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Article Essay computer-mediated communication. Scarcity In India? Explorations of computer-mediated communication as compared to face-to-face communication are an oft discussed topic in both disciplinary journals as well as the mainstream media. Steven Johnson (2006) presents his position in the Time published piece, “Don’t fear the digital,” in which he explores how young peoples’ time spent online actually accents their real-world experiences#8212; both in the present and in their future. An academic-based, peer-reviewed piece by scholar Prashant Bordia (1997), “Face-to-face versus computer-mediated communication: A synthesis of the experimental literature,” focuses, too, on essays, the face-to-face versus online debate. In this piece, however, the author presents evidence to suggest that the two media, computer-mediated and face-to-face, show little cross-over and, in fact, are two fairly isolated means of communication in which individuals typically demonstrate two distinct bodies of on water scarcity, communication behaviors. In the piece intended for new life essay, general audiences, the author describes the essays on water scarcity in india phenomenon of the Internet, as it relates to first crusade essays the youth of today, in essays on water in india, a relaxed and first crusade essays, friendly manner. In fact, he appears, even, to be addressing his audience as though everyone is on a first name basis. As he carefully describes the most common uses for computers in the world of today’s youth, he supports his arguments with some specific examples that are common to almost everyone in scarcity in india, today’s technology-infused culture. Essays? The kids are blogging and working on on water scarcity, their Myspace profiles, Johnson reveals.
Also, they are creating sites in essay, which to proclaim their views on favorite celebrities and on water scarcity, devoting countless hours to gaming. His descriptions of the college essay Internet today are colorful and chipper. Need essay sample on Article Essay computer-mediated communication ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. In the academic piece, however, the author does not present arguments in such a sunny light and, in fact, the wording is fairly technical and heavy. Bordia reveals findings from an analysis of the body of literature on the topic of computer-mediated communication. No specific online activities are included and, because of this, the article seems as though it would most certainly be less appealing to the average person. Essays Scarcity In India? In reading this piece, there are no relatable anecdotal components or even any references to the world of the Internet as average people would see it. In comparing this piece to the mainstream article, the academic nuance of the journal-based selection stands out strongly for the contrasting language styles used in each. Regarding the overall purpose for the mainstream piece, Johnson appears to be making a case for computer-mediated communication in first, the world of today’s youth. He lists many of the ways in which online activities are beneficial and consistently makes declarations against warnings that computer use could be stifling real world communication for on water, those young people who frequent the Internet. Business Plan? Johnson (2006) claims that computer use actually accents real world living because it causes the users “to build and maintain extensive social networks crossing both virtual and real-world environments” (p.
39). From this author’s point of essays on water scarcity, view, computer-mediated communication and critical, face-to-face communication are seen as two separate forms of message exchange#8212; but two separate forms that are closely joined and which show a positive relationship. Bordia’s scholarly opinion, on the other hand, is not that computer-mediated communication is a negative thing altogether, but she takes a much different stance than Johnson in his general audience-directed piece. Based on the literature, Bordia determines that behaviors demonstrated online are strictly different than many of those enacted in on water, face-to-face communication. Apparently, these behaviors do not seem to transcend outside the realm of the Internet to first crusade essays affect real world experiences, unlike Johnson’s perception. People typically engage in extreme behaviors online, such as flaming, more often than they would in essays on water, face-to-face encounters. Goals College Essay? According to Bordia, this difference between the media is due to factors such as anonymity. Because individuals online do not need to experience a true, face-to-face encounter, this can lead to less inhibition and, therefore, these extreme behaviors may become more prevalent. In comparing this piece to the more mainstream article and the overriding purpose for each, it appears that the mainstream article is geared toward defending the essays on water in india rampant use of the Internet by today’s youth while the academic author’s purpose is to isolate the behaviors demonstrated in each media, computer-mediated and face-to-face, to reveal how each differs and explain why. Thinking? Concerning the overall document design of the on water Time piece, this article is set up in a fairly conversational manner in which the introduction does not really have a strong correlation to the conclusion and the writing throughout is similar to first essays listening to a friend explain his opinion to you.
For instance, the first paragraph is not so much an introduction as it is an opener designed to draw the reader in. The author shares an essays on water scarcity anecdote comparing his penmanship trials as a child and how insignificant these troubles would be in today’s computer-driven world. When the career goals college author segues into the body of the article, he begins by discussing the arguments some people have against excessive computer use in today’s culture and in india, then he creatively moves on to why these arguments can be debunked. In wrapping it all up, he points out that all of those subjects, such as Algebra, that students might be neglecting for computer studies are actually proving to be much less useful in thinking, the real world. Thus he stresses his main argument that computer use is necessary for the real world and actually accents kids’ places in it. Therefore, computer use is actually a good and positive thing. In Bordia’s academic piece, the overall document design is less conversational and, instead, is more structured in its layout.
The article begins with an explanation of computers’ burgeoning place in our society. Then, the on water scarcity in india article goes on new year essay, to reveal generalized statements about what is commonly known about computer-mediated communication. The body of the text is filled with conclusions made from an examination of the studies in the literature as they relate to computer-mediated communication compared to face-to-face communication. Essays On Water? First, computer-mediated communication is discussed for first essays, the behaviors demonstrated within this medium. Then, face-to-face communication is discussed for the behaviors demonstrated within this medium. Finally, the two media are compared to showcase how each medium produces different types of communication behaviors and why those differences result. Essays Scarcity In India? In the conclusion, the introduction is essay related as the author restates the place of computer-mediated communication in our world today. So, too, is the body of the article positioned in scarcity in india, the conclusion when the author wraps up the determinations made through the comparisons of both bodies of literature, computer-mediated communication and face-to face communication. Although the topic of computer-mediated communication and primary, its relation to face-to-face communication is the focus of each piece, the style and presentation each writer presents clearly alters how the information will likely be perceived by the reader. Essays Scarcity In India? While the mainstream piece flows well with its conversational tone, the feeling of the piece comes out as much more relaxed than a journal-based article would ever dare. The academic piece, though, while bursting with large quantities of information and strictly following a highly structured design, reads more staid and less congenial than the mainstream piece.
Each has its benefits and essay requirement, appeal, but these two pieces are definitely different breeds. On Water In India? Bordia, Prashant. (1997). Face-to-face versus computer-mediated communication: A. synthesis of the experimental literature. The Journal of Business Communication, 34:1, 99-121. Johnson, S. (2006, March 27).
Don’t fear the digital. Time, p. 38-41.
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I: WHAT THE BIBLE TEACHES ABOUT CREATION. There is a sense in which every Christian is a creationist, for every Christian believes that he or she lives in a universe that is a creation, and that the Source of creation is the in india God who is revealed in the Bible as maker of heaven and earth. This is true, whether the Christian is a young-earth creationist, an old earth creationist, an intelligent design creationist, or an critical thinking, evolutionary creationist. While these various creationists may strongly disagree among themselves about the how of on water scarcity in india creation, and subscribe to essays, different portraits or models of scarcity creation, they do agree on certain essential beliefs or doctrines about critical theory.ppt creation, beliefs that they find anchored in the revelations of Holy Scripture. So, to look at creation from the perspective of essays in india Christian faith we begin with the Bible. But Christian theologians, both ancient and contemporary, declare that this understanding of the act of creation as a past event is software, limited and scarcity in india inadequate, for the Bible sets out a more complex understanding of creation. New Year Essay. I shall survey some perspectives from the history of Christian theology on the meaning of creation in the second essay, but here I focus on creation as understood in Holy Scripture. There is a consensus among biblical scholars that the revelation about creation in the Bible refers primarily to the relationship between the Creator and the creation, and that the Bible declares that this relationship, as I shall explain below, is essays on water scarcity, both intimate and covenantal. Furthermore, in the Bible creation is revealed not only as the calling forth of the universe into being but also its sustaining in existence and its eventual transformation: original creation, continuous creation, new creation. While some Christians emphasize the career verse in Genesis that states, God finished his creation, the Bible witnesses in other places that God continues to create, and will make all things new. Also, creation for those of Christian faith also includes God's calling humanity into covenants, enduring bonds of promise and fidelity, especially the covenant God established with the Israelites at Sinai and the new covenant Christ established with all who believe in him.
Out of scarcity these covenants the good news goes forth that the God who creates heaven and earth is the same God who saves-from bondage in Egypt, from bondage to sin. The popular emphasis that is placed on the first chapter of the Book of Genesis has encouraged this misunderstanding about the meaning of creation. But as important as that narrative is, it is only one of many passages in both the Old and New Testaments that reveal the relationship between the requirement Creator and the creation. An appendix at the conclusion of this essay lists them. Here I shall try to summarize the essays scarcity major themes of creation that are to be found in these and other passages in the Bible. Major themes of the first creation narrative: It might seem redundant to those of you who are Christians if I should summarize the content of Genesis 1, but there is a pattern in this creation narrative that is often not recognized, and it is new year, worthwhile to point it out. The account begins with that part of the creation that is other than the heavens, here spoken of as the earth but including the essays in india Deep, in a state of utter chaos (Wenham I, 15-16), translated in the KJV as without form and void (Heb. College. tohuwabohu). On Water In India. Many scholars have noted a pattern to the six days: in the first three bohu, i.e., formlessness, is given form: (1) light emerges from darkness, (2) the waters are separated to form the lower and upper seas-the latter supported by the firmament, and new year new life essay (3) land emerges from the lower sea and is adorned with plant life.
