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Essay on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni

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My Mother Essay In Arabic 327878. Essay On Clothes Banerjee Divakaruni? Este debate contiene 0 respuestas, tiene 1 mensaje y lo actualizo ntercerleasymti hace 1 semana. Antithesis? My Mother Essay In Arabic. On Clothes Banerjee Divakaruni? Essay on mother English Arabic Translation and Examples My memories Ask Google. You searched for: essay on antithesis, mother ( English Arabic ). On Clothes By Chitra Divakaruni? [ Turn off colors ]. API call · Download a TMX English. essay on mother To My Mother | Arabic Language Blog Blogs | Transparent 21 Mar 2013 Marhaba (?????)! A few months ago, I introduced you all to essays one of my favorite Arab artists, the accomplished Oud player, composer and singer, Arabic language | Arabizi- ????? ??????? WordPress.com Posts about essay on clothes by chitra Arabic language written by on success, FatmaS. This I found, apart from taking up all of on clothes banerjee divakaruni my summer and famous classical essays, being a welcome distraction .. very modern, very successful countries who have maintained their mother tongues …” language, language of the Qur#039;an (see Mustafa Shah#039;s 2008 informative essay on this here). How to write and say #039; mom /mum/ mother #039; in Arabic Quora “A mother” in essay on clothes by chitra Arabic is : Oum / ????? , Waalidah / ?????????. “ My mother ” is to do to avoid : Oumi / ?????? , Waalidaty / ??????????. Essay On Clothes By Chitra Divakaruni? Another archaic words for “ my mother ” are : Ommah / ???????? Ummi ( My Mother ) | Arabic Calligraphy | Pinterest | Arabic calligraphy The Art Time get a chance to took interview of wonderful Arabic Calligraphy Artist . Antithesis Of Surfeit? I entrust my affairs to Allah (Quran ??????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? I Arabic Essay Topics | Majortests Free Essays from MajorTests.com: trying to escape form the sadness of their lives but I would like to essay on clothes begin this with a few defintions to help my understand the and to do, like his/her mother , but when you missed something you became need it My Mother ( Arabic ) YouTube 22 May 2016 My Mother ( Arabic ). Faheem Khan.

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Arabic is essay banerjee a Central Semitic language complex that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern . During the first Islamic century, the majority of university mfa creative program Arabic poets and essay, Arabic -writing persons spoke Arabic as their mother tongue. Their texts, although Meeting the Mother -In-Law | Leite#039;s Culinaria 14 Jan 2013 I didn#039;t speak Arabic , his parents didn#039;t speak English. On Success? “She#039;s too blond,” had been my prospective mother -in-law#039;s verdict some months before, Mothers In Islam Islamic Information 11 May 2008 Allah has given the essay by chitra divakaruni, mother such status that He says, Transalation : My lord, have mercy upon my parents, the way they had mercy upon famous classical, me #039;Many Languages, One World#039; essay competition by Sophia Smith 6 Jul 2016 #039;Many Languages, One World#039; essay competition by Sophia Smith-Galer the caveat being that the language couldn#039;t be your mother tongue or your Spanish and Arabic here, but I decided to enter my essay in essay by chitra banerjee Arabic . Family members#039; vocabulary in Arabic | Free Online Arabic courses 8 Dec 2013 Arabic nations respect the family and the bonds among relatives a lot, in mfa creative writing this lesson My brother Mohamed plays soccer with our cousin Karim, and I spend my time I ??? ?????, Ibnu Al-Khaal, Cousin (male) – ( Mother side). Tishani Doshi speaks to Lebanese poet Zeina Hashem Beck about 26 Apr 2017 In #039;Ode to My Non- Arabic Lover#039;, she writes, “It#039;s one thing to make love/ In her poems, Tripoli is “the mother of stories”, “the mother of orange Investigating The Influence of The Mother Tongue ( Arabic ) on I would like to by chitra express my sincere thanks and appreciation to my supervisor “Mrs Producing error-free essays is the ultimate aim of EFL writing teachers. there is a relationship between students#039; mother tongue ( Arabic ) and the grammatical. Famous Classical? Oregon#039;s Muslim Youth OMY Muslim Educational Trust In honor of all mothers the Muslim Educational Trust Board of essay on clothes banerjee Directors is meaning #039; My Mother #039; in Arabic , which is a program dedicated to all mothers who Youth Essay Contest; Youth Ambassadors Club; Science Fair Expo; Sports and things to do, Zineb Sedira Specially comissioned essay | Luxonline Each speaks her mother tongue: the grandmother speaks Arabic , the essay on clothes banerjee, artist, French and addiction causes essay, Sujata Bhatt, #039;Search for my Tongue#039; from #039;Bruinzem, Carcanet, 1988. Debes estar registrado para responder a este debate.

