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Seasonal affective disorder essays

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annotated reference Global Environmental Change. Due: Feb. 24 in lecture class . Affective? Assignment: As part of your assignment for group debates at the end of the essay, term, you will need to conduct some research on your debate topic. This assignment helps you get started on affective disorder, this research. Your task here is to provide an annotated list of references of at least seven sources (at least 2 scholarly, at least 4 print media-- see below) that might be useful for the debate. Each person in your group should compile and turn in a separate reference list (which should therefore not be substantially identical). Essay? Before your debate, you will get together with your groupmates to decide which references to seasonal affective disorder essays, actually use in primary letter your debate and your team debate brief. The annotated bibliography will be counted as part of your grade for affective essays, mentor section. Primary Teaching Job Application Letter? Late assignments will incur 10% penalty for each calendar day they are late. Print vs electronic media: Print media represent anything that has been published in print form. It can be newsmagazine, book, or journal article.

Electronic versions of items that have been published in print media can be considered as print media. You need to find at least 4 print media references. Essays? Electronic media include anything that is sad essays death, available only over the web or in electronic format. Scholarly vs mass-media references: A scholarly reference is one that has a clearly defined date and author (or authors), and which contains reference citations or footnotes. Examples of scholarly references include all journal articles, some books, and some web sources.

Scholarly references are what you and affective, others can most rely on; they represent the results of research performed by the author (primary research) or a synthesis (with conclusions) of research performed by others (secondary research). Purchase? Any reference that has undergone a peer-review process (for example, reviews of affective, scientific studies performed by other scientists) is considered scholarly. You need to find at international essay contest, least 2 scholarly references, which can be either print media (more likely) or electronic. A mass-media reference is everything else; it is typically meant for the public, and represents either opinion, or a discussion of research performed by someone else whose main purpose is to disseminate information rather than draw conclusions. Examples include most of the material available on seasonal affective disorder essays, the web, news magazines, and newspapers. Some of this material can be very useful for a debate, but because it represents either opinion or is somewhat removed from the original research, it is a less reliable source of information than scholarly research. Assisted Suicide? Reference list: You should use proper reference format for seasonal disorder, your annotated bibliography. This means an alphabetized list (according to author last name), with hanging paragraph indents. References should give: --author name (if known), --publication date (if known), --journal name (italicized) with volume (bolded) and page numbers (if a journal article), --book titles, book publishers, and publication city (if a book), --newspaper or newsmagazine name. International? For web sources, always provide the URL and the date you accessed it.

Also: -- if an author but no date is given, list the date as no date. --if no author is identified, use the title of the article in the source instead. --if no title is seasonal affective disorder essays, given, make one up which is appropriate for the content. For each reference you should add a few sentences that give your comments as to what the reference says, how it might be useful for your debate, or anything that indicates you have grasped the essential ideas of the reference and thought about purchase a dissertation it. Seasonal Affective Disorder Essays? For each reference you give, indicate whether it is viva, MASS-MEDIA or SCHOLARLY, and if it is PRINT-MEDIA. EXAMPLE The following provides an example of nine annotated references. The first annotation would look like something you would actually write. This list satisfies the seasonal affective, requirements of the assignment by giving at least two (in this case 3) scholarly references, and at least four (here 5) print-media references. The actual references would have hanging indents (which I cannot show easily using this html code), which means that all but the first line would be indented. Most of the references below were found a few years ago, and essay, the links may no longer work. This illustrates one of the problems with the essays, web. Apa Format For Term Paper? Anderson M.K. (2002) Hot on the contrails of weather.,1282,52512,00.html?tw=wn_story_related . Accessed Nov.

3, 2004. This reference discusses a study that was performed by a scientist examining the effects that contrails have on weather. The study found that there was 1.2 degree C greater fluctuation between day and night temperatures during Sept. 11-12, 2001, when airplanes were grounded in the U.S., compared to seasonal affective disorder, usual. The writer appears to purchase viva, be a correspondent, but the report appears to be fairly objective, and seasonal disorder, there is an actual name of optimist oratorical, a scientist given that makes me think the information is somewhat reliable. The study results, if legitimate, illustrate the affective essays, potential for the activities of primary job application letter, people to change weather, but don't provide any concrete info that climate is seasonal disorder essays, being changed by people. I think this webpage was interesting, but I wouldn't make a big case of it in my debate without finding more information. Sad Essays? It's pretty short on specifics. MASS-MEDIA. Aircraft Vapor Trails (2004) Aircraft vapor trails 'could cause global warming'. . Accessed May 2, 2004.

This is an actual web reference with no author, but the link is now broken only a few months after I accessed the page (illustrating one problem with purely electronic media, and why a date of downloading needs to be given). As no author was given, I used the first part of the title instead. It is seasonal affective disorder, a good example of an electronic mass media reference with a relatively small amount of content. It appears to be based on workbox hardy, scholarly research but doesn't provide many specifics which would easily lead to seasonal, this research. Notice that like the international contest, other examples given here, I have not used word-wrap to break apart the URL. MASS-MEDIA. Seasonal Affective Disorder? Black Soot and sad essays, Snow: A Warmer Combination (2003) . Accessed May 2, 2004. This is an actual web reference. It is an seasonal example of a web source that I would consider to be mass media, but based on reputable work. The latter scholarly work could be found easily because it is listed in the web document.

The web site indicates a U.S. government (NASA) source, and the name of a scientist who performed the research. Although this scientist is associated with the website, he isn't the actual author of the web document, so I've used the title instead of the purchase, author for the alphabetical position. Seasonal Affective Disorder? Both the source and scientist name suggest a higher degree of accountability and reputability than the previous two references. Apa Format Paper? MASS-MEDIA, but almost scholarly. Hansen, J., and seasonal affective disorder essays, L. Nazarenko (2004) Soot climate forcing via snow and ice albedos. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 101, 423-428, doi:10.1073/pnas.2237157100, in press.

Here is the actual reference for the study cited above. Notice that the paper was not yet printed by hardy, the time the web page was produced. A little work would be needed to find this article, which has presumably been published. For annotations, you could say what the main point of the article is (that soot produced by pollution landing on ice absorbs heat because of seasonal essays, its low albedo, and thereby leads to ice melting and atmospheric warming through a positive feedback), maybe how the study was conducted, and was was found specifically, and whether this information would be useful for your debate, either pro or con. SCHOLARLY, PRINT MEDIA. Bottoms J., Majors D.E. and A. Workbox Thomas Essays? Jones (1997) Models and Madness. Wow Books: New York. This is a fictitious example of a book.

I would consider it to be scholarly if it arrives at some conclusions based on analysis of research that has been performed. SCHOLARLY, PRINT MEDIA. Seasonal Affective Disorder? Brains Y. and P. Optimist International Oratorical? Smarts (1976) Girls' value systems: A study of identity and development. Disorder Essays? Human Society Today 56 , 37-49. This fictitious example of a journal article is a good example of viva, primary research. It might be very technical. It would probably be a good reference to seasonal affective disorder essays, use simply for viva, saying that scientists with good credentials have done the work, but it might also be a good idea to find supplemental mass-media works that quote this study and would be easier to digest. SCHOLARLY, PRINT MEDIA. Mandelbaum R. Affective? (2004).

Greenmark. Discover 25 , 48-55. This is an actual print media reference. Discover is a monthly science newsmagazine. This particular article is a good example of something meant for the educated public; it has no references, but it covers a lot of ground and letter, has information that could be useful for a debate. There are no credentials given for the author, so I would assume he is a reporter of some sort and I might not trust this source overly for that reason. But the material provided is good for a debate-- just enough detail to seasonal affective disorder essays, get into issues, without too much to get bogged down in. If your debate rivals don't pick up on the weak credentials of the author, why not take advantage of this? MASS-MEDIA, PRINT MEDIA. Ozone Hole (no date) The Ozone Hole. Accessed May 2, 2004.

This is an actual web reference. It's a good example of a web source with no date or author. It is definitely designed for hardy essays, the general public and is mass media. I wouldn't rely on this without getting back-up, but you are free to affective essays, use even this type of essays on physician, reference in your debate if you so choose. MASS-MEDIA. Yahright B. (1988) Barbie is not realistic! About time magazine 3 , 194-196. This fictitious article is published, but I'm assuming from the title and journal name that it is an opinion piece written for a newsmagazine. Seasonal Affective Essays? So, it qualifies as print mass-media.


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How to Write a Great Business Plan. Every seasoned investor knows that detailed financial projections for a new company are an act of imagination. Essays? Nevertheless, most business plans pour far too much ink on the numbers–and far too little on the information that really matters. Why? William Sahlman suggests that a great business plan is one that focuses on a series of questions. These questions relate to the four factors critical to the success of every new venture: the people, the on physician suicide opportunity, the context, and affective disorder, the possibilities for both risk and reward. The questions about people revolve around three issues: What do they know? Whom do they know? and How well are they known? As for opportunity, the plan should focus on two questions: Is the market for the venture’s product or service large or rapidly growing (or preferably both)? and Is the industry structurally attractive? Then, in addition to contest, demonstrating an understanding of the context in which their venture will operate, entrepreneurs should make clear how they will respond when that context inevitably changes. Finally, the plan should look unflinchingly at the risks the essays new venture faces, giving would-be backers a realistic idea of what magnitude of sad essays, reward they can expect and when they can expect it.

A great business plan is seasonal essays not easy to compose, Sahlman acknowledges, largely because most entrepreneurs are wild-eyed optimists. But one that asks the right questions is for term paper a powerful tool. A better deal, not to mention a better shot at success, awaits entrepreneurs who use it. Few areas of business attract as much attention as new ventures, and few aspects of new-venture creation attract as much attention as the business plan. Countless books and articles in the popular press dissect the topic. A growing number of annual business-plan contests are springing up across the United States and, increasingly, in other countries. Seasonal Affective Disorder? Both graduate and undergraduate schools devote entire courses to the subject. Indeed, judging by purchase viva, all the disorder hoopla surrounding business plans, you would think that the apa format paper only things standing between a would-be entrepreneur and spectacular success are glossy five-color charts, a bundle of affective, meticulous-looking spreadsheets, and a decade of month-by-month financial projections. Nothing could be further from the truth. In my experience with hundreds of entrepreneurial startups, business plans rank no higher than 2—on a scale from optimist international 1 to 10—as a predictor of a new venture’s success. And sometimes, in disorder, fact, the more elaborately crafted the document, the more likely the venture is to, well, flop, for optimist international contest, lack of a more euphemistic word.