In the essays scarcity in india latter three days tohu, i.e., the state of being empty, is filled: (4) the sun, moon, and stars fill the firmament, (5) fish and other sea creatures fill the lower sea and birds the sky, and (6) wild and domestic beasts, other land creatures, and human beings fill the earth (Hyers 67-71). The seventh day of new year new life essay rest hallows and validates the essays scarcity commandment of a Sabbath rest (Exod. 20:11) by weaving it into the very structure of creation. Because of this pattern, many evangelical biblical scholars have been drawn to some version of a framework hypothesis: the six days are to be seen not as a chronological account of the steps of creation but as a framework in which the various categories of creature--the word refers to both inanimate and living things--are laid out in a logical order that in itself declares that creation in the beginning involves the bringing of order out of top 10 business plan software chaos. The utter chaos, the formless and on water empty undifferentiated mass of the beginning of creation is a problem God moves immediately to solve, and career goals college the solution is to differentiate matter through separation and to fill it with both inanimate and essays on water animate creatures. Seen in the light of this hypothesis, Genesis 1 provides a theological declaration of God's creativity rather than a scientific description of events (Hyer, ibid; Wenham I, 39-40). God's intimate companionship with the creation and creation's grateful response: Christians disagree whether the story of Eden in Genesis 2:4-24 is a second creation story that differs from the account in Genesis 1:1-2:3. Let us set that argument aside and ask, what does the story of Eden reveal about the relationship of God to the creation? I think the answer is clear: God's relationship is an intimate one. God is described as crafting the first human being with his own hands from the dust of the ground, of bringing the animals God subsequently creates to the earth-creature for naming, of creating another from the human's own flesh, thus creating man and woman.
As the narrative continues in the following chapter, God is described as walking with the man and the woman in the Garden in the cool of the evening. New Year Essay. If the essays on water scarcity creation narrative in Genesis 1 depicts God as transcendent, that is, wholly other than the creation, standing apart, as it were, from the creation he calls into existence, then the creation story of Genesis 2 emphasizes God's immanence, his presence within the creation, his intimate interaction with the creation. Both of essay these notions are present, as we shall see in the second essay, in the theology of creation that develops in early Christian thought. When you hide your face they are dismayed. When you take away their breath they die; When you send forth your Spirit they are created, And you renew the on water scarcity face of the earth.
Yes, God's covenant with the earth is a covenant of faithful sustenance and continuous creation. The biblical God is always making things, sustaining things, renewing things, blessing things. Creation's grateful response is to praise its creator. In Ps.148, the psalmist eloquently calls upon every element of the creation--sun and moon, fire and college requirement hail, snow and scarcity frost, creeping things and flying fowl, every thing that hath breath--to praise the Lord. The biblical writers live in a world whose every creature is alive to primary prep homework, the presence of its Creator and rejoices at his manifestations. The heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament shows his handiwork (Ps. On Water In India. 19:1). At the coming of the Lord, the college essay requirement morning stars sing together (Job 38:7), the mountains skip like rams (Ps. 114:4), and the trees of the field clap their hands (Isa. 56:12). These and many other passages may show us how differently the scarcity ancient Israelites and we ourselves experience the top 10 creation.
So many of us today are so little connected with the natural world. We live in large urban areas where we travel between home, school, band practice, the mall and McDonalds. Or we spend hours in the virtual reality of cyberspace or video games or television. Our landscapes are scoured with the plasticized structures of McWorld. Light pollution blots out our view of the Milky Way and other stars.
Or we live in essays on water scarcity in india, our heads, intellectually or imaginatively, in the realm of ideas or fantasies. When I taught the course that inspired these essays, I assigned students to spend a brief period of time weekly gazing at the heavens at night or at some thing of beauty in nature during the day. It was interesting to note how many students, even a few who grew up on farms, discovered how little time they had been spending just contemplating nature. The One who creates is also the One who saves: The message proclaimed in Genesis 1 is made explicit also in the words of the top 10 plan prophet of the Babylonian Exile (6th century BC) preserved in the Book of on water in india Isaiah. Isaiah 40-45 contains words of comfort the prophet offers to his fellow Judahites exiled in Babylon: his ringing proclamation that their God is the One who has created the heavens and top 10 business plan the earth:
I am the Lord who made all things, Who alone stretched out the heavens, Who by myself spread out the earth. (Isa. 44:23; cf. 42:5-6) Who has measured the essays on water scarcity in india waters in the hollows of his hand, And marked off the heavens with a span, Enclosed the dust of the earth in a measure,
And weighed the mountains in scales and the hills in a balance? …The Lord is the college essay everlasting God, The Creator of the in india ends of the crusade essays earth. The prophet goes on to say that God will create rivers in the desert and straighten crooked paths. Essays In India. He will make a new thing.
When he freed Israel from bondage in Egypt centuries earlier, God created of them a people for new year essay, his own and essays made a covenant with them. Now, his act that liberates their Judahite descendants from exile in Babylon will be at the same time an crusade, act of creation. He will renew his people as he renews the creation, and will give them a new covenantal responsibility, to be a light to the nations (Is. 42:6). Thus, creation and on water salvation are closely tied together in the understanding of the biblical writers. God creates the universe in wisdom: O Lord, how manifold are your works! In wisdom you have made them all. An important theme in prep homework, the Old Testament is essays on water scarcity, that God creates all things in wisdom, an expression of God's own nature. God is the source of all wisdom (Prov.
2:8), and wisdom is prep homework, one of the most important of God's gifts to humankind (Prov. On Water Scarcity. 8:11-12). Specifically, wisdom's role in creation is highlighted in critical, key passages. In the book of Proverbs, Wisdom is personified and praised as God's agent and assistant in creation. The Lord created me at essays on water, the beginning of his work, Wisdom declares, the first of business software his acts of old. When he established the heavens and marked out the foundations of the earth, then I was beside him, like a master workman (Prov. 8:22ff). In the magnificent love song to the creation in Job 38-41, God reminds Job that only God's wisdom knows the scarcity creation in its entirety and in all its parts, and that the knowledge and understanding of human beings is limited.
The Word and Wisdom of God is revealed in Jesus Christ, the Lord of Creation: Christ, the power of God and the wisdom of God In the New Testament, these themes of creation found in the Old Testament are recapitulated in the person and essays work of essays on water in india Jesus Christ. Once his disciples proclaimed their Nazarene teacher to essay, be Lord and essays Messiah following his Resurrection, some early Christians soon came to perceive him in new life, more cosmic terms. Essays On Water. In this one whom they recognized as the Christ, the work of creation revealed in the Old Testament becomes embodied. In both early and late writings preserved in the New Testament, the Christ is proclaimed as the pre-existent one. In the thinking theory.ppt Letter to the Colossians he is lauded as.
the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation; for in him all things in heaven and on earth were created, things visible or invisible… all things have been created through him and for him. He himself is before all things, and in him all things hold together…. For in him all the fullness of God was pleased to dwell, and through him God was pleased to reconcile to on water scarcity, himself all things, whether on earth or in career, heaven, by making peace through the blood of his cross In this remarkable passage, perhaps an early Christian hymn incorporated by the writer of this letter, we see Christ proclaimed as the Agent of Creation (in him all things were created), the Wisdom of God (the firstborn of all creation, as in Prov. 8:22), the Sustainer (in him all things hold together), and the Savior (through him God was pleased to reconcile all things). And the passage itself rings with praise to Christ. He--the One through whom God saves, and not only human beings but all things, the entire cosmos--is also the very Word of God who spoke the whole of creation into existence, as John the Evangelist also affirmed in the words of essays on water scarcity perhaps another early Christian hymn: And the Word was with God, And the Word was God. He was in college requirement, the beginning with God. All things came into being through him,
And without him not one thing came into being. In the earthly ministry of Jesus of on water scarcity in india Nazareth, who had such a profound sense of intimacy with his Father, the Lord of Heaven and Earth, we also see his intimacy with the creation. The one who stilled the storm on the lake, whom the winds and the waves obeyed (Mark 4:35-41), also spoke of the lilies of the field and primary prep homework the fall of a sparrow, of the search for lost lambs, of vineyards and fields of grain, of the essays scarcity simple yet sacramental elements of water, bread and wine. The intimacy with God's creation he shared with his fellow Jews prefigured the deeper intimacy his followers would come to believe of him: that he is the One who holds all the creation together in himself. Is There a Portrait of Creation in the Bible? Up to this point I have focused on those passages about Creation in Holy Scripture that have provided essential themes for a theology of creation. But does the Bible, in particular the Old Testament writings, also offer a portrait of the new year creation, that is, do these writings contain a conceptual model to account for the variety of essays scarcity natural phenomena the sacred writers observed and described?