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Clothes by Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni - Essay

The Short- and by chitra banerjee, Long-Term Impact of Infrastructure Investments on Employment and Economic Activity in statement, the U.S. Economy. In U.S. Essay By Chitra Divakaruni? policymaking circles in antithesis crossword, recent years there have been recurrent calls to increase infrastructure investments. This is hardly a surprise, as increased infrastructure investments could go a long way to solving several pressing challenges that the American economy faces. In the near term, the most pressing economic challenge for the U.S. economy remains the depressed labor market. As of May 2014, the share of by chitra banerjee prime-age adults (age 25–54) currently employed is just 0.5 percentage points higher than it was at the official end of the Great Recession in addiction causes, June 2009. And it is more than 3.9 percentage points lower than during the labor market peak of the mid-2000s, and 5.4 percentage points lower than its 1999 peak.

In the longer term, the banerjee divakaruni, most pressing economic challenges for the U.S. Drug Addiction Essay? economy concern how to provide satisfactory living standards growth for the vast majority of essay by chitra people. Antithesis Crossword? Such growth requires two components: rapid overall productivity growth, and a stabilization (or even reversal) of the large rise in income inequality that occurred in the three decades before the Great Recession, a rise in essay by chitra divakaruni, inequality that kept overall productivity growth from translating into living standards growth for most Americans. This report examines the short- and long-term economic and employment impacts of infrastructure investment. It examines three possible scenarios for infrastructure investment and estimates their likely impact on new york writing, overall economic activity, productivity, and the number and types of jobs, depending on how the investments are financed. The data show that by essay by chitra banerjee far the biggest near-term boost to gross domestic product and jobs comes from financing the famous classical essays, new investment through new federal government debt rather than a progressive increase in taxation, a regressive increase in taxation, or cuts to government transfer programs. Our research also shows that this debt-financed impact is greater than that deriving from increases in infrastructure investment that are driven not by direct public investments but through other actions, such as regulatory mandates. Key findings of the report are: Three potential infrastructure packages would yield from $18 billion to $250 billion annually for infrastructure investment. Scenario one cancels all of the scheduled cuts stemming from the budget “sequester” (automatic, across-the-board cuts to discretionary spending called for in the Budget Control Act (BCA) of by chitra 2011), yielding an average of $30 billion annually over the next decade for infrastructure investments. (As of January 2014, a third of the scheduled sequester cuts were cancelled for the next two years only.) Scenario two implements a package of green investments that includes a large increase in investments in the energy efficiency of residential and commercial buildings and upfront investments to construct a national “smart grid,” yielding $92 billion annually in infrastructure investments over the next decade.

Scenario three makes an ambitious investment in largely traditional infrastructure projects in transportation and speeches on success and failure, utilities (particularly water treatment, distribution, and essay by chitra, sewage systems) to famous classical essays nearly close the U.S. Essay By Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni? “infrastructure deficit” identified by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) and famous classical, yield $250 billion annually in infrastructure investment between now and 2020. In the near term, increases in infrastructure spending would significantly boost economic activity and employment. Under scenario one, a debt-financed $18 billion annual investment in infrastructure yields a $29 billion increase in GDP and 216,000 net new jobs by the end of the essay on clothes banerjee, first year, with the and failure, increased levels then sustained over the next decade. Under scenario two, a debt-financed package of on clothes divakaruni green investments totaling $92 billion annually boosts GDP by $147 billion and drug addiction causes essay, generates 1.1 million net new jobs by the end of the first year, with the increased levels then sustained over by chitra banerjee the next decade. Under scenario three, a debt-financed $250 billion annual investment boosts GDP by $400 billion and overall employment by 3 million net new jobs by the end of the first year, with the increased levels then sustained over the seven-year life of the investment. Any method of making these infrastructure investments deficit-neutral reduces their impact on near-term activity and employment, but every method except cuts to government transfers still leaves a net positive impact. Over the long term, we can reliably predict only the impact of infrastructure investments on the composition, not the overall level, of labor demand.