What’s wrong with most business plans? The answer is relatively straightforward. Most waste too much ink on numbers and devote too little to the information that really matters to intelligent investors. As every seasoned investor knows, financial projections for a new company—especially detailed, month-by-month projections that stretch out for seasonal, more than a year—are an act of optimist essay oratorical, imagination. An entrepreneurial venture faces far too many unknowns to predict revenues, let alone profits. Moreover, few if any entrepreneurs correctly anticipate how much capital and affective disorder essays, time will be required to accomplish their objectives. Typically, they are wildly optimistic, padding their projections. Investors know about the padding effect and therefore discount the primary teaching job application letter figures in business plans. These maneuvers create a vicious circle of affective disorder essays, inaccuracy that benefits no one. Don’t misunderstand me: business plans should include some numbers. But those numbers should appear mainly in the form of a business model that shows the entrepreneurial team has thought through the workbox essays key drivers of the affective disorder venture’s success or failure.

In manufacturing, such a driver might be the yield on a production process; in assisted suicide, magazine publishing, the anticipated renewal rate; or in software, the impact of using various distribution channels. The model should also address the break-even issue: At what level of sales does the business begin to make a profit? And even more important, When does cash flow turn positive? Without a doubt, these questions deserve a few pages in disorder, any business plan. Near the back. What goes at the front?

What information does a good business plan contain? If you want to speak the language of investors—and also make sure you have asked yourself the right questions before setting out on the most daunting journey of a businessperson’s career—I recommend basing your business plan on the framework that follows. For Term? It does not provide the kind of affective, “winning” formula touted by some current how-to books and software programs for entrepreneurs. Nor is on physician assisted suicide it a guide to brain surgery. Rather, the seasonal essays framework systematically assesses the four interdependent factors critical to every new venture: The People.

The men and women starting and running the venture, as well as the outside parties providing key services or important resources for it, such as its lawyers, accountants, and suppliers. The Opportunity. A profile of the business itself—what it will sell and to whom, whether the business can grow and how fast, what its economics are, who and workbox thomas hardy essays, what stand in the way of success. The Context. The big picture—the regulatory environment, interest rates, demographic trends, inflation, and the like—basically, factors that inevitably change but cannot be controlled by seasonal affective essays, the entrepreneur.

Risk and Reward. An assessment of everything that can go wrong and optimist international oratorical contest, right, and a discussion of how the entrepreneurial team can respond. Business Plans: For Entrepreneurs Only? The accompanying article talks mainly about business plans in seasonal affective disorder, a familiar context, as a tool for sad essays death, entrepreneurs. But quite often, start-ups are launched within established companies. Do those new ventures require business plans? And if they do, should they be different from the plans entrepreneurs put together?

The answer to the first question is an affective disorder essays, emphatic yes; the answer to essays assisted suicide, the second, an equally emphatic no. All new ventures—whether they are funded by venture capitalists or, as is the case with intrapreneurial businesses, by shareholders—need to pass the same acid tests. After all, the marketplace does not differentiate between products or services based on who is pouring money into them behind the scenes. The fact is, intrapreneurial ventures need every bit as much analysis as entrepreneurial ones do, yet they rarely receive it. Seasonal Affective Disorder Essays? Instead, inside big companies, new businesses get proposed in primary teaching job application letter, the form of seasonal affective, capital-budgeting requests. These faceless documents are subject to detailed financial scrutiny and a consensus-building process, as the project wends its way through the viva chain of command, what I call the “neutron bomb” model of project governance. However, in the history of such proposals, a plan never has been submitted that did not promise returns in excess of corporate hurdle rates. It is only after the new business is launched that these numbers explode at the organization’s front door.

That problem could be avoided in seasonal affective, large part if intrapreneurial ventures followed the apa format paper guidelines set out in the accompanying article. For instance, business plans for such a venture should begin with the résumés of seasonal essays, all the people involved. What has the team done in the past that would suggest it would be successful in the future, and so on? In addition, the workbox essays new venture’s product or service should be fully analyzed in terms of disorder essays, its opportunity and context. Going through the sad essays process forces a kind of seasonal disorder essays, discipline that identifies weaknesses and strengths early on and helps managers address both. It also helps enormously if such discipline continues after the intrapreneurial venture lifts off. For Term Paper? When professional venture capitalists invest in new companies, they track performance as a matter of affective essays, course. But in large companies, scrutiny of a new venture is often inconsistent. That shouldn’t or needn’t be the case. A business plan helps managers ask such questions as: How is the new venture doing relative to projections? What decisions has the team made in response to new information?

Have changes in the context made additional funding necessary? How could the team have predicted those changes? Such questions not only keep a new venture running smoothly but also help an organization learn from essays its mistakes and triumphs. Many successful companies have been built with the help of venture capitalists. Many of the underlying opportunities could have been exploited by large companies. Why weren’t they? Perhaps useful lessons can be learned by studying the world of independent ventures, one lesson being: Write a great business plan. The assumption behind the framework is that great businesses have attributes that are easy to identify but hard to assemble. Affective Essays? They have an on physician suicide, experienced, energetic managerial team from the top to the bottom.

The team’s members have skills and experiences directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing. Ideally, they will have worked successfully together in the past. The opportunity has an attractive, sustainable business model; it is possible to create a competitive edge and defend it. Many options exist for expanding the scale and seasonal essays, scope of the sad essays death business, and seasonal disorder, these options are unique to for term, the enterprise and its team. Affective Essays? Value can be extracted from the business in a number of ways either through a positive harvest event—a sale—or by scaling down or liquidating. The context is favorable with respect to both the regulatory and the macro-economic environments. Risk is understood, and the team has considered ways to mitigate the impact of optimist international contest, difficult events. In short, great businesses have the four parts of the framework completely covered. If only reality were so neat. When I receive a business plan, I always read the disorder résumé section first.

Not because the people part of the new venture is the most important, but because without the essays assisted right team, none of the other parts really matters. I read the résumés of the venture’s team with a list of questions in affective, mind. (See the insert “Who Are These People, Anyway?”) All these questions get at the same three issues about the venture’s team members: What do they know? Whom do they know? and How well are they known? Fourteen “Personal” Questions Every Business Plan Should Answer. Where are the founders from? Where have they been educated? Where have they worked—and for whom?

What have they accomplished—professionally and personally—in the past? What is a dissertation their reputation within the business community? What experience do they have that is directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing? What skills, abilities, and knowledge do they have? How realistic are they about the venture’s chances for success and the tribulations it will face?

Who else needs to be on the team? Are they prepared to recruit high-quality people? How will they respond to adversity? Do they have the mettle to make the inevitable hard choices that have to be made? How committed are they to this venture? What are their motivations? What and whom they know are matters of insight and experience.

How familiar are the team members with industry players and dynamics? Investors, not surprisingly, value managers who have been around the block a few times. A business plan should candidly describe each team member’s knowledge of the new venture’s type of product or service; its production processes; and the market itself, from competitors to customers. It also helps to seasonal disorder, indicate whether the on physician suicide team members have worked together before. Not played—as in roomed together in college—but worked . Investors also look favorably on a team that is seasonal essays known because the real world often prefers not to deal with start-ups. They’re too unpredictable. That changes, however, when the new company is job application letter run by people well known to suppliers, customers, and employees.

Their enterprise may be brand new, but they aren’t. Seasonal Affective Disorder? The surprise element of sad essays, working with a start-up is somewhat ameliorated. Finally, the seasonal people part of a business plan should receive special care because, simply stated, that’s where most intelligent investors focus their attention. A typical professional venture-capital firm receives approximately 2,000 business plans per year. These plans are filled with tantalizing ideas for new products and viva, services that will change the world and seasonal disorder essays, reap billions in the process—or so they say. But the fact is, most venture capitalists believe that ideas are a dime a dozen: only death execution skills count. As Arthur Rock, a venture capital legend associated with the formation of such companies as Apple, Intel, and Teledyne, states, “I invest in seasonal disorder, people, not ideas.” Rock also has said, “If you can find good people, if they’re wrong about the product, they’ll make a switch, so what good is it to understand the product that they’re talking about in primary teaching letter, the first place?”

Business plan writers should keep this admonition in affective, mind as they craft their proposal. Talk about the apa format people—exhaustively. And if there is nothing solid about seasonal affective disorder essays their experience and abilities to herald, then the apa format for term entrepreneurial team should think again about launching the venture. When it comes to the opportunity itself, a good business plan begins by focusing on seasonal affective two questions: Is the total market for the venture’s product or service large, rapidly growing, or both? Is the industry now, or can it become, structurally attractive? Entrepreneurs and investors look for large or rapidly growing markets mainly because it is often easier to obtain a share of a growing market than to fight with entrenched competitors for a share of essay oratorical contest, a mature or stagnant market. Smart investors, in fact, try hard to identify high-growth-potential markets early in their evolution: that’s where the big payoffs are. And, indeed, many will not invest in seasonal disorder, a company that cannot reach a significant scale (that is, $ 50 million in annual revenues) within five years. HBR Guide to primary teaching, Building Your Business Case Ebook + Tools.

As for attractiveness, investors are obviously looking for affective disorder essays, markets that actually allow businesses to make some money. But that’s not the no-brainer it seems. Apa Format? In the affective essays late 1970s, the a dissertation computer disk-drive business looked very attractive. The technology was new and exciting. Dozens of companies jumped into the fray, aided by an army of professional investors. Twenty years later, however, the thrill is gone for managers and investors alike. Seasonal Affective Essays? Disk drive companies must design products to meet the apa format paper perceived needs of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and end users. Selling a product to OEMs is complicated. The customers are large relative to most of their suppliers. There are lots of competitors, each with similar high-quality offerings. Moreover, product life cycles are short and ongoing technology investments high.

The industry is disorder essays subject to essays suicide, major shifts in affective disorder essays, technology and customer needs. Intense rivalry leads to lower prices and, hence, lower margins. In short, the disk drive industry is simply not set up to make people a lot of money; it’s a structural disaster area. The information services industry, by contrast, is paradise. Companies such as Bloomberg Financial Markets and sad essays death, First Call Corporation, which provide data to the financial world, have virtually every competitive advantage on their side. First, they can assemble or create proprietary content—content that, by the way, is like life’s blood to thousands of money managers and stock analysts around the world.

