to descriptive essays my backyard, use ADR procedures to resolve issues in controversy. Agencies may also elect to proceed under the authority and requirements of the jokes, ADRA. 33.205 Relationship of the Disputes statute to Pub. L. 85-804. (a) Requests for relief under Public Law 85-804 (50 U.S.C. 1431-1435) are not claims within the Disputes statute or the descriptive, Disputes clause at 52.233-1, Disputes, and shall be processed under Subpart 50.1, Extraordinary Contractual Actions. However, relief formerly available only under Public Law 85-804; i.e., legal entitlement to rescission or reformation for mutual mistake, is now available within the authority of the contracting officer under the Contract Disputes statute and the Disputes clause. In case of democracy vs representative democracy essay, a question whether the contracting officer has authority to settle or decide specific types of claims, the descriptive my backyard, contracting officer should seek legal advice.
(b) A contractor’s allegation that it is entitled to rescission or reformation of research, its contract in order to correct or mitigate the effect of a mistake shall be treated as a claim under the Disputes statute. A contract may be reformed or rescinded by the contracting officer if the contractor would be entitled to such remedy or relief under the law of essays my backyard, Federal contracts. Due to the complex legal issues likely to speech, be associated with allegations of legal entitlement, contracting officers shall make written decisions, prepared with the advice and assistance of legal counsel, either granting or denying relief in whole or in part. (c) A claim that is descriptive essays, either denied or not approved in its entirety under paragraph (b) of The Ancient World,, this section may be cognizable as a request for relief under Public Law 85-804 as implemented by Subpart 50.1. However, the claim must first be submitted to the contracting officer for consideration under the Disputes statute because the claim is not cognizable under Public Law 85-804, as implemented by Subpart 50.1, unless other legal authority in the agency concerned is determined to be lacking or inadequate. (a) Contractor claims shall be submitted, in writing, to the contracting officer for a decision within 6 years after accrual of a claim, unless the descriptive my backyard, contracting parties agreed to a shorter time period. This 6-year time period does not apply to contracts awarded prior to October 1, 1995.
The contracting officer shall document the contract file with evidence of the date of receipt of any submission from the contractor deemed to be a claim by the contracting officer. (b) The contracting officer shall issue a written decision on any Government claim initiated against World, 400 CE, a contractor within 6 years after accrual of the descriptive essays my backyard, claim, unless the contracting parties agreed to a shorter time period. English Essay Jokes. The 6-year period shall not apply to contracts awarded prior to October 1, 1995, or to a Government claim based on a contractor claim involving fraud. (a) Contractors shall provide the certification specified in paragraph (c) of this section when submitting any claim exceeding $100,000. (b) The certification requirement does not apply to descriptive, issues in controversy that have not been submitted as all or part of a claim.
(c) The certification shall state as follows: I certify that the claim is made in good faith; that the supporting data are accurate and complete to the best of my knowledge and essay belief; that the amount requested accurately reflects the contract adjustment for descriptive essays, which the contractor believes the direct democracy vs representative essay, Government is liable; and that I am duly authorized to certify the claim on behalf of the contractor. (d) The aggregate amount of both increased and decreased costs shall be used in essays my backyard, determining when the speech, dollar thresholds requiring certification are met (see example in 15.403-4(a)(1)(iii) regarding certified cost or pricing data). (e) The certification may be executed by any person authorized to bind the contractor with respect to descriptive essays, the claim. (f) A defective certification shall not deprive a court or an agency BCA of jurisdiction over that claim. Prior to the entry of research paper, a final judgment by descriptive a court or a decision by an agency BCA, however, the court or agency BCA shall require a defective certification to be corrected. (a) The Government shall pay interest on pmr essay a contractor’s claim on the amount found due and unpaid from the date that (1) The contracting officer receives the claim (certified if required by essays 33.207(a)); or. (2) Payment otherwise would be due, if that date is later, until the date of payment. (b) Simple interest on claims shall be paid at the rate, fixed by the Secretary of the The Ancient World, 3500, Treasury as provided in the Disputes statute, which is applicable to the period during which the contracting officer receives the claim and then at the rate applicable for each 6-month period as fixed by descriptive the Treasury Secretary during the pendency of the claim. Coping Paper. (See the clause at 52.232-17 for the right of the descriptive essays, Government to collect interest on its claims against a contractor.) (c) With regard to claims having defective certifications, interest shall be paid from essay, either the date that the contracting officer initially receives the claim or October 29, 1992, whichever is later. However, if a contractor has provided a proper certificate prior to my backyard, October 29, 1992, after submission of a defective certificate, interest shall be paid from the coping research, date of receipt by the Government of a proper certificate. 33.209 Suspected fraudulent claims.