Because the impact of infrastructure investments on the overall level of economic activity depends on the degree of productive slack in the economy, the stance of monetary policy, and how the investments are financed, it is impossible to reliably forecast the long-term (further than five years out) effects of such investments on the overall level of economic activity. However, we can reliably project the classical, impact of infrastructure investments on the composition of labor demand. Even if these investments crowd out other forms of spending and do not affect the essay on clothes divakaruni, overall level of activity and things to do to avoid, employment, it remains the by chitra divakaruni, case that composition of to do employment supported by additional spending on infrastructure would be different than that of the economic activity it potentially displaces. Under all scenarios, jobs created are disproportionately male, Latino, and skewed away from younger workers. Under scenario one, male employment accounts for 77 percent of all jobs created, while under scenario two it accounts for 80.4 percent of all jobs created, and under scenario three it accounts for 74.1 percent, compared with an economy-wide average of 50.2 percent of all jobs being held by men. Under scenario one Latino employment accounts for 15.4 percent of all jobs created, while under scenario two it accounts for 16.2 percent of all jobs created, and essay by chitra banerjee, under scenario three it accounts for 14.3 percent, compared with an economy-wide average of 12.3 percent.

Under scenario one, employment of young adults (under 25 years old) accounts for 9.3 percent of all jobs created, while under scenario two it accounts for about islamophobia 9.5 percent of all jobs created, and under scenario three it accounts for 7.8 percent, compared with an essay, economy-wide average of 13.2 percent. Under all scenarios, jobs created are disproportionately filled by workers without a four-year university degree. Under scenario one, workers with a bachelor’s degree or more education fill 23 percent of addiction causes all jobs created, while under scenario two college-educated employment accounts for 19.6 percent of all jobs created, and under scenario three it accounts for 21.4 percent, compared with an economy-wide average of 32.6 percent. Under all scenarios, jobs created are disproportionately middle- and/or high-wage. Under scenario one employment in the bottom wage quintile accounts for just 9.5 percent of all jobs created, while under scenario two it accounts for 9.4 percent of all jobs created, and essay on clothes, under scenario three it accounts for 11.2 percent of all jobs created, compared with an economy-wide average of of surfeit 18.9 percent. Infrastructure investments provide the potential to boost economy-wide productivity growth. Productivity growth has slowed significantly in the U.S. economy, beginning even before the onset of the Great Recession.

Our analysis conforms with a large and growing body of research persuasively arguing that infrastructure investments can boost even private-sector productivity growth. An ambitious effort to by chitra banerjee divakaruni increase infrastructure investment by $250 billion annually over seven years would likely increase productivity growth by 0.3 percent annually—a boost more than half as large as the productivity acceleration in the U.S. To Do? economy between 1995 and 2005, one that was attributed to information and communications technology (ICT) advances. A productivity acceleration of 0.3 percent would have measurable impacts on the estimated Non-Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment (NAIRU) and could allow macroeconomic policymakers to target significantly lower rates of essay on clothes unemployment. Extrapolating from the speeches on success and failure, experience of the late 1990s, the NAIRU could be lowered by as much as 1 full percentage point by a sustained $250 billion annual increase in infrastructure investment. This could mean that more than 1 million additional workers each year find employment. List of acronyms used in this report. ASCE = American Society of Civil Engineers. GDP = gross domestic product. BCA = Budget Control Act.

ICT = information and communications technology. NAIRU = non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment. GCC = global climate change. GHG = greenhouse gases. EPRI = Electric Power Research Institute. PPM = parts per million. CPC = Congressional Progressive Caucus. NIPA = National Income and Product Accounts. BEA = Bureau of Economic Analysis. OMB = Office of Management and essay on clothes by chitra, Budget.

EPI = Economic Policy Institute. ERM = Employment Requirements Matrix. BLS = Bureau of Labor Statistics. ARRA = American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. PERI = Political Economy Research Institute. CPS = Current Population Survey. CBO = Congressional Budget Office.

CEA = Council of Economic Advisers. MAEC = Moody’s Analytics’ Economy.com. CPS-ORG = Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group. QCEW = Quarterly Census of speeches on success Employment and Wages. U.S. = United States. MPC = marginal propensity to consume.

ZLB = zero lower bound. VAR = vector auto-regression. HELP = health, education, leisure, hospitality, business and professional services. Scenarios for infrastructure investments. Simple political realism about the divakaruni, current state-of-play of of surfeit crossword American fiscal policy argues that large-scale infrastructure investments financed by the federal government are unlikely in coming years. However, economic analysis stands apart from current politics, and the economic case for boosting these investments is strong—and perhaps made even stronger by the growing threat of global climate change (GCC) caused by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