And although it is often expensive to develop the service and to acquire initial customers, once up and running, these companies can deliver content to customers very cheaply. Also, customers pay in advance of receiving the service, which makes cash flow very handsome, indeed. In short, the structure of the information services industry is beyond attractive: it’s gorgeous. The profit margins of Bloomberg and First Call put the affective disorder disk drive business to shame. The Opportunity of teaching, a Lifetime—or Is It? Nine Questions About the seasonal affective disorder essays Business Every Business Plan Should Answer.

Who is the new venture’s customer? How does the customer make decisions about buying this product or service? To what degree is the product or service a compelling purchase for the customer? How will the product or service be priced? How will the purchase viva venture reach all the identified customer segments?

How much does it cost (in time and resources) to acquire a customer? How much does it cost to produce and deliver the product or service? How much does it cost to support a customer? How easy is seasonal disorder essays it to assisted suicide, retain a customer? Thus, the first step for entrepreneurs is to make sure they are entering an industry that is large and/or growing, and one that’s structurally attractive.

The second step is to make sure their business plan rigorously describes how this is the case. And if it isn’t the case, their business plan needs to specify how the venture will still manage to make enough of a profit that investors (or potential employees or suppliers, for that matter) will want to participate. Once it examines the new venture’s industry, a business plan must describe in detail how the company will build and launch its product or service into the marketplace. Again, a series of questions should guide the discussion. (See the affective disorder essays insert “The Opportunity of a Lifetime—or Is It?”) Often the answers to these questions reveal a fatal flaw in the business. I’ve seen entrepreneurs with a “great” product discover, for workbox thomas, example, that it’s simply too costly to find customers who can and will buy what they are selling. Economically viable access to customers is the key to business, yet many entrepreneurs take the Field of seasonal affective disorder, Dreams approach to this notion: build it, and they will come. International Contest? That strategy works in the movies but is not very sensible in the real world. It is not always easy to answer questions about the likely consumer response to new products or services. The market is essays as fickle as it is unpredictable. (Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell?) One entrepreneur I know proposed to introduce an electronic news-clipping service.

He made his pitch to a prospective venture-capital investor who rejected the plan, stating, “I just don’t think the dogs will eat the dog food.” Later, when the entrepreneur’s company went public, he sent the venture capitalist an optimist, anonymous package containing an empty can of dog food and a copy of seasonal affective disorder essays, his prospectus. If it were easy to primary, predict what people will buy, there wouldn’t be any opportunities. The market is as fickle as it is unpredictable. Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell? Similarly, it is tough to guess how much people will pay for something, but a business plan must address that topic.

Sometimes, the dogs will eat the dog food, but only at a price less than cost. Investors always look for opportunities for value pricing—that is, markets in which the costs to produce the product are low, but consumers will still pay a lot for it. Seasonal Disorder Essays? No one is thomas dying to invest in a company when margins are skinny. Still, there is money to seasonal affective, be made in inexpensive products and services—even in commodities. A business plan must demonstrate that careful consideration has been given to the new venture’s pricing scheme. The list of questions about the new venture’s opportunity focuses on the direct revenues and essays on physician, the costs of producing and affective disorder essays, marketing a product. That’s fine, as far as it goes. A sensible proposal, however, also involves assessing the business model from a perspective that takes into account the investment required—that is, the balance sheet side of the primary teaching letter equation.

The following questions should also be addressed so that investors can understand the cash flow implications of pursuing an opportunity: When does the business have to buy resources, such as supplies, raw materials, and people? When does the business have to affective essays, pay for them? How long does it take to essays on physician, acquire a customer? How long before the customer sends the business a check? How much capital equipment is required to support a dollar of sales?

Investors, of course, are looking for businesses in which management can buy low, sell high, collect early, and pay late. The business plan needs to spell out how close to that ideal the new venture is expected to come. Even if the answer is “not very”—and it usually is—at least the truth is out there to discuss. The opportunity section of a business plan must also bring a few other issues to disorder, the surface. First, it must demonstrate and analyze how an opportunity can grow—in other words, how the optimist international oratorical contest new venture can expand its range of products or services, customer base, or geographic scope. Disorder Essays? Often, companies are able to create virtual pipelines that support the economically viable creation of new revenue streams. In the publishing business, for example, Inc. magazine has expanded its product line to include seminars, books, and videos about entrepreneurship. Similarly, building on the success of its personal-finance software program Quicken, Intuit now sells software for electronic banking, small-business accounting, and tax preparation, as well as personal-printing supplies and on-line information services—to name just a few of its highly profitable ancillary spin-offs. Now, lots of sad essays death, business plans runneth over on the subject of the new venture’s potential for disorder, growth and expansion.

But they should likewise runneth over in explaining how they won’t fall into some common opportunity traps. One of those has already been mentioned: industries that are at their core structurally unattractive. But there are others. The world of invention, for example, is fraught with danger. Over the primary teaching past 15 years, I have seen scores of individuals who have devised a better mousetrap—newfangled creations from inflatable pillows for use on airplanes to automated car-parking systems.

Few of these idea-driven companies have really taken off, however. I’m not entirely sure why. Sometimes, the inventor refuses to spend the money required by seasonal affective disorder essays, or share the rewards sufficiently with the business side of the company. Other times, inventors become so preoccupied with their inventions they forget the customer. Whatever the reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an primary teaching job application letter, uncanny way of malfunctioning. Another opportunity trap that business plans—and entrepreneurs in general—need to seasonal disorder, pay attention to is the tricky business of arbitrage. Basically, arbitrage ventures are created to job application letter, take advantage of some pricing disparity in the marketplace. Seasonal Disorder Essays? MCI Communications Corporation, for instance, was formed to offer long-distance service at a lower price than ATT.

Some of the industry consolidations going on primary letter today reflect a different kind of arbitrage—the ability to buy small businesses at a wholesale price, roll them up together into a larger package, and take them public at seasonal disorder essays a retail price, all without necessarily adding value in the process. Whatever the reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an uncanny way of malfunctioning. Taking advantage of arbitrage opportunities is optimist international oratorical contest a viable and potentially profitable way to enter a business. In the final analysis, however, all arbitrage opportunities evaporate. Affective Disorder Essays? It is not a question of whether, only when. The trick in these businesses is to use the arbitrage profits to build a more enduring business model, and business plans must explain how and paper, when that will occur. As for competition, it probably goes without saying that all business plans should carefully and thoroughly cover this territory, yet some don’t. That is a glaring omission. For starters, every business plan should answer the following questions about the competition: Who are the new venture’s current competitors? What resources do they control?

What are their strengths and weaknesses? How will they respond to the new venture’s decision to seasonal disorder, enter the business? How can the new venture respond to its competitors’ response? Who else might be able to letter, observe and exploit the same opportunity? Are there ways to co-opt potential or actual competitors by forming alliances? Business is like chess: to seasonal affective essays, be successful, you must anticipate several moves in purchase, advance.

A business plan that describes an insuperable lead or a proprietary market position is by seasonal disorder, definition written by naïve people. That goes not just for the competition section of the workbox essays business plan but for the entire discussion of the affective essays opportunity. All opportunities have promise; all have vulnerabilities. A good business plan doesn’t whitewash the latter. Rather, it proves that the entrepreneurial team knows the good, the bad, and the ugly that the on physician suicide venture faces ahead. Opportunities exist in disorder essays, a context.

At one level is the macroeconomic environment, including the sad essays death level of seasonal essays, economic activity, inflation, exchange rates, and interest rates. At another level are the wide range of government rules and a dissertation, regulations that affect the opportunity and how resources are marshaled to exploit it. Examples extend from seasonal disorder tax policy to the rules about raising capital for a private or public company. And at yet another level are factors like technology that define the primary letter limits of what a business or its competitors can accomplish. Context often has a tremendous impact on every aspect of the entrepreneurial process, from disorder essays identification of opportunity to harvest. In some cases, changes in some contextual factor create opportunity. More than 100 new companies were formed when the primary teaching letter airline industry was deregulated in the late 1970s. The context for financing was also favorable, enabling new entrants like People Express to go to the public market for capital even before starting operations. Conversely, there are times when the seasonal context makes it hard to essays on physician, start new enterprises. The recession of the early 1990s combined with a difficult financing environment for new companies: venture capital disbursements were low, as was the disorder essays amount of capital raised in the public markets. (Paradoxically, those relatively tight conditions, which made it harder for new entrants to get going, were associated with very high investment returns later in the 1990s, as capital markets heated up.) Sometimes, a shift in context turns an unattractive business into an attractive one, and vice versa.

Consider the case of a packaging company some years ago that was performing so poorly it was about to be put on the block. Then came the Tylenol-tampering incident, resulting in multiple deaths. The packaging company happened to have an efficient mechanism for installing tamper-proof seals, and in a matter of weeks its financial performance could have been called spectacular. Workbox Thomas Hardy Essays? Conversely, U.S. tax reforms enacted in 1986 created havoc for companies in the real estate business, eliminating almost every positive incentive to invest. Many previously successful operations went out of business soon after the new rules were put in place. Every business plan should contain certain pieces of evidence related to context. First, the entrepreneurs should show a heightened awareness of the new venture’s context and how it helps or hinders their specific proposal. Second, and more important, they should demonstrate that they know the disorder essays venture’s context will inevitably change and describe how those changes might affect the business. Further, the business plan should spell out what management can (and will) do in the event the context grows unfavorable.

Finally, the business plan should explain the ways (if any) in which management can affect context in a positive way. For example, management might be able to have an impact on apa format regulations or on industry standards through lobbying efforts. The concept that context is fluid leads directly to the fourth leg of the framework I propose: a discussion of risk and how to manage it. I’ve come to think of a good business plan as a snapshot of an event in the future. That’s quite a feat to begin with—taking a picture of the unknown. But the best business plans go beyond that; they are like movies of the future. They show the people, the opportunity, and the context from multiple angles.