If the contractor is unable to support any part of the claim and there is evidence that the inability is essays, attributable to life, misrepresentation of fact or to fraud on the part of the essays my backyard, contractor, the contracting officer shall refer the coping research paper, matter to the agency official responsible for investigating fraud. 33.210 Contracting officer’s authority. Except as provided in this section, contracting officers are authorized, within any specific limitations of their warrants, to decide or resolve all claims arising under or relating to a contract subject to the Disputes statute. In accordance with agency policies and descriptive essays my backyard 33.214, contracting officers are authorized to use ADR procedures to resolve claims. The authority to decide or resolve claims does not extend to (a) A claim or dispute for penalties or forfeitures prescribed by statute or regulation that another Federal agency is specifically authorized to administer, settle, or determine; or. (b) The settlement, compromise, payment, or adjustment of any claim involving fraud. 33.211 Contracting officer’s decision. (a) When a claim by or against research, a contractor cannot be satisfied or settled by descriptive my backyard mutual agreement and a decision on the claim is necessary, the contracting officer shall (1) Review the facts pertinent to the claim; (2) Secure assistance from legal and other advisors; (3) Coordinate with the contract administration officer or contracting office, as appropriate; and. (4) Prepare a written decision that shall include (i) A description of the claim or dispute; (ii) A reference to the pertinent contract terms; (iii) A statement of the factual areas of agreement and disagreement; (iv) A statement of the contracting officer’s decision, with supporting rationale; (v) Paragraphs substantially as follows: “This is the final decision of the Contracting Officer. You may appeal this decision to the agency board of contract appeals. If you decide to coping paper, appeal, you must, within 90 days from the essays, date you receive this decision, mail or otherwise furnish written notice to democracy vs representative essay, the agency board of contract appeals and provide a copy to the Contracting Officer from whose decision this appeal is taken.
The notice shall indicate that an appeal is intended, reference this decision, and identify the descriptive essays, contract by World, 400 CE number. With regard to appeals to descriptive essays, the agency board of contract appeals, you may, solely at your election, proceed under the board’s (1) Small claim procedure for claims of $50,000 or less or, in the case of a small business concern (as defined in the Small Business Act and regulations under that Act), $150,000 or less; or. (2) Accelerated procedure for claims of $100,000 or less. Instead of essay about, appealing to the agency board of contract appeals, you may bring an action directly in essays my backyard, the United States Court of Federal Claims (except as provided in 41 U.S.C. 7102(d), regarding Maritime Contracts) within 12 months of the an international essay, date you receive this decision”; and. (vi) Demand for payment prepared in accordance with 32.604 and 32.605 in all cases where the decision results in a finding that the contractor is indebted to the Government. (b) The contracting officer shall furnish a copy of the decision to the contractor by certified mail, return receipt requested, or by any other method that provides evidence of descriptive essays, receipt. This requirement shall apply to decisions on claims initiated by coping research or against the contractor.
(c) The contracting officer shall issue the decision within the following statutory time limitations: (1) For claims of $100,000 or less, 60 days after receiving a written request from the descriptive my backyard, contractor that a decision be rendered within that period, or within a reasonable time after receipt of the claim if the contractor does not make such a request. (2) For claims over $100,000, 60 days after receiving a certified claim; provided, however, that if a decision will not be issued within 60 days, the contracting officer shall notify the contractor, within that period, of the time within which a decision will be issued. (d) The contracting officer shall issue a decision within a reasonable time, taking into account (1) The size and complexity of the essay hooks life, claim; (2) The adequacy of the descriptive, contractor’s supporting data; and. (3) Any other relevant factors. (e) The contracting officer shall have no obligation to render a final decision on any claim exceeding $100,000 which contains a defective certification, if within 60 days after receipt of the claim, the contracting officer notifies the about, contractor, in writing, of the descriptive essays my backyard, reasons why any attempted certification was found to be defective. (f) In the event of undue delay by the contracting officer in rendering a decision on a claim, the contractor may request the tribunal concerned to direct the contracting officer to issue a decision in a specified time period determined by the tribunal. (g) Any failure of the contracting officer to issue a decision within the required time periods will be deemed a decision by the contracting officer denying the being essay, claim and will authorize the contractor to file an descriptive my backyard appeal or suit on the claim. (h) The amount determined payable under the decision, less any portion already paid, should be paid, if otherwise proper, without awaiting contractor action concerning appeal.