Given these conflicting imperatives—political realism versus economic necessity—this report examines three different scenarios for infrastructure investments. The first looks at essay on clothes divakaruni, the implications for infrastructure investment if sharp cuts to federal discretionary spending called for in the Budget Control Act of 2011 are cancelled.1 A 2013 budget deal signed into law does indeed cancel a portion (but just a portion) of the things to avoid, automatic sequester cuts for the next two years. Given this, the paper examines what reversing these cuts completely would mean for boosting future infrastructure investments. The second scenario is more ambitious, and addresses the need for the United States to transition to an economy that emits fewer greenhouse gases. It packages a mix of by chitra investments in drug causes, energy efficiency in banerjee divakaruni, the building sector with start-up investments in a national “smart grid.” The dollar figure for building efficiency investments is taken from a (now-famous) McKinsey report detailing the benefits of energy efficiency. For this scenario, we identify all building efficiency investments that were identified by McKinsey as having a net negative cost over the useful lives of the thesis islamophobia, projects. For the smart-grid investments, we relied on assessments from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) for the upfront costs. After estimating these two components of this “green” package of energy, we checked to ensure that it would constitute a genuinely ambitious step toward mitigating GHG emissions, using work by Pacala and Socolow (2004). Pacala and Socolow (2004) introduced the concept of the “stabilization wedge” of GHG abatement.

They essentially look at the decline in carbon emissions needed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of carbon at 450 parts per million (PPM) by 2054, a benchmark that they identify as the essay on clothes divakaruni, minimally ambitious goal for antithesis of surfeit crossword reducing the future costs imposed by climate change.2. They next divided the entire wedge between carbon emissions projected to occur under a “business as usual” (BAU) scenario and the emissions that would be allowed under a scenario that kept carbon at less than 450 parts per million into seven smaller “sub-wedges”. Next they identified a number of essay on clothes by chitra actions that would be sufficient to “fill” one of these smaller sub-wedges. So, for example, increasing fuel efficiency of 2 billion cars from 30 mpg to 60 mpg would constitute one sub-wedge, while boosting coal-fired power plant efficiency by 50 percent would constitute another sub-wedge. The package of green investments that constitutes our second infrastructure investment scenario would seem to be ambitious indeed—probably coming close to accounting for well over half of a stabilization sub-wedge, meaning that this package would be moving the U.S. economy more than 10 percent of the way toward stabilizing GHG emissions at 450 PPM by itself. The building investments alone likely account for well over half of a stabilization wedge. Pacala and statement about islamophobia, Socolow (2004) identify “cut[ing] carbon emissions by one-fourth in buildings and appliances” as a wedge. The McKinsey report estimates that the efficiency investments called for in it would lead to almost exactly a one-quarter reduction in carbon emissions (23 percent), with more than 60 percent of this efficiency effect coming from the banerjee divakaruni, buildings channel alone.

Further, EPRI has identified a number of ways a smart grid could facilitate the achievement of antithesis of surfeit other stabilization wedges. For example, they note that a smart grid could accommodate an increase in electric and hybrid automobiles, which could help achieve the stabilization wedge possible through increased fuel efficiency of essay by chitra banerjee divakaruni cars. And they note that household efficiencies would be much easier to achieve if energy savings stemming from them were more salient to households, and that this salience would be much easier to achieve through “smart metering” and other mechanisms that more closely tie household energy bills to antithesis crossword their consumption patterns. The last scenario examines an essay on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni, across-the-board increase in infrastructure spending concentrated in traditional transportation and utilities investments. The magnitude of this spending—$250 billion annually—is chosen to close the “infrastructure deficit” identified by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) in recent reports about the state of the nation’s infrastructure, including its most recent such report (ASCE 2013).

Scenario One: Undoing the discretionary spending caps imposed by the 2011 Budget Control Act. In 2011, the U.S. Congress passed the mfa creative writing program, Budget Control Act (BCA), which significantly reduced 10-year discretionary spending growth. Most of the on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni, American social insurance system (Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, and of surfeit crossword, the Affordable Care Act) was unaffected. However, because the vast bulk of public investments (including infrastructure investments) are financed by the discretionary side of the essay on clothes by chitra, federal budget, these spending caps—including the mfa creative writing program, now-famous budget “sequester”—have steep consequences for infrastructure spending. Figure A shows the share of total spending and public investment accounted for by each major budget category. The bars on the left of each two-bar set show the share of total federal spending accounted for by each of the three major spending categories.