They offer a plausible, coherent story of affective essays, what lies ahead. They unfold possibilities of action and reaction. Good business plans, in other words, discuss people, opportunity, and workbox thomas essays, context as a moving target. Disorder? All three factors (and the relationship among them) are likely to workbox thomas hardy essays, change over time as a company evolves from start-up to ongoing enterprise. Therefore, any business plan worth the time it takes to seasonal, write or read needs to focus attention on workbox thomas hardy essays the dynamic aspects of the entrepreneurial process. When it comes to the matter of risk and seasonal essays, reward in optimist international, a new venture, a business plan benefits enormously from the inclusion of two graphs.

Perhaps graphs is the wrong word; these are really just schematic pictures that illustrate the most likely relationship between risk and reward, that is, the relationship between the opportunity and affective, its economics. Sad Essays Death? High finance they are not, but I have found both of these pictures say more to investors than a hundred pages of charts and prose. The first picture depicts the amount of seasonal essays, money needed to launch the new venture, time to positive cash flow, and the expected magnitude of the workbox thomas hardy payoff. This image helps the investor understand the depth and duration of negative cash flow, as well as the relationship between the disorder essays investment and the possible return. The ideal, needless to thomas hardy essays, say, is to have cash flow early and often. Seasonal Essays? But most investors are intrigued by the picture even when the international contest cash outflow is high and long—as long as the cash inflow is more so. Of course, since the world of seasonal affective disorder, new ventures is populated by wild-eyed optimists, you might expect the picture to teaching job application, display a shallower hole and a steeper reward slope than it should. It usually does. But to be honest, even that kind of picture belongs in the business plan because it is a fair warning to investors that the disorder essays new venture’s team is completely out of touch with reality and should be avoided at all costs.

The second picture complements the first. It shows investors the range of possible returns and thomas hardy essays, the likelihood of achieving them. The following example shows investors that there is a 15 % chance they would have been better off using their money as wall-paper. The flat section reveals that there is a negligible chance of losing only a small amount of money; companies either fail big or create enough value to achieve a positive return. The hump in affective, the middle suggests that there is a significant chance of earning between 15 % and 45 % in the same time period. And finally, there is a small chance that the initial outlay of cash will spawn a 200 % internal rate of return, which might have occurred if you had happened to invest in Microsoft when it was a private company. Basically, this picture helps investors determine what class of purchase a dissertation, investment the seasonal affective essays business plan is presenting. Apa Format? Is the seasonal affective essays new venture drilling for North Sea oil—highly risky with potentially big payoffs—or is it digging development wells in job application letter, Texas, which happens to be less of a geological gamble and disorder, probably less lucrative, too? This image answers that kind of question. It’s then up to the investors to decide how much risk they want to live with against what kind of job application letter, odds.

Again, the people who write business plans might be inclined to skew the seasonal affective disorder picture to make it look as if the probability of a significant return is downright huge and the possibility of a dissertation viva, loss is seasonal affective negligible. Job Application? And, again, I would say therein lies the picture’s beauty. What it claims, checked against the investor’s sense of reality and experience, should serve as a simple pictorial caveat emptor. Of course, the future is hard to predict. Still, it is affective disorder possible to give potential investors a sense of the sad essays kind and class of disorder, risk and reward they are assuming with a new venture. All it takes is a pencil and two simple drawings. (See the insert “Visualizing Risk and Reward.”) But even with these drawings, risk is, well, risky. In reality, there are no immutable distributions of outcomes.

It is ultimately the responsibility of death, management to change the distribution, to increase the likelihood and consequences of success, and to decrease the likelihood and implications of problems. One of the great myths about entrepreneurs is that they are risk seekers. All sane people want to avoid risk. As Harvard Business School professor (and venture capitalist) Howard Stevenson says, true entrepreneurs want to capture all the reward and seasonal affective essays, give all the risk to others. The best business is a post office box to which people send cashier’s checks. Yet risk is unavoidable. For Term Paper? So what does that mean for affective essays, a business plan? It means that the plan must unflinchingly confront the risks ahead—in terms of people, opportunity, and context. What happens if one of the new venture’s leaders leaves? What happens if a competitor responds with more ferocity than expected?

What happens if there is a revolution in Namibia, the source of a key raw material? What will management actually do ? Those are hard questions for an entrepreneur to pose, especially when seeking capital. But a better deal awaits those who do pose them and then provide solid answers. A new venture, for example, might be highly leveraged and therefore very sensitive to a dissertation, interest rates. Disorder? Its business plan would benefit enormously by stating that management intends to hedge its exposure through the financial-futures market by purchasing a contract that does well when interest rates go up.

That is the equivalent of optimist, offering investors insurance. (It also makes sense for the business itself.) Finally, one important area in the realm of risk/reward management relates to harvesting. Venture capitalists often ask if a company is “IPOable,” by which they mean, Can the company be taken public at some point in seasonal affective disorder, the future? Some businesses are inherently difficult to apa format for term paper, take public because doing so would reveal information that might harm its competitive position (for example, it would reveal profitability, thereby encouraging entry or angering customers or suppliers). Some ventures are not companies, but rather products—they are not sustainable as independent businesses. One of the greatest myths about entrepreneurs is that they are risk seekers. All sane people want to avoid risk. Therefore, the essays business plan should talk candidly about the end of the viva process. Disorder Essays? How will the investor eventually get money out of the business, assuming it is successful, even if only marginally so? When professionals invest, they particularly like companies with a wide range of exit options.

They like companies that work hard to for term, preserve and seasonal affective, enhance those options along the way, companies that don’t, for example, unthinkingly form alliances with big corporations that could someday actually buy them. Investors feel a lot better about letter risk if the venture’s endgame is discussed up front. Seasonal Affective Essays? There is an old saying, “If you don’t know where you are going, any road will get you there.” In crafting sensible entrepreneurial strategies, just the opposite is true: you had better know where you might end up and have a map for teaching job application, getting there. A business plan should be the place where that map is drawn, for, as every traveler knows, a journey is a lot less risky when you have directions. Once a business plan is written, of course, the affective goal is to sad essays death, land a deal.

That is a topic for another article in itself, but I will add a few words here. When I talk to young (and old) entrepreneurs looking to finance their ventures, they obsess about the valuation and terms of the deal they will receive. Their explicit goal seems to seasonal affective disorder essays, be to essays on physician assisted, minimize the dilution they will suffer in raising capital. Implicitly, they are also looking for investors who will remain as passive as a tree while they go about building their business. On the seasonal affective disorder essays food chain of investors, it seems, doctors and dentists are best and hardy, venture capitalists are worst because of the degree to which the latter group demands control and a large share of the returns.

That notion—like the idea that excruciatingly detailed financial projections are useful—is nonsense. From whom you raise capital is often more important than the terms. New ventures are inherently risky, as I’ve noted; what can go wrong will. When that happens, unsophisticated investors panic, get angry, and seasonal essays, often refuse to job application, advance the company more money. Sophisticated investors, by contrast, roll up their sleeves and help the seasonal affective disorder essays company solve its problems. Often, they’ve had lots of experience saving sinking ships. They are typically process literate. They understand how to craft a sensible business strategy and a strong tactical plan.

They know how to recruit, compensate, and motivate team members. Teaching Job Application? They are also familiar with the seasonal disorder Byzantine ins and outs of going public—an event most entrepreneurs face but once in a lifetime. This kind of know-how is worth the money needed to workbox hardy essays, buy it. There is an old expression directly relevant to entrepreneurial finance: “Too clever by seasonal affective essays, half.” Often, deal makers get very creative, crafting all sorts of payoff and optimist contest, option schemes. That usually backfires.

My experience has proven again and again that sensible deals have the following six characteristics: They do not blow apart if actual differs slightly from seasonal affective essays plan. They do not provide perverse incentives that will cause one or both parties to behave destructively. They are written on a pile of papers no greater than one-quarter inch thick. But even these six simple rules miss an important point. A deal should not be a static thing, a one-shot document that negotiates the disposition of a lump sum. Instead, it is incumbent upon entrepreneurs, before they go searching for funding, to think about capital acquisition as a dynamic process—to figure out how much money they will need and when they will need it. How is that accomplished? The trick is for the entrepreneurial team to treat the new venture as a series of experiments.

Before launching the essays on physician whole show, launch a little piece of it. Convene a focus group to disorder essays, test the product, build a prototype and watch it perform, conduct a regional or local rollout of a service. Such an hardy essays, exercise reveals the true economics of the business and affective, can help enormously in determining how much money the new venture actually requires and in what stages. Entrepreneurs should raise enough, and investors should invest enough, capital to fund each major experiment. Experiments, of course, can feel expensive and risky. But I’ve seen them prevent disasters and help create successes. I consider it a prerequisite of putting together a winning deal. Among the many sins committed by business plan writers is arrogance.

In today’s economy, few ideas are truly proprietary. Moreover, there has never been a time in recorded history when the supply of capital did not outrace the supply of opportunity. The true half-life of apa format for term, opportunity is decreasing with the passage of time. A business plan must not be an affective, albatross that hangs around the neck of the entrepreneurial team, dragging it into primary teaching letter oblivion. Instead, a business plan must be a call for action, one that recognizes management’s responsibility to fix what is broken proactively and in real time.

Risk is inevitable, avoiding risk impossible. Risk management is the seasonal affective disorder essays key, always tilting the venture in favor of reward and away from risk. A plan must demonstrate mastery of the entire entrepreneurial process, from identification of opportunity to harvest. It is not a way to separate unsuspecting investors from their money by hiding the fatal flaw. For in the final analysis, the only one being fooled is the entrepreneur. We live today in the golden age of entrepreneurship.

Although Fortune 500 companies have shed 5 million jobs in the past 20 years, the overall economy has added almost 30 million. Many of those jobs were created by entrepreneurial ventures, such as Cisco Systems, Genentech, and Microsoft. Purchase A Dissertation Viva? Each of those companies started with a business plan. Is that why they succeeded? There is seasonal affective essays no knowing for sure. But there is little doubt that crafting a business plan so that it thoroughly and candidly addresses the ingredients of success—people, opportunity, context, and the risk/reward picture—is vitally important.

In the absence of a crystal ball, in fact, a business plan built of the right information and analysis can only workbox thomas be called indispensable. William A. Sahlman is the Dimitri V. Seasonal Affective Disorder Essays? D’Arbeloff-MBA Class of suicide, 1955 Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School.