One does find such a portrait: it was basically the standard model the Israelites shared with their Semitic neighbors of the ancient Near East. Although there is no single passage where this portrait is elaborated in detail, there are a number of essays allusions to its various elements throughout the on water scarcity in india Old Testament. What these ancients saw was an earth that was comparatively speaking flat, and apparently a disk, as its circular horizon reveals (Isa. 40:22a). The Earth, here meaning the goals land (and not the essays on water scarcity in india other part of the top 10 plan creation from the heavens) apparently rests upon and is surrounded by a huge body of water, which the Hebrews referred to as the essays on water scarcity Deep (Prov. College Essay Requirement. 8:27; Job 26:10). The portion of this water that lies under the earth is the source of the freshwater springs that well up from below the ground (Gen. 2:5). Above the land is a great expanse of the sky, which appears dome-like, called the Firmament (Heb., raqi'a [Gen.
1:5]); it is held up by pillars, high mountains on the edge of the earth (Job 26:11). Scarcity. That this dome-like expanse was thought to career goals essay, be solid is clear from the fact that one finds another great sea above it, referred to in the Bible as the upper sea or the waters above the heavens (Gen. 1:6-7; Ps. 148:4). The Firmament contains openings through which rain falls from this upper sea (Gen. 7:11-12) and storehouses which hold snow, hail, and lightning (Job 38:22). In the great expanse of Sky are placed the lights of the stars, and the greater and lesser lights, the sun and the moon. Elsewhere the sun is described poetically as running its course (Ps.
19:5). In Gen. 1:14-18, God is said to have set the stars, sun and essays on water moon in the dome; elsewhere, they appear, and are understood, to utilize openings in the expanse or the horizon as they make their journeys across the skies. There is another area within the disk of the prep earth that enters into this portrait of the creation, an underworld called Sheol. Located deep within the earth (Isa.
7:11; Prov. 9:18), vast (Hab. 2:5) and dark (Job 10:21-22), it was regarded as the natural resting place of the dead--but not, for essays on water scarcity, the Hebrews, a place of punishment (Job 3:11-19). That, simply, is the way the Hebrews accounted for the basic phenomena of nature. They sometimes conceived of their model as bipartite--God made the heavens and the earth (Gen. 1:1), and sometimes as tripartite--the heavens above, the earth beneath, and the waters under the earth (Exod. 20:4), but it is clear that the career goals creation they saw around them was conceptualized in this way (for more detailed accounts of essays this portrait, see the books and articles by Bailey, Stadelmann, Stek, Seely, Van Till, and Walton, listed in Further Reading, below). These biblical writers were not scientists, and the fact that there is no extensive, detailed description of the physical world in thinking, the Bible strongly suggests that they were not inspired to on water scarcity in india, provide a scientific description. Instead of college requirement reading the chapter as a triumphant affirmation of the power and wisdom of God and the wonder of his creation, we have been too often bogged down in attempting to squeeze Scripture into the mold of the latest scientific hypothesis or distorting scientific facts to essays on water scarcity in india, fit a particular interpretation.
When allowed to speak for itself, Gen. 1 looks beyond such minutiae. Its proclamation of the God of grace and power who undergirds the world and gives it purpose justifies the scientific approach to nature (40). The cosmological model of the essay ancient Hebrews was not ours. Essays In India. On the other hand, it does not deserve to be dismissed as pre-scientific or scorned because it is outmoded; rather, one can respect and honor it for the service it provided in making the career created world they lived in intelligible to the Hebrews and their descendents. Their model was like any subsequent scientific model in that it would necessarily be replaced, as indeed it has been, by subsequent portraits of the universe.
Yet, and scarcity this is so important that I wish to emphasize it, the Bible's theological truths about the creation do not depend for their validity upon thinking, the ancient model in which they are set. They are accepted as true by faith, irrespective of scarcity in india how each generation may conceptualize the universe they seek to prep, understand and explain. In this essay I have made a distinction between a theology of creation and a portrait of creation. The first has to do with the revelation that God is the creator of the universe; the second with the essays on water scarcity in india way God's creation appeared to and was conceptualized by his covenant people. First. What the Bible teaches theologically about creation forms the matter for the historic doctrine of creation that all Christians share. I will set out the main features of creation doctrine in the second essay. In the third essay I shall explain how theologians and essays scarcity in india biblical scholars throughout the centuries have upheld the Bible as truthful scripture in light of the ancient cosmological model the sacred writers describe. Appendix: Biblical Passages relating to primary prep, Creation. Old Testament and Apocrypha: Cosmology and Theology (Psalms 104; 102:25-27; 148; Genesis 1-2:4; 2:4-2:24; Sirach 42:15-43:33).
God, Creator and essays Redeemer (Isaiah 40-43; Psalms 33; 74:12-23; 77; 136). Wisdom (Proverbs 8; Sirach 24:1-7; Wisdom 7:7-8:1). New Testament: Christ the Creator (I Corinthians 8:6; Colossians 1:9-23; Hebrews 1:1-13 [=Psalms 102:25-27; 110:1]; John 1:1-14). Christ and the New Creation (Romans 8:18-25; 2 Peter 1:1-8; Revelation 21-22:5). Bailey, Lloyd R., Genesis, Creation, and Creationism.
New York: Paulist Press, 1993. The Holy Bible (KJV, NRSV). Bouma-Prediger, Steven, For the career college beauty of the earth: A christian vision for creation care. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2001, Chapter 4. Hyers, Conrad, The Meaning of Creation: Genesis and Modern Science. Atlanta: John Knox, 1984. Schneider, Robert J., Does the Bible Teach a Spherical Earth? in on water, Perspectives on career goals college essay, Science and Christian Faith [PSCF] 53 (2001) 159-169 www.asa3.org/ASA/PSCF/2001/PSCF9-01Schneider.html. Seely, Paul, The Geographical Meaning of 'Earth' and essays scarcity 'Seas' in Gen. First. 1:10, Westminster Theological Journal 59 (1997) 231-55. Seely, Paul, The Three-Storied Universe, Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation [PSCF] 21 (1969) 18-22 (www.asa3.org/ASA/PSCF/1969/JASA3-69Seely.html).
Stadelmann, Luis, S.J., The Hebrew Conception of the World. Analecta Biblica, 39. Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1970. Stek, John H., What Says the Scripture? in Portraits of Creation: Biblical and Scientific Perspectives on the World's Formation , by Howard J. Van Till et al. Scarcity. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1990. Van Till, Howard J., The Fourth Day: What the Bible and the Heavens are Telling Us about the Creation. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1986. Part I: The Biblical View. Walton, John H., Genesis . The NIV Application Commentary. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2001. Wenham, Gordon, ed., Genesis . Word Biblical Commentary, vol.
1. Waco, TX: Word, 1996.
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Water Scarcity In India Essay - 1417 Words - brightkite com
essay on cyber dom Freedom of essays on water scarcity, Expression on the Internet. By William Fisher. Last Updated June 14, 2001. The Internet offers extraordinary opportunities for speakers, broadly defined. Political candidates, cultural critics, corporate gadflies -- anyone who wants to express an opinion about college, anything -- can make their thoughts available to in india, a world-wide audience far more easily than has ever been possible before. A large and top 10 business growing group of Internet participants have seized that opportunity. Some observers find the essays resultant outpouring of speech exhilarating. They see in it nothing less than the revival of democracy and the restoration of community. Other observers find the amount -- and, above all, the kind of career college, speech -- that the Internet has stimulated offensive or frightening.
Pornography, hate speech, lurid threats -- these flourish alongside debates over the future of the Democratic Party and exchanges of views concerning flyfishing in Patagonia. This phenomenon has provoked various efforts to limit the kind of speech in which one may engage on essays in india the Internet -- or to develop systems to new life essay, filter out the more offensive material. This module examines some of the legal issues implicated by the increasing bitter struggle between the advocates of free speech and scarcity the advocates of filtration and control. Before plunging into goals essay the details of the proliferating controversies over freedom of expression on the Internet, you need some background information on two topics. The first and more obvious is the Free-Speech Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. The relevance and authority of the First Amendment should not be exaggerated; as several observers have remarked, on the Internet, the First Amendment is just a local ordinance. However, free-expression controversies that arise in the United States inevitably implicate the Constitution. Scarcity In India? And the arguments deployed in prep the course of American First-Amendment fights often inform or infect the handling of free-expression controversies in other countries. The upshot: First-Amendment jurisprudence is worth studying. Unfortunately, that jurisprudence is large and arcane.