Nondefense discretionary spending accounts for 21.0 percent of on clothes total federal spending, defense spending accounts for thesis 20.4 percent, while mandatory spending (dominated by the retirement security programs Medicare and Social Security as well as other health spending) accounts for 58.7 percent. The bars on the right of each two-bar set show the share of divakaruni total federal public investment accounted for by each of the three major spending categories. Nondefense discretionary spending, despite accounting for just a fifth of university total spending, accounts for well over half of total public investment, 55.4 percent. Defense spending accounts for 39.3 percent, while mandatory spending accounts for just over 5 percent of total public investment. Essay On Clothes Divakaruni? What this figure demonstrates is that any policy change that leads to large changes in the trajectory of discretionary spending will almost inevitably have large impacts on the future course of public investment. Average share of total U.S. Classical Essays? federal spending and total federal public investment, by major budget category, 2010–2012. The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

The data underlying the by chitra divakaruni, figure. Source: Author's analysis of unpublished data from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. In estimating the impacts on economic activity and employment from undoing these spending caps, we assume that the composition of discretionary spending is essentially unchanged by to avoid shifts in the level of spending. It is theoretically true that cuts to infrastructure spending could be less or more steep than overall spending cuts, but this is nearly impossible to forecast. Further, the discretionary spending cuts currently constituting the policy baseline in essay on clothes by chitra banerjee, the United States (i.e., the budget “sequester”) are across-the-board cuts to drug addiction every category of discretionary spending, making the assumption that the composition of discretionary spending cuts will be unaffected by the level in fact consistent with current budget law. While economic analysis of the nation’s infrastructure needs would drive public investment policy in a more rational world, it is important to emphasize what an uphill struggle it will be in coming years to overcome the political barriers to increasing public investment. Figure B shows the implications for overall public investment if various 2014 budget proposals were passed. The budget proposals include, on the Democratic side, those from the White House (the Obama plan), the Senate Budget Committee (Murray plan), Democrats in the House of Representatives (House Democratic budget alternative), and on clothes by chitra divakaruni, the Congressional Progressive Caucus, and, on the Republican side, that of the antithesis of surfeit, House Committee on the Budget (Ryan plan).

It demonstrates clearly the downward pressure of austerity on public investment possibilities, with nearly all budget proposals coming from the by chitra, U.S. Essays? Congress, except the Congressional Progressive Caucus (CPC) budget, calling for steep cuts in coming years. (See the text box titled “U.S. budget politics” for a broad overview of the differences between the essay on clothes banerjee, budgets and an explanation of famous why there are so many competing budget proposals in U.S. politics today.) On the one hand, these projections show the widespread acceptance of essay on clothes divakaruni large cuts in discretionary investment (and hence public investment) in coming years, which just highlights the political hurdles to increased infrastructure spending. On the other hand, these scenarios show just how much room there is in coming years to boost infrastructure spending just by returning the public commitment to it to recent historic norms. Actual and implied public investment as a share of GDP under various 2013 U.S. Antithesis Of Surfeit? budget proposals, 2000–2023. The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel. The data underlying the figure. Source: Author's analysis based on Bivens (2013) Copy the code below to embed this chart on essay on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni, your website. The normal federal budget process in the United States essentially disintegrated between 2010 and 2013. Because Republicans controlled the crossword, House of Representatives while Democrats controlled the Senate, no agreement could be reached on essay by chitra, annual budgets. University Writing Program? Instead, government spending levels were set with “continuing resolutions”—extensions of levels dictated by the Budget Control Act (BCA) of 2011, legislation passed to essay by chitra banerjee divakaruni resolve the debt ceiling crisis of the summer of 2011.

The BCA mandated steep cuts in domestic discretionary spending, spending that must be appropriated each year and which largely excludes the expensive social insurance programs such as Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, and the newly passed Affordable Care Act. This failure to agree on annual budgets also led to a proliferation of competing budget proposals. By custom, the budget committees of of surfeit crossword both the on clothes, House of Representatives and the Senate are charged with submitting budget proposals, as is the president. Again, because the House budget committee was run by thesis statement islamophobia Republicans while the Senate budget committee was run by Democrats, there were large differences between the banerjee, respective budget committee proposals (shorthanded by the names of their respective chairs, with the Republican House plan known as the “Ryan plan” after Rep. Causes Essay? Paul Ryan (R-Wis.), and the Democratic Senate plan as the essay on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni, “Murray plan” after Sen. Patty Murray (D-Wash.)). Things To Avoid Depression? The White House budget proposal (shorthanded as the banerjee, “Obama plan” after President Barack Obama) was very close to the Murray plan. Besides these proposals, in recent years a number of caucuses within the university writing, House and Senate also have been putting forward alternative budget plans. The most ambitious of these were the budget proposals forwarded by essay by chitra banerjee divakaruni the Congressional Progressive Caucus (or CPC). Statement About Islamophobia? The CPC budgets allowed for much larger deficits in the early years of the divakaruni, budget window to finance infrastructure and statement, other public investment programs aimed at spurring a full recovery from the Great Recession. In later years, the CPC called for significantly higher spending levels than other budget proposals, financed by higher (and more progressive) revenue levels.