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300 essays ramayana This overview has several pages, so make sure you take a look at each one: The Story of the Ramayana Briefly. So, just to let you know what you are in affective, for, here is a very brief summary of the viva, Ramayana, the affective, adventures of lord Rama. Rama is the son of King Dasaratha, but he is also an incarnation of the god Vishnu, born in human form to do battle with the demon lord Ravana. Ravana had obtained divine protection against other demons, and even against the gods - but because he scorned the world of animals and men, he had not asked for protection from them. Therefore, Vishnu incarnated as a human being in order to international essay contest, put a stop to Ravana. King Dasaratha has three other sons besides Rama. There is seasonal essays, Lakshmana, who is on physician suicide, devoted to Rama. Disorder! There is also Bharata, the son of Dasaratha's pretty young wife Kaikeyi, and finally there is Satrughna, who is as devoted to Bharata as Lakshmana is to Rama. When Dasaratha grows old, he decides to name Rama as his successor. Queen Kaikeyi, however, is outraged. She manages to compel Dasaratha to name their son Bharata as his successor instead and to send Rama into exile in the forest.

Rama agrees to go into exile, and he is accompanied by his wife Sita and his brother Lakshmana. When their exile is nearly over, Sita is abducted by optimist international the evil Ravana who carries her off to Lanka city (on the island of Sri Lanka). Rama and Lakshmana follow in pursuit, and seasonal affective essays, they are aided by the monkey lord, Hanuman, who is workbox hardy, perfectly devoted to Rama. After many difficulties and dangers, Rama finally confronts Ravana and defeats him in battle. What happens after that is a matter of some dispute in the different versions of the Ramayana. Did Rama accept Sita back into his household? Or did he send her away because she had been in the possession of another male? You will see different versions of the ending in the two different editions of the Ramayana that you will read for this class. In historical terms, the events of the Ramayana are supposed to precede the events of the Mahabharata.

The time periods of Hindu mythology are called yugas, and the world as we know it goes through a cycle of four yugas. Affective Essays! Sometimes these four yugas are compared to sad essays death, a cow standing on four legs. In the seasonal disorder essays, Best Age, the Krita Yuga, the cow is sad essays, standing on all four legs. In the next age, the Treta Yuga, or Age of Three, the cow is standing on seasonal disorder, only three legs and is slightly teetering, and so the world is slightly corrupted. In the next age, the Age of Two, or Dwapara Yuga, there is only half as much righteousness in the world as there used to be, like a cow standing on optimist international oratorical contest, only two legs. This is followed by seasonal disorder the worst age, the Kali Yuga, where there is only one-fourth of the world's original righteousness remaining.

As a result, the world of the death, Kali Yuga has become extremely corrupt and utterly unstable. The cow is standing on seasonal affective essays, just one leg! The events of the Ramayana take place in the Treta Yuga, when the world is only somewhat corrupted. The events of the Mahabharata take place much later, at the end of the Dwapara Yuga, the Age of workbox hardy, Two, when the world is far more grim and corrupt than in Rama's times. The violent and tragic events at the end of the Mahabharata mark the end of the Dwapara Yuga and the beginning of the Kali Yuga, the worst age of the world.

We are living in the Kali Yuga, in case you were wondering. The Story of the Mahabharata Briefly. In some ways, the entire story of the Mahabharata is an explanation of how our world, the world of the affective disorder, Kali Yuga, came into being, and how things got to be as bad as they are. The Ramayana has its share of suffering and even betrayal, but nothing to match the relentless hatred and vengeance of the Mahabharata. The culmination of the Mahabharata is the Battle of Kurukshetra when two bands of brothers, the Pandavas and the Kauravas, the sad essays death, sons of two brothers and thus cousins to one another, fight each other to death, brutally and cruelly, until the seasonal affective, entire race is almost wiped out. The five sons of Pandu, the Pandavas, are the heroes of the story. The eldest is thomas essays, King Yudhishthira. Next is Bhima, an enormously strong fighter with equally enormous appetites. After Bhima is Arjuna, the greatest of the warriors and affective disorder essays, also the purchase, companion of seasonal affective disorder, Krishna. The last two are twins, Nakula and Sahadeva. These five brothers share one wife, Draupadi (she became the wife of all five of them by accident, as you will learn).

The enemies of the Pandavas are the Kauravas, who are the sons of Pandu's brother, Dhritarashtra. Although Dhritarashtra is still alive, he cannot manage to restrain his son Duryodhana, who bitterly resents the achievements of his cousins, the Pandavas. Duryodhana arranges for his maternal uncle to challenge Yudhishthira to a game of dice, and Yudhishthira gambles everything away, even himself. The Pandavas have to go into purchase a dissertation exile, but when they return they engage the Kauravas in battle. Krishna fights on the side of the Pandavas, and serves as Arjuna's charioteer. The famous Song of the Lord, or Bhagavad-Gita, is seasonal affective disorder essays, actually a book within the Mahabharata, as the battle of Kurukshetra begins. When Arjuna faces his cousins on the field of battle, he despairs and sinks down, unable to fight. The Bhagavad-Gita contains the words that Krishna spoke to Arjuna at that moment.

The Pandavas do win the battle. Duryodhana is killed, and the Kaurava armies are wiped out. But it is hardly a happy ending. Yudhishthira becomes king, but the world is a dissertation, forever changed by the battle's violence. If you are familiar with the Iliad, you might remember how that epic ends with the funeral of the Trojan hero Hector, a moment which is utterly bleak and sad.

The same is true for the Mahabharata. There are many truths that are learned in the end, but the victory, such as it is, comes at a terrible price.

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country essay china The People's Republic of China (China) is the seasonal affective, world's most populous country and the second largest energy consumer (after the United States). Production and consumption of coal, its dominant fuel, is the sad essays death, highest in affective disorder essays the world. Rising oil demand and imports have made China a significant factor in world oil markets. All information contained in this report is the best available as of May 2002 and is subject to change. China is the world's most populous country, with a rapidly growing economy. Purchase! Economic development has proceeded unevenly, with urban coastal areas, particularly in the Southeast, experiencing more rapid economic development than other areas of the country. China has a mixed economy, with a combination of state-owned and private firms. A number of seasonal affective essays, state-owned firms have undergone partial or full privatization in recent years.

The Chinese government has encouraged foreign investment -- in some sectors of the economy and subject to constraints -- since the 1980s, offering several special economic zones in which foreign investors receive preferable tax, tariff, and investment treatment. With China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) in assisted suicide November 2001, the Chinese government made a number of specific commitments to trade and investment liberalization which, if fully implemented, will substantially open the Chinese economy to foreign firms. In the energy sector, this will mean the essays, lifting or sharp reduction of tarriffs associated with imports of some classes of capital goods, and the eventual opening to foreign competition of some areas such as retail sales of petroleum products. Essays Assisted Suicide! It still remains to be seen how these commitments will be implemented. Despite moves toward privatization, much of China's economy remains controlled by seasonal disorder, large State Owned Enterprises (SOE's), many of which are inefficient and unprofitable. Restructuring of the SOE sector, including the privatization of thomas, some enterprises, is a major priority of the affective, government, as is restructuring of the banking sector. Many Chinese banks have had to workbox thomas essays, write off large amounts of delinquent debts from state-owned enterprises. Seasonal Disorder Essays! Quarterly earnings at many SOEs are reported to have fallen sharply in the first quarter of 2002, after rising in 2001. It is unclear how much of this is death due to changes in accounting practices, as opposed to other factors such as weak demand for seasonal affective disorder essays exports. Layoffs have been part of the restructuring of the SOEs, as many were severely overstaffed.

This has created unemployment, and sad essays, also has been a burden on the government budget, as the government begins to provide social benefits which were previously the responsibility of the affective essays, SOEs. Large protests against for term, SOE layoffs have taken place in early 2002, including in cities closely associated with the oil and coal industries. China's real GDP grew by 7.3% in 2001, according to official Chinese figures, down from disorder 8.0% growth in 2000. Real GDP growth for 2002 is forecast at 7.0%. Primary! The Chinese government's current Five Year Plan (2001-2005) sets a target of affective disorder essays, 7.0% real annual GDP growth. Some outside analysts have questioned the reliability of the official data, however. Inflows of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) into optimist international essay contest, China in 2001 totalled $46.8 billion, a new record, and data from the first two months of seasonal affective, 2002 shows continuing strength. Japan, Taiwan, and the United States are China's most important sources of FDI. In general, China's trade surplus has been falling in on physician assisted recent years, and imports have been rising.

The 2001 trade surplus was $22.6 billion, down from affective disorder a peak of $43.6 billion in oratorical 2001. Imports have been increasing, largely capital goods being acquired to refurbish outdated industrial facilities, but also consumer goods. China has several territorial disputes with other regional states which are relevant to the energy sector, particularly the dispute over the potentially hydrocarbon-rich Spratly Islands, which are claimed by China, Vietnam, the Phillipines, Brunei, Taiwan, and Malaysia. Another dispute is over the East China Sea, claimed by Japan. China currently is the world's third largest oil consumer, behind the United States and Japan. Consumption of affective, petroleum products totalled 4.78 million barrels per day (bbl/d) in 2000, up from sad essays 4.36 million bbl/d in affective essays 1999. China is expected to surpass Japan as the second largest world oil consumer within the next decade and reach a consumption level of suicide, 10.5 million bbl/d by 2020, making it a major factor in the world oil market. China's petroleum industry has undergone major changes in recent years. Affective Disorder Essays! In 1998, the Chinese government reorganized most state owned oil and gas assets into two vertically integrated firms -- the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) and the China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec). Before the restructuring, CNPC had been engaged mainly in oil and gas exploration and production, while Sinopec had been engaged in refining and distribution. In 1998, the Chinese government ordered an asset swap which transferred some exploration and production assets to thomas essays, Sinopec and some refining and distribution assets to CNPC.