The relevant constitutional provision is essays on water, simple enough: Congress shall make no law . . Career? . abridging the freedom of scarcity, speech, or of the theory.ppt press . . .. Essays On Water? But the top 10 business plan software case law that, over the course of the twentieth century, has been built upon essays scarcity this foundation is complex. Prep? An extremely abbreviated outline of the principal doctrines would go as follows: If a law gives no clear notice of the essays on water scarcity kind of speech it prohibits, it?s void for vagueness. If a law burdens substantially more speech than is top 10 business software, necessary to advance a compelling government interest, it?s unconstitutionally overbroad. A government may not force a person to endorse any symbol, slogan, or pledge. On Water In India? Governmental restrictions on the time, place, and manner in which speech is permitted are constitutional if and only if: they are content neutral, both on their face and as applied; they leave substantial other opportunities for speech to take place; and they narrowly serve a significant state interest. On state-owned property that does not constitute a public forum, government may restrict speech in any way that is reasonable in light of the nature and purpose of the property in primary question.
Content-based governmental restrictions on speech are unconstitutional unless they advance a compelling state interest. To this principle, there are six exceptions: 1. Speech that is likely to lead to imminent lawless action may be prohibited. 2. Fighting words -- i.e., words so insulting that people are likely to fight back -- may be prohibited. 3. Obscenity -- i.e., erotic expression, grossly or patently offensive to an average person, that lacks serious artistic or social value -- may be prohibited. 4. Child pornography may be banned whether or not it is legally obscene and whether or not it has serious artistic or social value, because it induces people to engage in lewd displays, and the creation of it threatens the welfare of children. 5. On Water In India? Defamatory statements may be prohibited. (In other words, the making of such statements may constitutionally give rise to essays, civil liability.) However, if the target of the essays on water scarcity defamation is a public figure, she must prove that the top 10 business defendant acted with malice. If the target is not a public figure but the statement involved a matter of public concern, the plaintiff must prove that the defendant acted with negligence concerning its falsity. 6. On Water Scarcity In India? Commercial Speech may be banned only top 10 business software, if it is misleading, pertains to illegal products, or directly advances a substantial state interest with a degree of suppression no greater than is reasonably necessary.
If you are familiar with all of essays on water scarcity in india, these precepts -- including the various terms of art and ambiguities they contain -- you're in plan software good shape. If not, you should read some more about the in india First Amendment. A thorough and insightful study of the field may be found in Lawrence Tribe, American Constitutional Law (2d ed.), chapter 12. Good, less massive surveys may be found at the websites for The National Endowment for prep, the Arts and the Cornell University Legal Information Institute. The second of the two kinds of on water, background you might find helpful is a brief introduction to the current debate among academics over the character and desirability of what has come to be called cyberdemocracy. First Crusade? Until a few years ago, many observers thought that the Internet offered a potential cure to the related diseases that have afflicted most representative democracies in the late twentieth century: voter apathy; the narrowing of the range of political debate caused in part by in india, the inertia of a system of political parties; the growing power of the career college essay media, which in essays on water turn seems to reduce discussion of complex issues to a battle of sound bites; and the increasing influence of private corporations and other sources of wealth. All of these conditions might be ameliorated, it was suggested, by college, the ease with which ordinary citizens could obtain information and then cheaply make their views known to one another through the Internet. A good example of this perspective is on water scarcity in india, a recent article by Bernard Bell, where he suggests that ?[t]he Internet has, in many ways, moved society closer to primary prep, the ideal Justice Brennan set forth so eloquently in New York Times v. Sullivan. It has not only made debate on public issues more 'uninhibited, robust, and wide-open,' but has similarly invigorated discussion of non-public issues. By the essays scarcity in india same token, the Internet has empowered smaller entities and even individuals, enabling them to widely disseminate their messages and, indeed, reach audiences as broad as those of established media organizations.?
Recently, however, this rosy view has come under attack. Crusade? The Internet, skeptics claim, is not a giant town hall. The kinds of information flows and discussions it seems to foster are, in some ways, disturbing. One source of trouble is that the Internet encourages like-minded persons (often geographically dispersed) to cluster together in bulletin boards and essays on water other virtual clubs. When this occurs, the participants tend to reinforce one another's views. The resultant group polarization can be ugly. More broadly, the Internet seems at least potentially corrosive of something we have long taken for granted in the United States: a shared political culture. When most people read the same newspaper or watch the same network television news broadcast each day, they are forced at least to glance at stories they might fight troubling and become aware of essays, persons and groups who hold views sharply different from their own. The Internet makes it easy for people to essays on water scarcity, avoid such engagement -- by enabling people to top 10 software, select their sources of information and their conversational partners. The resultant diminution in the power of a few media outlets pleases some observers, like Peter Huber of the Manhattan Institute.
But the concomitant corrosion of community and shared culture deeply worries others, like Cass Sunstein of the University of Chicago. An excellent summary of the scarcity literature on this issue can be found in a recent New York Times article by Alexander Stille. If you are interested in digging further into these issues, we recommend the following books: Cass Sunstein, Republic.com (Princeton Univ. Press 2001) Peter Huber, Law and Disorder in Cyberspace: Abolish the prep F.C.C. and Let Common Law Rule the Telecosm (Oxford Univ. Press 1997) Andrew Shapiro, The Control Revolution (Public Affairs 2000) To test some of these competing accounts of the character and potential of discourse on the Internet, we suggest you visit - or, better yet, participate in essays scarcity in india - some of the requirement sites at which Internet discourse occurs. Here's a sampler:
1. Scarcity? Restrictions on Pornography. Three times in the past five years, critics of college essay requirement, pornography on the Internet have sought, through federal legislation, to prevent children from gaining access to it. The first of these efforts was the Communications Decency Act of 1996 (commonly known as the CDA), which (a) criminalized the knowing transmission over the Internet of obscene or indecent messages to any recipient under 18 years of age and (b) prohibited the knowin[g] sending or displaying to a person under 18 of any message that, in context, depicts or describes, in terms patently offensive as measured by contemporary community standards, sexual or excretory activities or organs. In India? Persons and organizations who take good faith, . . . effective . . College? . Essays In India? actions to restrict access by minors to top 10 business software, the prohibited communications, or who restricted such access by requiring certain designated forms of age proof, such as a verified credit card or an adult identification number, were exempted from essays on water, these prohibitions. The CDA was widely critized by civil libertarians and soon succumbed to a constitutional challenge. In 1997, the United States Supreme Court struck down the statute, holding that it violated the First Amendment in several ways: because it restricted speech on the basis of its content, it could not be justified as a time, place, and manner regulation; its references to indecent and patently offensive messages were unconstitutionally vague; its supposed objectives could all be achieved through regulations less restrictive of speech; it failed to exempt from its prohibitions sexually explicit material with scientific, educational, or other redeeming social value. Two aspects of the essay Court's ruling are likely to have considerable impact on future constitutional decisions in this area. Essays Scarcity? First, the Court rejected the Government's effort to analogize the Internet to traditional broadcast media (especially television), which the Court had previously held could be regulated more strictly than other media. Unlike TV, the Court reasoned, the critical thinking Internet has not historically been subject to extensive regulation, is not characterized by a limited spectrum of available frequencies, and is not invasive. Essays On Water Scarcity In India? Consequently, the Internet enjoys full First-Amendment protection.
Second, the Court encouraged the development of technologies that would enable parents to career goals, block their children's access to Internet sites offering kinds of material the parents deemed offensive. A year later, pressured by scarcity in india, vocal opponents of Internet pornography -- such as Enough is Enough and the National Law Center for goals college essay, Children and Families -- Congress tried again. The 1998 Child Online Protection Act (COPA) obliged commercial Web operators to restrict access to material considered harmful to minors -- which was, in turn, defined as any communication, picture, image, graphic image file, article, recording, writing or other matter of any kind that is scarcity in india, obscene or that meets three requirements: (1) The average person, applying contemporary community standards, would find, taking the material as a whole and with respect to minors, is designed to appeal to, or is crusade, designed to pander to, the prurient interest. (2) The material depicts, describes, or represents, in a manner patently offensive with respect to minors, an actual or simulated sexual act or sexual conduct, an on water scarcity, actual or simulated normal or perverted sexual act or a lewd exhibition of the genitals or post-pubescent female breast. (3) The material, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value for minors. Title I of the statute required commercial sites to evaluate material and to enact restrictive means ensuring that harmful material does not reach minors.
Title II prohibited the collection without parental consent of personal information concerning children who use the Internet. Affirmative defenses similar to new life essay, those that had been contained in the CDA were included. Once again, the essays scarcity courts found that Congress had exceeded its constitutional authority. In the judgment of the Third Circuit Court of Appeals, the critical defect of college, COPA was its reliance upon the criterion of contemporary community standards to determine what kinds of speech are permitted on the Internet: Because material posted on the Web is accessible by all Internet users worldwide, and because current technology does not permit a Web publisher to restrict access to its site based on the geographic locale of a each particular Internet user, COPA essentially requires that every Web publisher subject to the statute abide by the most restrictive and conservative state's community standard in order to on water scarcity, avoid criminal liability. The net result was to impose burdens on permissible expression more severe than can be tolerated by the Constitution. The court acknowledged that its ruling did not leave much room for constitutionally valid restrictions on Internet pornography: We are forced to recognize that, at present, due to technological limitations, there may be no other means by which harmful material on the Web may be constitutionally restricted, although, in light of rapidly developing technological advances, what may now be impossible to regulate constitutionally may, in primary prep homework the not-too-distant future, become feasible. In late 2000, the anti-pornography forces tried once more.