Figure B in the main body of this report distills the banerjee, key differences relevant to things to avoid the analysis in this report—the large differences among various budgets in essay on clothes banerjee divakaruni, nondefense discretionary spending levels (the portion of the budget that generally finances the large majority of infrastructure spending). Figure C demonstrates that “core” infrastructure spending likely constitutes a large share of overall public investment. The Figure examines the portion of public investment classified as structures and does not cover equipment , as only mfa creative data on structures are broken down in detail that allows us to essay on clothes differentiate core infrastructure investment from other forms of public investment. What the addiction causes, figure shows is that most of what is banerjee, classified as public investment in official data sources on public investment in structures is indeed infrastructure spending (highways, transportation projects, water and sewer projects, utilities, etc.). “Core” infrastructure investment and health and education investment in the United States, as a share of GDP, 1947–2011. The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel. The data underlying the figure. Note: Core infrastructure investment includes highway, transportation, sewer, and water-treatment investments.

Source: Author's analysis of Bureau of Economic Analysis National Income and Product Accounts (Tables 1.1.5, 5.8.5a, and 5.8.5b) Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. A similar breakdown between core infrastructure and other public investments for the equipment component of public investments is not available. It seems safe to assume, however, that a large share of the public investment in equipment must also be devoted to core infrastructure projects as well. Airports, water treatment plants, and rail systems, for example, have investment needs that go far beyond the buildings sitting on them.

The message is clear: Unless the proposed cuts in discretionary spending in coming years are done with surgical precision to addiction causes essay avoid cutting infrastructure investments, they will deeply impact annual investments. And it should be noted that the budget “sequester” explicitly disallows such discrimination among different discretionary spending priorities and on clothes, demands across-the-board cuts. In order to assess the economic and employment impact of the extra infrastructure investment made possible by undoing the BCA spending caps, we need to know just what kinds of infrastructure investments are currently financed by the federal government. First, we translate proposed cuts in discretionary spending into cuts in overall public investments, using the same data sources we used to construct Figure A (data sources which show the share of each type of federal government spending that is public investment instead of addiction causes essay public consumption). These data (available upon request) are non-public data supplied by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to EPI. The main contribution of the data is to identify how many dollars in each detailed budget function (of which there are over on clothes 6,000) are dedicated to investment, as opposed to current consumption. Using these data we can estimate the drug addiction causes essay, share of these cuts to public investment that will take the by chitra divakaruni, form of cuts to infrastructure spending specifically. Antithesis Crossword? We do this by using data from the National Income and on clothes by chitra, Product Accounts (NIPA) from the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) to allocate the cuts to infrastructure spending (simply based on our definition that infrastructure investments cover highway, transportation, sewer and water-treatment industries) to the various industries in our input-output model. Table 1 presents these allocations as gains: how much additional infrastructure spending could flow into things to avoid depression, each of these industries if these proposed cuts were reversed. Overall it shows that a reversal of the proposed cuts would yield an average of essay by chitra banerjee $18 billion annually over the next decade for infrastructure investments. Annual industry spending (model inputs) under scenario one.

Note: Overall total may not sum due to rounding. Annual gains would take place over the next decade. Source: Author's analysis of famous essays Bureau of Labor Statistics Employment Requirements Matrix and on clothes by chitra banerjee, analysis of infrastructure investments made possible through ending budget sequester of the Budget Control Act of 2011. Copy the thesis islamophobia, code below to embed this chart on your website. Unsurprisingly, the essay on clothes divakaruni, cuts—and thus gains—are heavily concentrated in the construction sector, as federally financed infrastructure projects are heavily concentrated in road building and other forms of transit construction. Federally financed infrastructure projects also lean heavily toward the manufacturing sector, with transportation equipment (aerospace, ships and boats, and motor vehicles manufacturing) dominating. The high shares of aerospace and ship building could be driven in famous classical essays, part by the fact that defense spending accounts for on clothes banerjee divakaruni a non-trivial share of total public investment. As defense spending is also cut by the provisions of the BCA, one could in theory include these in our overall measures.

However, for the purposes of this examination we exclude the crossword, aerospace and ship-building sectors, as they are probably less associated with traditional infrastructure projects. Scenario Two: Combining investments in building energy efficiency and the smart grid for essay on clothes carbon mitigation. A second, more ambitious policy proposal combines large increases in infrastructure spending to improve the essays, energy efficiency of buildings, along with start-up investments for a national “smart grid.” The impetus for examining this scenario is to essay by chitra banerjee emphasize that the cost of out-of-date infrastructure is on success and failure, likely rising fast given the enormous threat posed by global climate change driven by essay on clothes greenhouse gas emissions. For example, a key part of American infrastructure is simply buildings—both residential and commercial, private and publicly owned. We now know that inefficiency of buildings is a huge contributor to excess carbon emissions, and antithesis of surfeit, that investments in energy-efficient buildings represent an enormous low-cost opportunity to essay banerjee divakaruni reduce GHG emissions. While publicly owned buildings are the obvious first place to start an infrastructure investment effort, it should be noted that the economics of GHG emissions imply that a substantial public investment even in boosting efficiency of privately owned buildings would yield high economic returns. Without externalities, inefficient buildings represent a cost only to their owners, and the case for including improvements to these inefficient buildings in of surfeit crossword, an infrastructure effort is weak.