This created two regionally focused firms, CNPC in the north and west, and Sinopec in the south, though CNPC is still tilted toward crude oil production and Sinopec toward refining. Other major state sector firms in China include the China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), which handles offshore exploration and seasonal affective, production and accounts for more than 10% of optimist international oratorical contest, China's domestic crude production, and disorder, China National Star Petroleum, a new company which was created in 1997. The intention of the restructuring was to make these state firms more like similar vertically integrated corporate entities elsewhere. In connection with this process, the firms have been spinning off or eliminating many unprofitable ancillary activities such as running housing units, hospitals, and other services near company facilities. Massive layoffs also have been undertaken, as like many other Chinese SOEs, they were severely overstaffed. Teaching Job Application! Labor unrest has been reported in early 2002 in several locations with CNPC facilties. The three largest Chinese oil and gas firms - Sinopec, CNPC, and CNOOC - all have successfully carried out initial public offerings (IPOs) of stock within the affective, last two years, bringing in billions of dollars in foreign capital. CNPC separated out most of its high quality assets into a subsidiary called PetroChina in early 2000, and carried out its IPO of a minority interest on both the Hong Kong and optimist oratorical, New York stock exchanges in April 2000. The IPO raised over $3 billion, with BP the seasonal affective, largest purchaser at primary job application, 20% of the shares offered. Sinopec carried out its IPO in affective essays New York and essays suicide, Hong Kong in October 2000, raising about $3.5 billion.

Like the PetroChina IPO, only a minority stake of 15% was offered. Seasonal Essays! About $2 billion of this amount was purchased by the three global super-majors - ExxonMobil, BP, and Shell. CNOOC held its IPO of a 27.5% stake in February 2001, after an optimist, earlier attempt in seasonal disorder September 1999 was canceled. Assisted! Shell bought a large block of shares valued at around $200 million. Several aspects of these stock offerings were very atypical.

First, they all involved only minority stakes. Second, they have not given the foreign investors a major voice in seasonal affective essays corporate governace. The Chinese government still holds majority stakes in all three firms, and the foreign investors have not received seats on their boards of directors. Analysts have generally seen these investments as attempts by the supermajors to purchase a dissertation, gain a foothold in China, which will necessarily involve partnerships with the Chinese majors. Even with the opening to foreign investment envisioned in China's commitments for membership in seasonal disorder essays the WTO, it is still likely that almost all major oil and gas projects in China will involve one of the Chinese majors. The Chinese government stipulated in July 2001 that only workbox thomas hardy CNPC and Sinopec will be allowed to open new retail filling stations prior to fulfillment of China's market-opening commitment in 2004. This is seen as an attempt to strengthen their control of retail sales of petroleum products and seasonal disorder essays, ensure that foreign firms will have to partner with one or the letter, other of the Chinese majors to enter the retail market, even after 2004. All three of the essays, global supermajors, BP, ExxonMobil, and Shell, are planning to enter the Chinese retail market in partnership with CNPC, Sinopec, or both. As a net oil importer since 1993, China's petroleum industry is focused on meeting domestic demand, but it does still export a modest amount of crude oil. The largest export customer by far is Japan, which imports Daqing crude oil to burn directly in electric power plants.

As of early 2002, China's exports of Daqing crude oil to Japan were around 50,000 bbl/d, down substantially from export levels during the 1990s. Most Chinese oil production capacity, close to on physician assisted suicide, 90%, is disorder located onshore. One field alone, Daqing in northeastern China, accounts for about 1.0 million bbl/d of sad essays death, China's production, out of a total crude oil production of around 3.3 million bbl/d. Daqing is a mature field, however, having begun production in 1963. It is seasonal expected to show declining production in the future, but the discovery of additional small oil-bearing structures at the field and the introduction of enhanced recovery technologies may slow the decline. At China's second-largest producing field, Liaohe in northeastern China, CNPC has solicited proposals from potential foreign partners to help it enhance recovery rates and optimist international essay oratorical contest, extend production, though no contracts have yet been signed. Affective! In December 2000, regulatory changes were announced which will remove some of the barriers to foreign firms forming partnerships with Chinese oil majors. Government priorities focus on assisted suicide stabilizing production in the eastern regions of the country at current levels, increasing production in new fields in the West, and developing the infrastructure required to deliver western oil and gas to consumers in seasonal affective disorder essays the East.

Offshore development also is primary teaching letter a high priority. Essays! Chinese officials have said that they expect production in Xinjiang to optimist essay oratorical contest, reach 1 million bbl/d by essays, 2008, but that seems ambitious, given that transportation of that oil to a dissertation, consumers in the East remains a major obstacle. Recent offshore oil exploration interest has centered on the Bohai Sea area, east of affective essays, Tianjin, believed to hold more than 1.5 billion barrels in essays on physician assisted suicide reserves, and the Pearl River Mouth area. Phillips Petroleum announced in March 2000 that it had completed its appraisal drilling of the Peng Lai find in Block 11/05, and would proceed with development. Full scale production at the field is expected to reach more than 100,000 bbl/d by 2004. Shell and essays, CNOOC signed a production sharing contract for exploration in the Bonan area of the on physician assisted suicide, Bohai Sea in January 2001. Seismic survey work is taking place, and drilling is scheduled to begin in 2003.

CNOOC also signed a production sharing contract with Canadian independent Husky Oil in July 2001 for Block 39-05 in the Pearl River Mouth, near the Wenchang 13-1/13-2 blocks, where Husky Oil and CNOOC already are producing about 50,000 bbl/d. Another major offshore oilfield has been developed in the Pearl River Mouth area by a consortium including Chevron, Texaco, Agip, and CNOOC. Seasonal Essays! The field began production in February 1999. Meanwhile, improvement in Sino-Vietnamese relations has opened the apa format for term, way for oil and gas exploration in the Beibu Gulf (known in affective essays Vietnam as the optimist oratorical, Gulf of Tonkin). China and Vietnam signed an agreement in December 2000 which settled their outstanding disputes over sovereignty and economic rights in offshore areas near their border. The Spratly Islands in the South China Sea also are suspected to hold oil and essays, gas reserves, but the area, as mentioned above, is on physician suicide claimed by several neighboring states. With China's expectation of affective disorder, growing future dependence on oil imports, China has been acquiring interests in exploration and production abroad. CNPC holds oil concessions in Kazakhstan, Venezuela, Sudan, Iraq, Iran, and Peru, and Azerbaijan. Sinopec also has begun seeking to purchase overseas upstream assets.

The most significant deal thus far is primary job application letter CNPC's aquisition of a 60% stake in the Kazakh oil firm Aktobemunaigaz, which came with a pledge to invest significantly in the company's future development over the next twenty years. Seasonal! While there had been some discussion of a possible oil pipeline from purchase viva Kazakhstan to seasonal, China, CNPC has said that it would only be considered if reserves were sufficient and it was economical, which looks doubtful. The Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company (GNPOC), the Sudanese oil project in which CNPC owns a stake, began exports in August 1999. The CNPC concession in Iraq cannot be developed until United Nations economic sanctions are lifted, at least to the extent of allowing foreign investment in Iraqi oil infrastructure. CNOOC also has purchased an upsteam equity stake in the small Malacca Strait oilfield in Indonesia. Russia's Far East is seen as a potential source of Chinese crude oil imports. Optimist Essay! The Russian and Chinese governments have been holding regular discussions on the feasibility of pipelines to make such exports possible. One proposed major project is a $1.7-billion pipeline from Irkutsk to Beijing being backed by Russia's Yukos Oil, which, if developed, could carry 400,000 bbl/d of oil, mainly from the Tomsk region. CNPC and Yukos signed an agreement in July 2001 to carry out affective, a feasibility study for the project, which is due to be completed in mid-2002.

An alternative plan, proposed by Russian pipeline operator Transneft, would take Russian crude from both West Siberia and East Siberia via a 1 million bbl/d pipeline to an export terminal at the Pacific coast port of Nakhodka. Assisted! China would presumably be one of the major consumers of oil from such a project, but it would also give Russia increased access to the Japanese, South Korean, and other East Asian markets. Downstream infrastructure development in China centers primarily on upgrading existing refineries rather than building new ones, due to current overcapacity. In the late 1990s, the Chinese government shut down 110 small refineries, which generally made inferior quality petroleum products. 62 other small refineries owned by provincial and local governments also are likely to be merged into CNPC and Sinopec in the near future. Another major issue in the Chinese downstream sector is the lack of seasonal disorder essays, adequate refining capacity suitable for apa format for term paper heavier Middle Eastern crude oil, which will become a necessity as Chinese import demand rises in the mid-term future. Several existing refineries are being upgraded to affective disorder essays, handle heavier and more sour grades of crude oil. Chinese officials have spoken of their intention to apa format for term, build a national strategic petroleum reserve, but no formal policy announcement has taken place, and it is unclear whether China would build a government-held reserve of crude oil like the U.S.

Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) or make the maintenance of a minimum stock level a regulatory requirement of doing business as a refiner, which is the basis for strategic reserves in Japan and disorder essays, South Korea. Historically, natural gas has not been a major fuel in China, but given China's domestic reserves of natural gas, which stood at 48.3 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) at the beginning of 2002, and the environmental benefits of using gas, China has embarked on a major expansion of its gas infrastructure. Until the 1990s, natural gas was used largely as a feedstock for fertilizer plants, with little use for purchase a dissertation electricity generation. Gas currently accounts for only slightly more than 3% of seasonal affective, total energy consumption in China, but consumption is expected to more than triple by 2010. This will involve increases in domestic production, and a dissertation, imports, by pipeline and in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG).

The country's largest reserves of natural gas are located in western and north-central China, necessitating a significant further investment in seasonal disorder pipeline infrastructure to carry it to eastern cities. China is planning to build a pipeline, the West-to-East Pipeline, from gas deposits in the western Xinjiang province to Shanghai, picking up additional gas in the Ordos Basin along the way. Shell was chosen in February 2002 as the essays on physician assisted suicide, lead firm for affective the project, and Gazprom and ExxonMobil will hold significant stakes. Essays On Physician! Sinopec also is likely to affective disorder essays, be added as an on physician, equity partner, but only for a 5% stake. Though construction had been scheduled to begin in 2001, it is unclear how long it will take to finalize terms for seasonal the contract. Some of the potential foreign partners in the project are reported to have concerns about the purchase a dissertation viva, $18 billion project's commercial viability, even though letters of affective essays, intent have been signed with several of the international, project's intended customers. The concern stems from the essays, possibility that the Tarim Basin gas deposits may provide enough gas for only 20 years of operation, while close to 40 years of operation could be needed to make it profitable, given the for term, massive construction costs. Seasonal Affective Essays! While it is unlikely to happen in the near future, the West-to-East Pipeline eventually could serve as a trunkline which could be extended to receive gas from job application Central Asia. China announced a discovery of a major gas field at Sulige in the Ordos Basin in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, adjacent to essays, the Changqing oilfield, in 2001. While the field is still under evaluation, recent unofficial reserve estimates cited in the trade press put reserves in the range of 16-21 Tcf, substantially more than was assumed when the discovery was first announced. Some natural gas from workbox thomas from the Ordos Basin is likely to be put into seasonal essays, the West-to-East Pipeline, which was to purchase viva, run through the area in any case, and seasonal disorder, help make it economically viable.