At their urging, Congress adopted the Children's Internet Protection Act (CHIPA), which requires schools and libraries that receive federal funding (either grants or e-rate subsidies) to install Internet filtering equipment on library computers that can be used by children. This time the Clinton administration opposed the law, but the outgoing President was obliged to sign it because it was attached to a major appropriations bill. Opposition to CHIPA is intensifying. Opponents claim that it suffers from essays on water in india, all the constitutional infirmities of the CDA and COPA. In addition, it will reinforce one form of the digital divide -- by subjecting poor children, who lack home computers and must rely upon public libraries for access to the Internet, to plan software, restrictions that more wealthy children can avoid. The Electronic Frontier Foundation has organized protests against the statute.
In April of on water, this year, several civil-liberties groups and public library associations filed suit in the Eastern District of Pennsylvania seeking a declaration that the statute is unconstitutional. It remains to be seen whether this statute will fare any better than its predecessors. The CDA, COPA, and CHIPA have one thing in common: they all involve overt governmental action -- and thus are subject to essay, challenge under the First Amendment. Some observers of the Internet argue that more dangerous than these obvious legislative initiatives are the efforts by private Internet Service Providers to install filters on their systems that screen out kinds of content that the ISPs believe their subscribers would find offensive. Because policies of this sort are neither mandated nor encouraged by the government, they would not, under conventional constitutional principles, constitute state action -- and thus would not be vulnerable to constitutional scrutiny. Such a result, argues Larry Lessig, would be pernicious; to essays on water in india, avoid it, we need to revise our understanding of the state action doctrine. Charles Fried disagrees:
Note first of all that the state action doctrine does not only limit the power of primary homework, courts to protect persons from private power that interferes with public freedoms. It also protects individuals from the on water courts themselves, which are, after all, another government agency. By limiting the First Amendment to protecting citizens from government (and not from each other), the college essay state action doctrine enlarges the essays sphere of unregulated discretion that individuals may exercise in what they think and say. Critical Thinking Theory.ppt? In the name of First Amendment values, courts could perhaps inquire whether I must grant access to my newspaper to opinions I abhor, must allow persons whose moral standards I deplore to join my expressive association, or must remain silent so that someone else gets a chance to scarcity, reach my audience with a less appealing but unfamiliar message. Such inquiries, however, would place courts in requirement the business of deciding which opinions I would have to publish in my newspaper and which would so distort my message that putting those words in my mouth would violate my freedom of speech; what an organization's associational message really is and whether forcing the organization to essays on water, accept a dissenting member would distort that message; and which opinions, though unable to attract an audience on their own, are so worthy that they must not be drowned out by more popular messages.
I am not convinced that whatever changes the Internet has wrought in essays our environment require the courts to mount this particular tiger. The United States may have led the way in seeking (unsuccessfully, thus far) to restrict the flow of pornography on the Internet, but the governments of other countries are now joining the essays in india fray. Essays? For the status of the struggle in a few jurisdictions, you might read: Joseph C. Rodriguez, A Comparative Study of Internet Content Regulations in on water scarcity the United States and Singapore, 1 Asian-Pacific L. Pol'y J. Crusade Essays? 9 (February 2000). (Singapore) Mark Konkel, Internet Indecency, International Censorship, and essays on water scarcity Service Providers' Liability, 19 N.Y.L. Sch.
J. New Year New Life? INt'l Comp. L. 453 (2000). Essays On Water In India? (Canada, Maylasia, and China) In a provocative recent article, Amy Adler argues that the effort to curb child pornography online -- the kind of first, pornography that disgusts the essays most people -- is fundamentally misguided. Essay Requirement? Far from scarcity, reducing the incidence of the sexual abuse of children, governmental efforts to curtail child pornography only increase it. A summary of her argument is available here.
The full article is available here . When does speech become a threat? Put more precisely, when does a communication over the Internet inflict -- or threaten to inflict -- sufficient damage on its recipient that it ceases to be protected by business plan software, the First Amendment and properly gives rise to criminal sanctions? Two recent cases addressed that issue from different angles. The first was popularly known as the Jake Baker case. In 1994 and 1995, Abraham Jacob Alkhabaz, also known as Jake Baker, was an undergraduate student at the University of Michigan. During that period, he frequently contributed sadistic and sexually explicit short stories to a Usenet electronic bulletin board available to the public over the Internet.
In one such story, he described in detail how he and a companion tortured, sexually abused, and killed a young woman, who was given the name of one of scarcity in india, Baker's classmates. (Excerpts from the story, as reprinted in the Court of Appeals decision in the case, are available here. Critical Theory.ppt? WARNING: This material is on water in india, very graphic in nature and may be troubling to some readers. It is presented in new life essay order to provide a complete view of the facts of the case.) Baker's stories came to the attention of another Internet user, who assumed the name of Arthur Gonda. Baker and Gonda then exchanged many email messages, sharing their sadistic fantasies and discussing the methods by which they might kidnap and scarcity in india torture a woman in Baker's dormitory. When these stories and top 10 business plan email exchanges came to light, Baker was indicted for violation of 18 U.S.C. 875(c), which provides: Whoever transmits in interstate or foreign commerce any communication containing any threat to kidnap any person or any threat to injure the person of another, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. Federal courts have traditionally construed this provision narrowly, lest it penalize expression shielded by the First Amendment. Essays On Water Scarcity? Specifically, the courts have required that a defendant's statement, in career college order to trigger criminal sanctions, constitute a true threat -- as distinguished from, for example, inadvertent statements, hyperbole, innocuous talk, or political commentary.
Baker moved to quash the indictment on the ground that his statements on the Internet did not constitute true threats. The District Court agreed, ruling that the class of women supposedly threatened was not identified in Baker's exchanges with Gonda with the degree of specificity required by the First Amendment and that, although Baker had expressed offensive desires, it was not constitutionally permissible to infer an intention to act on a desire from essays on water scarcity in india, a simple expression of desire. The District Judge's concluding remarks concerning the character of threatening speech on the Internet bear emphasis: Baker's words were transmitted by means of the essay Internet, a relatively new communications medium that is itself currently the subject of much media attention. The Internet makes it possible with unprecedented ease to achieve world-wide distribution of essays scarcity in india, material, like Baker's story, posted to essay, its public areas. On Water Scarcity? When used in new year such a fashion, the Internet may be likened to essays scarcity, a newspaper with unlimited distribution and no locatable printing press - and with no supervising editorial control. But Baker's e-mail messages, on which the superseding indictment is based, were not publicly published but privately sent to Gonda. While new technology such as the Internet may complicate analysis and may sometimes require new or modified laws, it does not in this instance qualitatively change the analysis under the statute or under the First Amendment. Whatever Baker's faults, and he is to be faulted, he did not violate 18 U.S.C. § 875(c). Two of the three judges on the panel that heard the primary homework appeal agreed.
In their view, a violation of 875(c) requires a demonstration, first, that a reasonable person would interpret the communication in question as serious expression of an intention to inflict bodily harm and, second, that a reasonable person would perceive the communications as being conveyed to effect some change or achieve some goal through intimidation. Baker's speech failed, in scarcity in india their judgment, to goals college, rise to this level. Judge Krupansky, the third member of the panel, dissented. On Water Scarcity In India? In a sharply worded opinion, he denounced the majority for compelling the prosecution to goals essay, meet a standard higher that Congress intended or than the on water First Amendment required. In his view, the pertinent inquiry is whether a jury could find that a reasonable recipient of the communication would objectively tend to believe that the essay speaker was serious about his stated intention. A reasonable jury, he argued, could conclude that Baker's speech met this standard -- especially in light of the fact that the woman named in the short story had, upon learning of it, experienced a shattering traumatic reaction that resulted in essays scarcity recommended psychological counselling. The second of the two decisions is popularly known as the Nuremberg files case. In 1995, the American Coalition of Life Activists (ACLA), an anti-abortion group that advocates the use of force in their efforts to curtail abortions, created a poster featuring what the ACLA described as the Dirty Dozen, a group of doctors who performed abortions.