But with unpriced externalities, inefficient buildings—even those privately owned—inflict a cost on everybody, and the case for using public resources to improve them is much stronger. McKinsey and Company (2009) have famously identified more than $500 billion in energy efficiency opportunities that would have negative net economic cost and offer present-value returns of nearly 100 percent over their useful lives. Pacala and Socolow (2004) have identified improving energy efficiency of buildings as a large enough opportunity to essay by itself account for antithesis more than 10 percent of the total possibility for by chitra divakaruni moving carbon emissions to an economically sustainable level. Rogers (2007) has noted that many market failures even besides the addiction causes essay, unpriced externality of GHG emissions exist in essay, markets for energy efficiency investments, and that these market failures argue for famous essays a key public role in fostering this investment. All of essay by chitra banerjee divakaruni this argues strongly that investing in energy efficiency of buildings would be an extraordinarily high-return activity. Utilities, particularly energy-providing utilities, are part of the classic definition of infrastructure. The utility system of the United States is in dire need of upgrade along numerous fronts: capacity, safety, reliability, and cost (EPRI 2011). Writing? Further, the need to foster a smooth transition to an economy where production is by chitra banerjee, less carbon-intensive in the future will require a much different, and drug addiction, much better, national system of electrical power generation. For example, the benefits of essay on clothes by chitra divakaruni putting a price on carbon emissions will only come to pass if electricity consumers reliably see a price signal from changes in electricity use. Today’s grid provides such household-level signals with considerable noise. A national “smart grid” could help provide such signals as well as improve electricity transmission along other margins (reliability, security, etc.).

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI 2011) has undertaken a rigorous estimate of the famous classical, costs and benefits of investing in essay on clothes by chitra banerjee, a state-of-the-art smart grid for the United States. It finds that an investment (over 20 years) of $340 billion to $475 billion to establish a nationwide smart grid would yield a benefit/cost ratio (in present-value terms) of between 2.8 to classical essays 6.0. Part of this benefit includes the enabling role that a smart grid would play in implementing some of the stabilization “wedges” identified by Pacala and essay on clothes banerjee divakaruni, Socolow (2004). For example, EPRI demonstrates that a key benefit of university writing program a state-of-the-art smart grid would be the capacity to essay on clothes divakaruni provide charging stations for speeches electrical vehicles. The switch from carbon-fuel-based vehicles to electric vehicles accounts for a stabilization wedge by itself in the Pacala and Socolow analysis. The portfolio of infrastructure investments packaged in this second scenario is obviously politically ambitious for the present moment in the United States.

However, it does serve as a useful reminder that potentially high-return investments are numerous, in essay by chitra banerjee, large part because of the relative decline in public investment in recent decades (a decline reversed for a few years by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA)). Further, the economic returns to “green” investments in things to do to avoid, particular are likely rising quickly, as the costs of global climate change begin to essay on clothes divakaruni manifest, and while policy initiatives aiming to put a price on GHG emissions have so far failed. A key benefit of pricing GHG emissions is to make investments in their mitigation profitable, and hence likely to be undertaken by private actors. But the failure to put a price on these emissions in the United States does not have to mean that no action is on success and failure, taken on this front. Instead, public investments, including infrastructure investments, can be begun even before price signals to essay on clothes banerjee drive private investments begin.

The model inputs for investments in the smart grid were helped greatly by two previous reports. The first, a 2011 report by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), provided the overall cost, as well as providing a breakdown of this cost between transmission and distribution. Further, a report by classical essays Pollin, Heintz, and Garrett-Peltier (2009) for the Political Economy Research Institute (PERI) provides an estimate of the industrial inputs needed for investments to update the smart grid. We use the EPRI (2011) number for overall investment effort needed along with the PERI data on the allocation of investment flows into the industries in by chitra divakaruni, our model. This package of green investments—a large increase in efficiency investments in the residential and commercial building sectors, along with upfront investments to construct a national smart grid—would lead to $92 billion annually in infrastructure investments over the next decade. In the case of the smart grid, the industrial allocation of these investments is famous classical, described in Table 2 . Annual industry spending (model inputs) under scenario two. Note: Annual gains shown would take place over the next decade. Source: Author's analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Employment Requirements Matrix; EPRI (2011); and Pollin, Heintz, and Garrett-Peltier (2009) Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. Again, given the emphasis on improving the efficiency of buildings, this package of infrastructure spending predictably leans heavily toward construction. However, there are also direct inflows into a number of essay banerjee divakaruni manufacturing and utility industries.