A pipeline was completed in 1997 between the Ordos Basin and sad essays death, Beijing, and a second pipeline is planned in the near future, as demand for disorder essays natural gas in Beijing, Tianjin, and nearby Hebei province already is outstripping the capacity of the original pipeline. Another proposed pipeline project would link the Russian natural gas grid in Siberia to China and possibly South Korea via a pipeline from the teaching job application, Kovykta gas fields near Irkutsk, which hold reserves of more than 50 Tcf. The cost of the project has been estimated at $12 billion, and a feasibility study is underway. Affective Disorder Essays! The pipeline would have a planned capacity of 2.9 billion cubic feet per day (Bcf/d), of which China would likely consume about death, 1.9 Bcf/d and South Korea 1 Bcf/d. The main South Korea gas company, Kogas, formally joined the feasibility study in November 2000. The main foreign backer of the project is essays BP, which owns a 30% stake in Rusia Petroleum , the license holder for the Kovykta gas field. The project faces some hurdles, however, as it would involve South Korea becoming dependent on gas supplies routed through China and North Korea. The project seems to have made little progress in the last year, due to tensions on the Korean peninsula and possibly Chinese expectations of additional domestic supplies for northeastern China based on the large new natural gas find in the Ordos Basin. It is thomas hardy not clear that the affective essays, project would be economical if it is not extended to South Korea. Aside from these huge projects, other pipelines are being developed to sad essays, link smaller natural gas deposits to other consumers. A pipeline was completed in early 2002 linking the Sebei natural gas field in the Qaidam Basin with consumers in the city of Lanzhou.

Another planned project would link gas deposits in Sichuan province in the southwest to seasonal affective, consumers in Hubei and Hunan provinces in central China at an estimate cost of $600 million. One major hurdle for primary teaching job application letter natural gas projects in China is the lack of a unified regulatory system. Currently, natural gas prices are governed by seasonal essays, a patchwork of local regulations. The Chinese government is in the process of death, drafting a new legal framework for affective disorder essays the natural gas sector, which has become an death, urgent priority to reassure Shell and seasonal affective disorder essays, other potential foreign investors in the West-to-East Pipeline that there will be a stable regulatory environment. Offshore gas projects also are becoming a significant part of China's gas supply. The Yacheng 13-1 field, developed in the mid-1990s, has been producing gas for Hong Kong and Hainan Island since 1996.

The Chunxiao gas field in the East China Sea, being developed by China National Star Petroleum, is also expected to become a significant producer within the next decade. The company puts the optimist international essay oratorical, field's reserves at more than 1.6 Tcf. Another area where where exploratory drilling is seasonal affective planned is the Xihu Trough, in the East China Sea about purchase, 250 miles east of Shanghai. Imported liquefied natural gas (LNG) will be used primarily in disorder essays China's southeastern coastal region. Guangdong province already has launched a project to build six, 320-megawatt (MW) gas-fired power plants, and to convert existing oil fired plants with a capacity of 1.8 gigawatts (GW) to LNG. In March 2001, it was announced that BP had been selected to build China's first LNG import terminal, to be located near the city of Guangdong. BP will take a 30% equity stake in the project, with CNOOC holding 31% and the rest held by local firms from Guangdong and Hong Kong. Apa Format Paper! Proposals for supplies of LNG to the terminal were received in May 2002 from three potential suppliers, RasGas of Qatar, Shell's Northwest Shelf LNG project in Australia, and BP's planned Tangguh LNG project in Indonesia. Seasonal Disorder! A second LNG import terminal is planned for Fujian province, to be completed in 2005 or 2006.

Coal makes up the bulk, over 63%, of China's primary energy consumption, and China is both the largest consumer and producer of international oratorical, coal in the world. China's coal consumption in 2000 was 1.27 billion short tons, or over 24% of the seasonal, world total. The Chinese government has recently made a major upward revision to coal production and consumption figures covering the last several years. While the new figures still show coal use declining significantly, the decline is much less than the previously published figures. China's coal industry has had a serious oversupply problem in recent years, particularly in the late 1990s, and the government has begun implementing major reforms aimed at reducing the purchase a dissertation, oversupply, returning large state-owned mines to seasonal affective disorder essays, profitability as a prelude to possible future privatization, and reducing mine accidents. Hardy! Large state-owned coal mines had experienced buildups of unused inventories in the mid-to-late-1990s, and many were operating at a financial loss. A large number of small, unlicensed mines also have added to the oversupply. In 1998, the government launched a large-scale effort to close down the affective essays, small mines. Many small coal mines have been closed, and the effort is continuing.

As a result of the closures, depressed local coal prices have started to recover, and purchase viva, combined with cost-cutting measures, some of the large-scale mines returned to profitability in 2000. It has become clear, however, through much anecdotal evidence, that not all of the closed mines have actually ceased operation, and the recent revision to seasonal affective, the Chinese State Statistical Bureau's production and consumption figures appears to reflect this. China also is increasingly seeking export markets for primary teaching job application letter its coal as a way of dealing with its surplus production. According to figures published by the Chinese government, China's net coal exports for 2001 rose by 46% from the previous year. Japan and South Korea are the primary markets, and seasonal essays, China is beginning to emerge as a serious competitor to Australia for Japanese coal imports. Oratorical! India also has been importing modest quantities of Chinese coal.

Over the seasonal affective disorder essays, longer term, China's coal demand is projected to rise significantly , roughly doubling by the year 2020. Death! While coal's share of overall Chinese energy consumption is projected to fall, coal consumption will still be increasing in absolute terms. Several projects exist for the development of coal-fired power plants co-located with large mines, so called coal by wire projects. Other technological improvements also are being undertaken, including the first small-scale projects for coal gasification, and a coal slurry pipeline to transport coal to the port of seasonal affective disorder essays, Qingdao. Coalbed methane production also is being developed, with recent American investors in this effort including BP, Texaco, and Virgin Oil, which was awarded a concession for optimist international essay oratorical exploration in Ningxia province in January 2001. Texaco is the seasonal affective, largest foreign investor in coalbed methane, with activities in several provinces. Coalbed methane production is expected to reach 0.4 billion Tcf by assisted, 2010. In contrast to the past, China is affective essays becoming more open to foreign investment in the coal sector, particularly in modernization of existing large-scale mines and the development of new ones. The China National Coal Import and Export Corporation is the primary Chinese partner for foreign investors in the coal sector. Areas of interest in foreign invesment concentrate on new technologies only recently introduced in China or with environmental benefit, including coal liquefaction, coal bed methane production, and slurry pipeline transportation projects.

Over the for term paper, longer term, China plans to aggregate the large state coal mines into seven corporations by the end of seasonal essays, 2005, in a process similar to the creation of CNPC and a dissertation, Sinopec out of state assets. Such firms might then seek to pursue foreign capital through international stock offerings. China has expressed a strong interest in coal liquefaction technology, and would like see liquid fuels based on coal substitute for some of disorder, its petroleum demand for transportation. The first pilot coal liquefaction plant is planned to sad essays death, be operational in seasonal disorder coal-rich Shanxi in late 2001. Shell also signed an agreement in December 2001 for a coal gasification project in Yueyang in Hunan province, which is to replace naphtha as a feedstock for a large fertilizer plant. As with coal, China's electric power industry experienced a serious oversupply problem in 1998-99, due largely to demand reductions from closures of inefficient state-owned industrial units, which were major consumers of assisted, electricity.

The Chinese government responded to the short-term oversupply in part by implementing a drive to close down small thermal power plants and by imposing a moratorium (with a few exceptions) on approval of new power plant construction, which ran through January 1, 2002, and there have not been a large number of new projects approved since then. Most of the small power plants closed were diesel or coal-fired plants which were opened by provincial or municipal governments as demand grew in the 1980's, and were relatively inefficient and polluting. Even with the moratorium on affective essays new construction approvals, many power plants have been coming online, due to optimist international essay, the very large backlog of power generation projects approved prior to essays, the moratorium. When the workbox thomas hardy essays, moratorium took effect, there was a total of 70 GW of seasonal affective disorder, new capacity under construction or with final approval, much of primary job application letter, which is still under development. The largest project under construction, by far, is the Three Gorges Dam, which, when fully completed in 2009, will include 26 separate 700-MW generators, for a total of 18.2 GW. Plans were announced in March 2002 to reorganize the Three Gorges project into the China Three Gorges Electric Power Corporation. The corporation is disorder essays expected to seek capital through an equity offering open to foreign investors, similar to those already carried out by assisted suicide, the major Chinese oil companies, in seasonal affective 2003. Another large hydropower project involves a series of dams on the upper portion of the paper, Yellow River. Shaanxi, Qinghai, and Gansu provinces have joined to create the Yellow River Hydroelectric Development Corporation, with plans for the eventual construction of 25 generating stations with a combined installed capacity of affective, 15.8 GW. Death! Seven of these stations are either under construction or currently in affective disorder essays operation.

Most of the major developments taking place in the Chinese electricity sector in 2002 involve nuclear power. Several nuclear projects are under construction, with the involvement of Russian, French, and apa format, Canadian firms. Affective! The first generation unit of the Lingao nuclear power plant in Guangdong province began commercial operation in May 2002, with a capacity of 1-GW. Essays On Physician Suicide! The second 1 GW generating unit is seasonal expected to optimist international essay oratorical, begin operating in March 2003. An additional 600-MW generating unit at the Qinshan nuclear power plant in Zhejiang province began operation in seasonal essays February 2002, and another 600-MW unit at the same site is scheduled to begin delivering electricity in late 2002. A major issue for China's electric power industry is the distribution of generation among power plants. Apa Format For Term! China's stated intention eventually is to create a unified national power grid, and to have a modern power market in which plants sell power to the grid at market-determined rates. Affective Disorder Essays! In the thomas hardy essays, short term, though, traditional arrangements still hold sway, and seasonal disorder essays, state-owned power plants which have government connections tend to have a higher priority than independent private plants. Additionally, some private plants with take-or-pay contracts, which provide for guaranteed minimum sales amounts, have had trouble getting the provincial authorities running the purchase viva, local grids to honor those terms.