The posters offered a $ 5,000 [r]eward for information leading to arrest, conviction and critical thinking revocation of license to practice medicine of the doctors in question, and listed their home addresses and, in some instances, their phone numbers. On Water Scarcity In India? Versions of the poster were distributed at anti-abortion rallies and later on television. In 1996, an career essay, expanded list of abortion providers, now dubbed the Nuremberg files, was posted on the Internet with the assistance of an anti-abortion activist named Neil Horsley. The Internet version of the list designated doctors and clinic workers who had been attacked by anti-abortion terrorists in two ways: the on water in india names of people who had been murdered were crossed out; the names of people who had been wounded were printed in grey. New Life Essay? (For a version of the Nuremberg Files web site, click here. WARNING: This material is very graphic in nature and in india may be disturbing to many readers. It is presented in order to provide a complete view of the essays facts of the case). The doctors named and described on the list feared for their lives. In particular, some testified that they feared that, by publicizing their addresses and descriptions, the ACLA had increased the ease with which terrorists could locate and attack them -- and that, by publicizing the essays on water names of doctors who had already been killed, the ACLA was encouraging those attacks. Some of the doctors sought recourse in the courts. They sued the ACLA, twelve individual anti-abortion activists and an affiliated organization, contending that their actions violated the federal Freedom of Access to top 10 business plan software, Clinic Entrances Act of scarcity, 1994 (FACE), 18 U.S.C. §248, and the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO), 18 U.S.C. §1962.
In an effort to avoid a First-Amendment challenge to the suit, the trial judge instructed the jury that defendants could be liable only if their statements were true threats. Primary Prep Homework? The jury, concluding that the ACLA had indeed made such true threats, awarded the plaintiffs $107 million in actual and punitive damages. The trial court then enjoined the defendants from making or distributing the posters, the webpage or anything similar. This past March, a panel of the Court of Appeals for essays scarcity, the Ninth Circuit overturned the verdict, ruling that it violated the First Amendment. Judge Kozinski began his opinion by crusade essays, likening the anti-abortion movement to other political movements in American history, such as the Patriots in the American Revolution, abolitionism, the labor movement, the anti-war movement in the 1960s, the animal-rights movement, and the environmental movement. All, he argued, have had their violent fringes, which have lent to essays, the language of their non-violent members a tinge of menace. However, to avoid curbing legitimate political commentary and agitation, Kozinski insisted, it was essential that courts not overread strongly worded but not explicitly threatening statements. Specifically, he held that:
Defendants can only be held liable if they authorized, ratified, or directly threatened violence. If defendants threatened to commit violent acts, by working alone or with others, then their statements could properly support the crusade verdict. But if their statements merely encouraged unrelated terrorists, then their words are protected by essays on water, the First Amendment. The trial judge's charge to the jury had not made this standard adequately clear, he ruled. Critical Theory.ppt? More importantly, no reasonable jury, properly instructed, could have concluded that the standard had been met. Scarcity? Accordingly, the trial judge was instructed to dissolve the injunction and enter judgment for the defendants on college essay all counts. In the on water scarcity in india course of his opinion, Kozinski offered the following reflections on the fact that the career college essay defendants' speech had occurred in public discourse -- including the Internet: In considering whether context could import a violent meaning to ACLA's non-violent statements, we deem it highly significant that all the statements were made in the context of public discourse, not in direct personal communications. Although the First Amendment does not protect all forms of public speech, such as statements inciting violence or an imminent panic, the essays in india public nature of the new year new life essay speech bears heavily upon whether it could be interpreted as a threat. As we held in McCalden v. California Library Ass'n, public speeches advocating violence are given substantially more leeway under the First Amendment than privately communicated threats. There are two reasons for this distinction: First, what may be hyperbole in a public speech may be understood (and intended) as a threat if communicated directly to the person threatened, whether face-to-face, by in india, telephone or by letter.
In targeting the recipient personally, the speaker leaves no doubt that he is sending the recipient a message of some sort. In contrast, typical political statements at rallies or through the media are far more diffuse in their focus because they are generally intended, at least in part, to shore up political support for the speaker's position. First? Second, and more importantly, speech made through the normal channels of group communication, and concerning matters of public policy, is given the essays on water scarcity in india maximum level of protection by the Free Speech Clause because it lies at the core of the First Amendment. The First Amendment forbids Congress to make any law ?abridging the freedom of speech.? The copyright statute plainly interferes with certain kinds of theory.ppt, speech: it prevents people from ?publicly performing? or ?reproducing? copyrighted material without permission. On Water Scarcity? In other words, several ways in which people might be inclined to ?speak? have been declared by Congress illegal.
Does this imply that the copyright statute as a whole ? or, less radically, some specific applications of it ? should be deemed unconstitutional? Courts confronted with this question have almost invariable answered: no. First Essays? Two justifications are commonly offered in support of the essays on water compatibility of copyright and career goals college ?freedom of speech.? First, Article I, Section 8, Clause 8 of the scarcity Constitution explicitly authorizes Congress ?To promote the Progress of Science and the useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries,? and there is homework, no indication that the drafters or ratifiers of the First Amendment intended to nullify this express grant of lawmaking power. Second, various doctrines within copyright law function to ensure that it does not interfere unduly with the ability of persons to express themselves. Specifically, the principle that only the particular way in essays on water which an idea is ?expressed? is copyrightable, not the idea itself, ensures that the citizenry will be able to discuss concepts, arguments, facts, etc. without restraint. Top 10 Plan Software? Even more importantly, the fair use doctrine (discussed in essays scarcity in india the first module) provides a generous safe harbor to people making reasonable uses of copyrighted material for educational, critical, or scientific purposes. These considerations, in combination, have led courts to turn aside virtually every constitutional challenge to the enforcement of copyrights. Very recently, some of the ways in which copyright law has been modified and primary prep homework then applied to activity on the Internet has prompted a growing number of scholars and litigants to suggest that the conventional methods for reconciling copyright law and the First Amendment need to be reexamined. Two developments present the issue especially sharply: (1) For reasons we explored in the second module, last summer a federal court in New York ruled that posting on a website a link to another website from which a web surfer can download a software program designed to break an encryption system constitutes ?trafficking? in anti-circumvention technology in essays on water violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. The defendant in the case contended (among other things) that the DMCA, if construed in this fashion, violates the First Amendment.
Judge Kaplan rejected this contention, reasoning that a combination of the Copyright Clause and an generous understanding of the Necessary and Proper clause of the Constitution provided constitutional support for new year essay, the DMCA: In enacting the DMCA, Congress found that the restriction of technologies for on water scarcity in india, the circumvention of technological means of protecting copyrighted works facilitate[s] the robust development and world-wide expansion of electronic commerce, communications, research, development, and education by mak[ing] digital networks safe places to disseminate and new year new life essay exploit copyrighted materials. That view can not be dismissed as unreasonable. Section 1201(a)(2) of the DMCA therefore is a proper exercise of Congress' power under the Necessary and Proper Clause. This conclusion might well dispose of defendants' First Amendment challenge. Given Congress' justifiable view that the DMCA is instrumental in carrying out the essays objective of the Copyright Clause, there arguably is no First Amendment objection to prohibiting the dissemination of primary prep, means for circumventing technological methods for controlling access to copyrighted works. But the Court need not rest on essays scarcity this alone.
In determining the constitutionality of governmental restriction on speech, courts traditionally have balanced the essay public interest in the restriction against essays, the public interest in the kind of speech at issue. Career Goals? This approach seeks to determine, in in india light of the goals of the First Amendment, how much protection the speech at issue merits. It then examines the underlying rationale for the challenged regulation and critical theory.ppt assesses how best to accommodate the relative weights of the interests in free speech interest and the regulation. As Justice Brandeis wrote, freedom of speech is important both as a means to achieve a democratic society and as an end in itself. Further, it discourages social violence by permitting people to seek redress of their grievances through meaningful, non-violent expression. These goals have been articulated often and on water scarcity in india consistently in the case law. The computer code at essays, issue in this case does little to serve these goals. Although this Court has assumed that DeCSS has at least some expressive content, the essays on water scarcity expressive aspect appears to be minimal when compared to its functional component. Computer code primarily is a set of instructions which, when read by prep homework, the computer, cause it to function in on water a particular way, in this case, to render intelligible a data file on a DVD.
It arguably is best treated as a virtual machine . . . . On the other side of this balance lie the interests served by the DMCA. Critical Thinking Theory.ppt? Copyright protection exists to essays scarcity in india, encourage individual effort by business plan software, personal gain and thereby advance public welfare through the promot[ion of] the Progress of on water in india, Science and useful Arts. The DMCA plainly was designed with these goals in essay requirement mind. Essays On Water In India? It is new year essay, a tool to on water in india, protect copyright in the digital age. Crusade? It responds to the risks of technological circumvention of access controlling mechanisms designed to protect copyrighted works distributed in digital form.
It is essays on water scarcity in india, designed to further precisely the goals articulated above, goals of unquestionably high social value. This is quite clear in career goals college essay the specific context of on water in india, this case. Plaintiffs are eight major motion picture studios which together are largely responsible for the development of the American film industry. Their products reach hundreds of new year, millions of viewers internationally and doubtless are responsible for a substantial portion of the revenue in the international film industry each year. Essays On Water Scarcity? To doubt the contribution of plaintiffs to the progress of the critical thinking arts would be absurd. DVDs are the newest way to on water in india, distribute motion pictures to the home market, and prep their popularity is growing rapidly. The security of DVD technology is central to the continued distribution of motion pictures in this format. The dissemination and use of circumvention technologies such as DeCSS would permit anyone to make flawless copies of DVDs at little expense. Without effective limits on these. technologies, copyright protection in the contents of DVDs would become meaningless and the continued marketing of DVDs impractical. Essays? This obviously would discourage artistic progress and undermine the new year essay goals of copyright.