Such payment shall be without prejudice to the rights of either party. 33.212 Contracting officer’s duties upon appeal. To the extent permitted by any agency procedures controlling contacts with agency BCA personnel, the World, 3500, contracting officer shall provide data, documentation, information, and essays my backyard support as may be required by the agency BCA for use on a pending appeal from the essay jokes, contracting officer’s decision. 33.213 Obligation to continue performance. (a) In general, before passage of the Disputes statute, the obligation to continue performance applied only to claims arising under a contract. However, the Disputes statute, at 41 U.S.C.
7103(g), authorizes agencies to require a contractor to descriptive my backyard, continue contract performance in accordance with the contracting officer’s decision pending a final resolution of any claim arising under, or relating to, the pmr essay, contract. (A claim arising under a contract is a claim that can be resolved under a contract clause, other than the clause at 52.233-1, Disputes, that provides for descriptive essays, the relief sought by the claimant; however, relief for such claim can also be sought under the clause at 52.233-1. A claim relating to a contract is a claim that cannot be resolved under a contract clause other than the clause at 52.233-1.) This distinction is recognized by direct democracy democracy the clause with its Alternate I (see 33.215). (b) In all contracts that include the descriptive, clause at 52.233-1, Disputes, with its Alternate I, in the event of speech pmr essay, a dispute not arising under, but relating to, the descriptive my backyard, contract, the contracting officer shall consider providing, through appropriate agency procedures, financing of the continued performance; provided, that the World, BCE to, Government’s interest is essays my backyard, properly secured. 33.214 Alternative dispute resolution (ADR). (a) The objective of using ADR procedures is to democracy vs representative essay, increase the opportunity for descriptive, relatively inexpensive and speech pmr essay expeditious resolution of issues in controversy.
Essential elements of essays, ADR include (1) Existence of an issue in controversy; (2) A voluntary election by both parties to direct vs representative essay, participate in my backyard, the ADR process; (3) An agreement on alternative procedures and terms to be used in lieu of formal litigation; and. (4) Participation in the process by officials of both parties who have the authority to essay, resolve the issue in controversy. (b) If the essays my backyard, contracting officer rejects a contractor’s request for ADR proceedings, the contracting officer shall provide the contractor a written explanation citing one or more of the conditions in 5 U.S.C. Research. 572(b) or such other specific reasons that ADR procedures are inappropriate for the resolution of the dispute. In any case where a contractor rejects a request of an agency for ADR proceedings, the contractor shall inform the descriptive essays my backyard, agency in writing of the contractor’s specific reasons for rejecting the request.
(c) ADR procedures may be used at any time that the contracting officer has authority to resolve the issue in controversy. English Jokes. If a claim has been submitted, ADR procedures may be applied to all or a portion of the claim. When ADR procedures are used subsequent to the issuance of a contracting officer’s final decision, their use does not alter any of the time limitations or procedural requirements for filing an appeal of the contracting officer’s final decision and does not constitute a reconsideration of the final decision. (d) When appropriate, a neutral person may be used to facilitate resolution of the issue in controversy using the descriptive essays, procedures chosen by the parties. (e) The confidentiality of ADR proceedings shall be protected consistent with 5 U.S.C. 574. (f)(1) A solicitation shall not require arbitration as a condition of speech, award, unless arbitration is otherwise required by law. Contracting officers should have flexibility to select the appropriate ADR procedure to resolve the issues in controversy as they arise. (2) An agreement to descriptive essays my backyard, use arbitration shall be in writing and shall specify a maximum award that may be issued by the arbitrator, as well as any other conditions limiting the range of possible outcomes. (g) Binding arbitration, as an ADR procedure, may be agreed to only as specified in direct vs representative democracy essay, agency guidelines. Such guidelines shall provide advice on the appropriate use of binding arbitration and when an agency has authority to settle an issue in essays my backyard, controversy through binding arbitration.
(a) Insert the clause at 52.233-1, Disputes, in solicitations and contracts, unless the conditions in 33.203(b) apply. If it is determined under agency procedures that continued performance is necessary pending resolution of any claim arising under or relating to the contract, the contracting officer shall use the clause with its Alternate I. (b) Insert the jokes, clause at descriptive my backyard 52.233-4 in all solicitations and contracts.