In the short term, oversupply and uncertainty are likely to reduce foreign investment in China's power sector. Seasonal Affective Disorder Essays! In the longer term, though, growth in essay oratorical contest electricity consumption is projected at 5.5% per year through 2020. The largest gainer in terms of affective essays, fuel share in the future is workbox hardy expected to be natural gas, due largely to environmental concerns in China's rapidly industrializing coastal provinces. Seasonal! If a truly competitive market for essay electric power develops as planned, the Chinese market may once again become attractive to foreign investment. At present, foreign direct investment is allowed only in power generation, but loan financing has been obtained for some power transmission projects. The Chinese government is in the early stages of formulating a fundamental long-term restructuring of their electric power sector, embodies in affective essays the National Power Industry Framework Reform Plan promulgated by the State Council in April 2002. As with many other countries reform programs, generating assets are to be largely separated from transmission and distribution. The State Power Corporation (SPC) will divest most of its generating assets (though retaining about sad essays death, 20%), and then be split into regional transmission and affective disorder, distribution companies. International Oratorical! Electricity prices will still be regulated, but there are likely to be major changes in tarriffs and the overall regulatory structure for electricity pricing.

The process is at an early stage, and many of the details remain to be worked out. China suffers from major energy-related environmental problems. According to a report by the World Health Organization (WHO), seven of the affective, world's ten most polluted cities are in primary teaching job application letter China. The country's heavy use of unwashed coal leads to large emissions of sulfur dioxide and particulate matter. China also is disorder important to any effort to curb emissions of greenhouse gases, as it is projected to essays, experience the largest absolute growth in carbon dioxide emissions between now and the year 2020. China is seasonal affective essays a non-Annex I country under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, meaning that it has not agreed to binding targets for reduction of viva, carbon dioxide emissions under the essays, Kyoto Protocol.

While the purchase a dissertation viva, Chinese government is disorder essays concerned with its environmental problems, it tends to be more concerned with local problems, such as particulate matter and sulfur dioxide emissions. Thus, it is undertaking efforts to apa format paper, lessen emissions of pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, through improved pollution controls on power plants as well as policies designed to increase the share of seasonal, natural gas in the country's fuel mix, particularly around major metropolitan areas. President: Jiang Zemin (since March 1993) Premier: Zhu Rongji (since March 1998) Population (July 2001E): 1.3 billion. Location/Size: Eastern Asia/3.7 million square miles (9.6 million square kilometers, slightly smaller than the United States) Major Cities: Beijing (capital), Shanghai, Tianjin, Guangzhou, Shenyang, Wuhan, Chengdu, Hong Kong. Languages: Mandarin (official), many local dialects. Ethnic Groups: Han Chinese (92%); Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, others (8%)

Religion: Officially atheist; Daoism, Buddhism, Muslim (2-3%); Christian (1%) Defense (8/98): Army (2.1 million), Navy (260,000), Air Force (470,000), reserves (1.2 million), People's Armed Police (1 million) Exchange Rate (6/2/02): US$1 = 8.3 Yuan/Renminbi. Gross Domestic Product (2001E): $1.18 trillion (2002F): $1.27 trillion. Real GDP Growth Rate (2001E): 7.3% (2002F): 6.7% Inflation Rate (2002F): 0.6%

Current Account Surplus (2002F): $20.3 billion. Major Trading Partners: Japan, United States, European Union, South Korea, Taiwan. Merchandise Exports (2002F): $303.6 billion. Merchandise Imports (2002F): $254.1 billion. Merchandise Trade Surplus (2002F): $33.1 billion. Major Export Products: Light industrial and textile products, mineral fuels, heavy manufactures, agricultural goods. Major Import Products: Machinery, steel, chemicals, miscellaneous manufactures, industrial materials, grain. Monetary Reserves (2002F, non-gold): $174.2 billion. External Debt (2002F): $164.1 billion. Proven Oil Reserves (1/1/02E): 24 billion barrels.

Oil Production (2001E): 3.3 million barrels per day (bbl/d) Oil Consumption (2001E): 4.9 million bbl/d. Net Oil Imports (2001E): 1.6 million bbl/d. Crude Oil Refining Capacity (1/1/02E): 4.5 million bbl/d. Natural Gas Reserves (1/1/02E) : 48.3 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) Natural Gas Production (2000E): 0.96 Tcf. Natural Gas Consumption (2000E): 0.96 Tcf. Recoverable Coal Reserves (1/1/96E): 126.2 billion short tons. Coal Production (2000E): 1.27 billion short tons.

Coal Consumption (2000E): 1.31 billion short tons. Electric Generation Capacity (1/1/00E): 294 GW (222 GW thermal; 70 GW hydro; 2 GW nuclear) Electricity Generation (1999E): 1,308 billion kilowatthours (1,070 conventional thermal; 220 hydro; 16 nuclear) Statistical note: All data reported here exclude Hong Kong, a former British colony which reverted to on physician suicide, China on July 1, 1997. Minister of Land and Natural Resources: Yongkang Zhou. Minister of Water Resources: Shucheng Wang. Total Energy Consumption (2000E): 36.7 quadrillion Btu (9.2% of affective disorder, world total energy consumption) Energy-Related Carbon Emissions (2000E): 775.0 million metric tons of carbon (12.0% of death, world carbon emissions)

Per Capita Energy Consumption (2000E): 28.8 million Btu (vs. U.S. value of 351.0 million Btu) Per Capita Carbon Emissions (2000E): 0.61 metric tons of seasonal affective essays, carbon (vs. U.S. value of 5.6 metric tons of apa format for term paper, carbon) Energy Intensity (2000E): 35,201 Btu/$1995 (vs. U.S. value of 10,918 Btu/$1995)** Carbon Intensity (2000E): 0.74 metric tons of carbon/thousand $1995 (vs. Seasonal Affective Disorder! U.S. value of apa format paper, 0.17 metric tons/thousand $1995)**

Sectoral Share of Energy Consumption (1998E): Residential (28.3%), Industrial (59.9%), Transportation (7.4%), Commercial (4.4%) Sectoral Share of Carbon Emissions (1998E): Transportation (8.6%), Industrial (75.1%), Commercial (5.3%), Residential (10.9%) Fuel Share of Energy Consumption (2000E): Oil (26.8%), Natural Gas (3.0%), Coal (63.6%) Fuel Share of Carbon Emissions (2000E): Oil (22.0%), Natural Gas (2.1%), Coal (75.9%) Renewable Energy Consumption (1998E): 10,895 trillion Btu* (2% increase from 1997) Number of disorder, People per essays suicide, Motor Vehicle (1998): 125 (vs.

U.S. Affective! value of essays on physician, 1.3) Status in Climate Change Negotiations: Non-Annex I country under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (ratified January 5th, 1993). Signatory to the Kyoto Protocol (signed May 29th, 1998 - not yet ratified). Major Environmental Issues: Air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from the overwhelming use of high-sulfur coal as a fuel, producing acid rain which is damaging forests; water shortages experienced throughout the country, particularly in seasonal affective disorder urban areas and in optimist oratorical contest the north; future growth in water usage threatens to outpace supplies; water pollution from seasonal affective essays industrial effluents; much of the population does not have access to potable water; less than 10% of job application letter, sewage receives treatment; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of affective disorder, agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in job application endangered species. Major International Environmental Agreements: A party to seasonal affective disorder, the Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94 and Wetlands. Has signed but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban. * The total energy consumption statistic includes petroleum, dry natural gas, coal, net hydro, nuclear, geothermal, solar, wind, wood and waste electric power.

The renewable energy consumption statistic is based on International Energy Agency (IEA) data and includes hydropower, solar, wind, tide, geothermal, solid biomass and animal products, biomass gas and liquids, industrial and municipal wastes. Sectoral shares of energy consumption and carbon emissions are also based on apa format paper IEA data. **GDP based on EIA International Energy Annual 2000. Organization: Coal - China National Local Coal Mines Development Corp., China Northeast NEI-Mongolia United Coal Co., numerous local state-owned mines and rural collectives; Coal import/exports - China Coal Import and Export Group; Petroleum - China National Petroleum Corp. (CNPC, PetroChina is its publicly traded subsidiary), China National Offshore Oil Corp. (CNOOC), China National Oil Gas Exploration Development Corp. (CNODC), China National Star Petroleum (Star); China National Petrochemical Corp. (SINOPEC); Oil imports/exports - China National Chemicals Import and Export Corporation (SINOCHEM), China United Petroleum Corporation (China Oil), China United Petrochemical Corp. Seasonal Disorder Essays! (UNIPEC); Electric power - China State Power Corp., Huaneng Group, Inc., China National Power Industry Corp. (CNPIC), regional electric power corporations, China National Nuclear Industry Corp., China International Water and Electric Corp. (CWE).; Energy Finance - China National Energy Investment Corp. Major Producing Oil Fields (2000 Production): Daqing (1.1 MMBD), Shengli (0.5 MMBD), Liaohe (0.3 MMBD) Major Refineries (1/1/02 Capacity): Fushun (184,800 bbl/d), Maoming (170,700 bbl/d), Qilu (160,700 bbl/d), Gaoqiao (150,600 bbl/d), Dalian (142,600 bbl/d), Yanshan (190,800 bbl/d), Jinling (140,600 bbl/d); Zhenlai (160,700 bbl/d) Sources for this report include: Asia Pulse; Coal Week International; Dow Jones Newswire; Economist Intelligence Unit; Financial Times; Oil and Gas Journal; Oil Daily; Petroleum Economist; Petroleum Intelligence Weekly; South China Morning Post; U.S. Commerce Department; International Trade Administration -- Country Commercial Guides; U.S. Energy Information Administration; DRI/WEFA Asia Economic Outlook; World Gas Intelligence.

For more information from EIA on China, please see: Links to other U.S. Workbox Thomas Hardy! Government sites: The following links are provided solely as a service to affective essays, our customers, and therefore should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any position of the thomas, Energy Information Administration (EIA) or the United States Government. In addition, EIA does not guarantee the content or accuracy of any information presented in linked sites.