The balance between these two interests is clear. Executable computer code of the type at issue in this case does little to further traditional First Amendment interests. The DMCA, in contrast, fits squarely within the on water goals of copyright, both generally and as applied to DeCSS. Critical Theory.ppt? In consequence, the balance of interests in this case falls decidedly on essays scarcity the side of plaintiffs and the DMCA. One of the axes of debate in the ongoing appeal of the lower-court ruling concerns this issue. For a challenge to Judge Kaplan's discussion of the First-Amendment, see the amicus brief submitted to new life essay, the Second Circuit by a group of law professors. (2) Some scholars believe that the ambit of the fair use doctrine should and scarcity in india will shrink on the Internet. Career College Essay? Why? Because, in their view, the principal purpose of the doctrine is to enable people to use copyrighted materials in ways that are socially valuable but that are likely, in the absence of a special legal privilege, to be blocked by transaction costs. The Internet, by enabling copyright owners and essays persons who wish access to homework, their works to negotiate licenses easily and cheaply, dramatically reduces those transaction costs, thus arguably reducing the need for the fair-use doctrine.
Recall that one of the justifications conventionally offered to explain the compatibility of copyright law and the First Amendment is the safety valve afforded critical commentary and educational activity by the fair use doctrine. If that doctrine does indeed shrink on the Internet, as these scholars predict, then the question of whether copyright law abridges freedom of expression must be considered anew. 1. Are you persuaded by the judicial opinions declaring unconstitutional the CDA and COPA? Should CHIPA suffer the same fate? Are there any ways in which government might regulate the Internet so as to shield children from pornography? 2. Some authors have suggested that the best way to respond to pornography on essays on water scarcity in india the Internet is through zoning.
For example, Christopher Furlow suggests the new year new life essay use of ?restricted top-level domains? or ?rTLDs? which would function similarly to essays scarcity in india, area codes to identify particular areas of the Internet and make it easier for parents to control what type of prep, material their children are exposed to online. See Erogenous Zoning on The Cyber-Frontier, 5 Va. J.L. Tech. 7, 4 (Spring 2000). Do you find this proposal attractive? practicable? effective? 3. Essays Scarcity? Elizabeth Marsh raises the following question: Suppose that the Ku Klux Klan sent unsolicited email messages to large numbers of career goals college, African-Americans and Jews. Scarcity? Those messages expressed the college KKK's loathing of on water, blacks and Jews but did not threaten the recipients. Under the laws of the homework United States or any other jurisdiction, what legal remedies, if any, would be available to the recipients of such email messages? Should the First Amendment be construed to shield hate spam of this sort? More broadly, should hate spam be tolerated or suppressed?
For Marsh's views on the matter, see Purveyors of Hate on the Internet: Are We Ready for Hate Spam?, 17 Ga. St. U. Essays On Water In India? L. Rev. 379 (Winter 2000). 4. Were the college Jake Baker and Nuremberg Files cases decided correctly? How would you draw the essays scarcity in india line between threats subject to criminal punishment and speech protected by the First Amendment? 5. Does the First Amendment set a limit on the permissible scope of copyright law? If so, how would you define that limit? 6. Lyrissa Lidsky, points out critical thinking theory.ppt that the ways in which the Supreme Court has deployed the First Amendment to limit the scarcity in india application of the tort of defamation are founded on primary prep homework the assumption that most defamation suits will be brought against relatively powerful institutions (e.g., newspapers, television stations). The Internet, by enabling relatively poor and powerless persons to broadcast to the world their opinions of powerful institutions (e.g., their employers, companies by which they feel wronged) increases the likelihood that, in the future, defamation suits will be brought most often by formidable plaintiffs against essays on water in india, weak individual defendants. If we believe that [t]he Internet is critical thinking theory.ppt, . . Essays On Water? . a powerful tool for equalizing imbalances of power by giving voice to the disenfranchised and by allowing more democratic participation in public discourse, we should be worried by this development.
Lidsky suggests that it may be necessary, in this altered climate, to reconsider the shape of the constitutional limitations on defamation. Do you agree? If so, how would you reformulate the relevant limitations? 7. Like Lessig, Paul Berman suggests that the Internet should prompt us to reconsider the traditional state action doctrine that limits the kinds of interference with speech to which the First-Amendment applies. College Essay? Berman supports this suggestion with the following example: ??an online service provider recently attempted to take action against on water scarcity, an entity that had sent junk e-mail on its service, a district court rejected the e-mailer's argument that such censorship of essay requirement, e-mail violated the First Amendment. The court relied on the state action doctrine, reasoning that the service provider was not the state and therefore was not subject to the commands of the First Amendment.? Such an outcome, he suggests, is unfortunate. To avoid it, we may need to rethink this fundamental aspect of Constitutional Law. Do you agree? See Berman, Symposium Overview: Part IV: How (If At All) to Regulate The Internet: Cyberspace and on water scarcity the State Action Debate: The Cultural Value of Applying Constitutional Norms to Private Regulation, 71 U. Colo. L. Rev. 1263 (Fall 2000).
ACLU offers various materials relating to the Reno v. College Requirement? ACLU case. Electronic Frontier Foundation (Browse the essays scarcity Free Expression page, Censorship Free Expression archive and the Content Filtering archive.) The Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) offers links to crusade essays, various aspects of CDA litigation and discussion. Platform for in india, Internet Content Selection (PICS) (Skim the PICS and Intellectual Freedom FAQ. Browse What Governments, Media and Individuals are Saying about PICS (pro and con).) CyberAngels.org provides a guide to primary, cyberstalking that includes a very helpful definitions section. Cyberstalking: A New Challenge for Law Enforcement and Industry ? A Report from the Attorney General to the Vice President (August 1999) provides very helpful definitions and explanations related to cyberstalking, including 1 st Amendment implications; also provides links to additional resources. The Anti-Defamation League web site offers a wealth of resources for dealing with hate online, including guides for parents and filtering software. The filtering software, called Hate Filter, is designed to give parents the ability to make decisions regarding what their children are exposed to online.
The ADL believes that ?Censorship is not the answer to hate on the Internet. Scarcity? ADL supports the free speech guarantees embodied in the First Amendment of the United States Constitution, believing that the best way to combat hateful speech is with more speech.?
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cass coursework Your entire coursework section will be organized by term. Each semester, quarter, trimester and unit is on water in india, considered a separate session. Before you enter any course, you will need to goals essay add your first session by essays scarcity in india, clicking on You will click on this button for EVERY semester, quarter, trimester or unit you have attended college. Essay! It is exceedingly rare for correctly entered coursework to only have one session.
2. Fill in information about your first term at this school. NOTE: The Academic Status should reflect your status when you took the course. This is not your current status. 3. Enter your first course as it is listed on your official transcript. Click “Save” when complete. Course Title - this line MUST match exactly what is listed on your official transcript, or be a clear abbreviation of what appears on your transcript. For example, if your transcript states “Introduction to Chemistry” you can report “Intro to Chem”, but not “Organic Chemistry”. Course Prefix and Number -this line should have TWO pieces of information in it: the course prefix (usually a shortened form of the department’s name) and on water scarcity in india, the course number.
Course Level - Refer to the back of your transcript to business determine whether the course number of this course would be considered lower division (sometimes called freshman/sophomore level) or upper division (junior/senior level). This section may be different than your Academic Status at the time. Course Subject - Use the Course Subject List to select the most appropriate course subject. Please be aware that Microbiology has its own course subject and essays, that General Chemistry courses fall under Inorganic Chemistry. Course Type - If you took a science course, you will need to specify whether it is a lab course, a lecture course, or a class that consisted of both lab and business plan software, lecture.
You can only fill in this section if the course subject is one of the subjects calculated into the Science GPA. Special Classification - Select the essays scarcity, most appropriate answer from the dropdown menu. The majority of critical thinking theory.ppt your courses will be classified as “Not Applicable”. Only select “Institutional/Departmental Exam” if you received credit from an exam without taking a course. For example, if you tested out of a language requirement, and this appears on your official transcript with the number of on water scarcity in india credits you received, this would be listed as “Institutional/Departmental Exam”. 4. Click on “Add Course” to enter your next course. Repeat this step for as many courses as you took during that term. 5. Click on the “Add New Session” button to start the process for your next term! PharmCAS will verify your self-reported courses against your official transcripts and will report any discrepancies to thinking your selected pharmacy institutions. Essays Scarcity In India! You MUST enter in your coursework yourself. If you make a few typographical errors, these will be corrected for goals, you during the verification process.
PharmCAS will return your application to you for corrections or explanation if it identifies a significant number of course discrepancies or omissions. If you fail to properly enter all of essays on water your courses when you first submit your application or do not make corrections as requested, your application will be delayed in processing and top 10 business plan, you may jeopardize your chances for admission. Entering Special Types of Coursework. Enter these credits under the first term of the essays on water in india, school that gave you college credit for those scores. You should enter them as closely to your official transcript as you can. If your transcript doesn’t have course prefix or numbers listed, you can simply enter “N/A” for Not Applicable. Make sure you select “Advanced Placement for your special classification. Because these courses typically do not have grades associated with them, enter “CR-Credit”. NOTE: Your Test Score is NOT considered a numeric grade and shouldn’t be entered as a grade. Essay! If you know your AP score, please feel free to on water scarcity enter it under “Test Score”.
Courses Taken in High School/Dual Enrollment. Even if you never physically attended a college campus, if you received credit from an institution for course taken during high school you will need to goals college enter that school on your application, send an official transcript and on water in india, enter that coursework on your application. New Year New Life! There is even a special classification in on water scarcity in india, the coursework section you can use to designate that a particular course was taken while you were in high school. List all Study Abroad courses that appear on a U.S. Transcript with itemized grades and credit hours in career goals college, the “Coursework” section. For each Study Abroad course, select the name of the U.S. institution in which the scarcity in india, Study Abroad credit and new year, grades appear. If the U.S. transcript does not itemize the grades and/or credits for essays on water scarcity in india, study abroad, follow the policies for international (foreign) coursework below.
International (Foreign) Institution. Do NOT list any international (foreign) courses completed outside of a U.S. Critical Theory.ppt! institution in this Coursework section. In India! Consult PharmCAS instructions on how to top 10 business submit international transcripts, including all Canadian transcripts. If you attended a PharmCAS-recognized overseas U.S. Essays On Water! institution, list all courses attempted and credits earned in this section. PharmCAS will consider course work from an overseas U.S. institution in the same manner as U.S. Top 10 Business! coursework. For a list of overseas U.S. institutions, review the transcript instructions under “General Instructions”. A course is only considered repeated if it was repeated at the same institution.
NOTE: The images below have been generated to on water show the repeat policy. First Essays! When entering your coursework, you should list EVERY course you took during that term. It is rare for applicants to have terms with only essays scarcity in india a single course within them. If you received letter grades in every attempt of your courses, list each attempt as “Repeated”. First Crusade! Be sure to list the scarcity in india, full amount of credits for each attempt. If you withdrew from career college, a course and essays on water, then repeated a course, leave the withdrawn course as “Not Applicable”, but select “Repeated” for the second attempt.
List the full amount of critical thinking theory.ppt credits for each attempt. Entering Planned/In Progress coursework in on water scarcity, PharmCAS is very similar to the process for entering Completed coursework. When entering your term, select “Planned/In Progress” When this has been done correctly, you will be presented with a course entry page that does not ask you to specify a grade for goals college essay, this course. NOTE: If you have any Planned/In Progress courses to report, you MUST list them in your coursework section.
Q: I took some courses over a decade ago. Do I still have to enter these courses? A: YES! No matter how long ago you took those courses, you MUST list every college course you have ever taken. Q: Why do I have to enter all of my courses? A: You must enter all of your U.S. courses on your PharmCAS application because it…
Allows PharmCAS to automatically generate 20+ different GPAs using standardized criteria and calculations. Gives your designated programs access to your entire course history in a standardized electronic format that can be sorted by any field. Eliminates the need for programs to decipher different transcript formats. Allows your programs to calculate custom GPAs without manually entering course credits and grades. Provides PharmCAS with a mechanism to collect additional information about on water scarcity in india, your course history that is not (typically) on transcripts, such as the course subjects, student status at the time each course taken (e.g., freshman), and test scores for AP, IB, and CLEP credit. Eliminates the need for PharmCAS staff to manually enter all courses which would increase cost to apply and the average processing time by weeks or months. Q: I took summer courses. Since the term was shorter than terms during the year, are these “quarters” or “units”?
A: No. In the vast majority of cases, all of your term types are going to software be the essays on water in india, same at any school, unless you attended a school which changed calendar types during your enrollment. Quarter hours are automatically converted into semester hours in the GPA calculations by multiplying the number of quarter hours by top 10 business plan software, .667. If you enter your summer sessions at a school on the semester calendar as quarters, your GPAs will not show that you have received as many credits as you have earned. Q: Can I use my unofficial transcript or online student account to enter my coursework? A: PharmCAS recommends you obtain an official transcript from essays on water scarcity, every institution you have attended to new year essay help you enter in your coursework, because course prefixes and on water, course titles can sometimes be reported differently than on new year essay, the official transcript. If the essays on water scarcity in india, coursework you enter has several such differences, it will be undelivered to you for corrections. Q: I have attended two colleges.
Can I just report all of new year new life essay my courses from scarcity, my other college as they transferred to my primary college? A: No. You have to primary use the transcript from the original school which granted you those credits in scarcity in india, order to show the most accurate information to your degree programs: Not all courses can transfer over from one school to another, and some courses might be left off of primary prep homework your transfer credits. In India! When courses show as transfer credits, the new life essay, grades or credits might not be what you originally earned Often, schools will show the closest equivalent to essays on water scarcity in india the course offered at their school rather than the original title, prefix or number of the course. Q: Do I need to include all of my courses on my PharmCAS application? A: Yes. All previous coursework taken at regionally accredited U.S. First! colleges must be listed (including repeated, failed and withdrawn courses) and PharmCAS must receive an essays scarcity official transcript from each college attended. Applications that do not include all courses listed on their transcripts will be put on prep, hold until the essays on water scarcity in india, discrepancy is resolved with PharmCAS.
Q: Do I need to include courses taken at foreign institutions? A: NO, you should not enter any coursework taken at non-accredited, non-U.S. foreign institutions, unless you have taken courses at a college outside the U.S. Business Software! as part of a Study Abroad program. If you have taken courses at a college outside the U.S. as part of a Study Abroad program, list those courses as they appear on the official transcript of the U.S. institution that gave you itemized course credit for your Study Abroad. However, if the U.S. transcript does not list each Study Abroad course separately, you must follow each pharmacy degree program’s instructions for submitting foreign coursework. All Canadian colleges and on water, universities must be listed in the Colleges Attended section of your application as 555555 – NON-US (FOREIGN) INSTITUTION. Do not list the coursework from any Canadian institution in the Coursework section of your application. PharmCAS can only accept and college, forward official evaluations of coursework taken outside the essays on water scarcity in india, U.S. NOTE: Transcripts from foreign institutions must be evaluated by one of the five transcript evaluation services listed in the application tutorial and sent to PharmCAS. PharmCAS will forward copies of essay requirement official foreign coursework evaluations to essays on water scarcity in india all of college essay your designated pharmacy schools once they are received at PharmCAS.
A: You may update your coursework information when PharmCAS initiates the academic update windows. You will receive an e-mail notification when this window is available. The Fall Academic Update window will open on December 15, 2016, following the completion of the Fall 2016 term, and close on February 15, 2017. Arrange for your official Summer 2016 and Fall 2016 transcripts to essays on water scarcity in india be sent directly to PharmCAS as soon as they are available and career goals, no later than February 15, 2017. If you do not submit your updated courses and transcripts in a timely manner, your selected pharmacy schools may no longer consider you for admission. Essays On Water In India! You cannot make edits to new year your course work section, whether completed or planned / in-progress, until the Academic Update window is open.
Please refer to the Academic Update section of the essays on water, Instructions for more information regarding the requirement, Fall and Spring Academic Update. Q: What do the on water scarcity in india, terms “Academic Bankruptcy” and “Freshman Forgiveness” mean? A: Some colleges and universities offer Academic Bankruptcy and/or Freshman Forgiveness policies to students who have earned poor grades at goals college, the institution. If you are not familiar with these types of academic amnesty policies, they probably do not apply to you or your transcripts. PharmCAS GPAs include ALL college courses completed by the applicant, including those with Freshman Forgiveness and Academic Bankruptcy status. Freshman Forgiveness: Some institutions allow students to repeat courses taken during the freshman year in essays on water scarcity, which a grade of D or F (or incomplete) was earned. Critical! The institution only uses the second grade in the calculation of the cumulative grade point average. On Water Scarcity In India! Generally, the grades/credits for both attempts appear on crusade essays, the transcript. Applicants must list all courses with Freshman Forgiveness status on essays scarcity, the PharmCAS application.
Academic Bankruptcy is similar to Freshman Forgiveness. This policy usually applies to all coursework taken at the institution, including courses with A, B, and C grades and those taken after the freshman year. It “wipes” the student’s academic record clean as far as the institution is concerned. Generally, the bankrupted coursework remains on the transcript; but it is not counted in the transcript’s GPA calculation and critical theory.ppt, does not count toward the student’s degree requirements. Applicants must list all courses with Academic Bankruptcy status on the PharmCAS application.
All Freshman Forgiveness and on water scarcity, Academic Bankruptcy courses WILL BE calculated in your PharmCAS GPA. Your degree program designations reserve the right to crusade essays exclude these courses once they receive your application.