Scenario Three: An ambitious across-the-board increase in mfa creative program, infrastructure spending. Our last scenario looks at essay divakaruni, a truly ambitious across-the-board increase in crossword, infrastructure spending, on a scale sufficient, for on clothes divakaruni example, to close the accumulated “infrastructure deficit” identified by experts such as the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). Statement? This scenario was recommended, for example, by the Congressional Progressive Caucus (CPC) in its budget proposals in recent years. ASCE issues an on clothes divakaruni, annual “report card” on the nation’s infrastructure, and in recent years it has given the U.S. investment effort a failing grade (ASCE 2013). It identifies the needed investment to erase the nation’s substantial “infrastructure deficit” between now and 2020 as $3.6 trillion. Further, it estimates that only about half of this investment amount is likely to be provided under the current trajectory of public investment. Given this, for our third scenario we target $250 billion in new infrastructure spending per year until 2020, an amount that would close the to do, remaining half of the needed investments over that time.

Because transportation systems, water distribution, water treatment, and sewage systems figure prominently in the ASCE report’s documentation of the nation’s infrastructure deficit, we allocate roughly three-quarters of the entire $250 billion additional investments to these sectors (which includes construction activities). The remainder is on clothes banerjee, allocated to other utility sectors and to industries associated with efforts needed to expand high-speed Internet access throughout the country. The specific receiving industries for infrastructure spending under the antithesis, third scenario were picked to correspond with these priorities. Table 3 shows the receiving industries, identified by BLS industry code. Annual industry spending (model inputs) under scenario three.

Note: Annual gains shown would take place between 2014 and 2020. Source: Author's analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Employment Requirements Matrix and essay by chitra banerjee divakaruni, ASCE (2013) Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. Near-term effects of infrastructure spending. In terms of projecting the near-term, net employment impacts of increased infrastructure spending under the scenarios presented in the previous sections, a number of pieces of economic context must be specified. First, how much economic slack exists—particularly in labor markets. Second, and related but not identical to the question of economic slack, how will monetary policy authorities likely respond to a macroeconomically significant increase in infrastructure investments? Third, how will the infrastructure investments be financed? Through public debt? Through increased revenues or user fees?

Or through private borrowing or retained earnings? In the case of near-term increases in statement about, infrastructure investments in essay banerjee divakaruni, the U.S. economy, the answers to the first two of these questions are unfortunately quite simple: There is a very large amount of overall economic slack in the U.S. economy today, and monetary policymakers are highly unlikely to try to neutralize demand increases stemming from near-term infrastructure investments. These answers simply reflect that the United States is very far from having fully recovered from the Great Recession of 2008–2009. Figure D shows the amount of slack in drug addiction essay, two ways, the ratio of actual to potential gross domestic product (GDP) and the share of banerjee divakaruni prime-age adults (25–54) who are employed.3 During the Great Recession (shaded in grey), both of these measures declined precipitously. Since the official end of the Great Recession, in contrast, the reversal has been quite slow—and over the past year steady progress in improving each has nearly stopped completely. This argues strongly that the U.S. economy has large amounts of productive slack. Two measures of things to do depression economic slack : Ratio of actual to potential GDP, and employment-to-population ratio (EPOP) for banerjee divakaruni workers age 25–54, 2000–2013. Note: Shaded areas denote recessions.

Source: Author's analysis of new york university mfa creative Bureau of essay on clothes by chitra divakaruni Economic Analysis National Income and classical, Product Accounts (Table 1.1.6), Congressional Budget Office (2012), and banerjee, Current Population Survey (CPS) public data series. Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. Further, the Federal Reserve has continually committed to keeping monetary policy extraordinarily accommodative in coming years and has indeed noted that increased fiscal stimulus (like an increase in antithesis of surfeit crossword, infrastructure spending) would be useful for macroeconomic stabilization (see, for example, Yellen (2013). Given this degree of economic slack and promise of on clothes banerjee divakaruni monetary policy accommodation, it seems that the most natural assumption for to do to avoid depression how a near-term increase in infrastructure investments would be financed is simply through new federal government debt. This would allow the investments to have the largest impact on near-term economic activity and employment. However, we also calculate near-term impacts stemming from on clothes by chitra banerjee, infrastructure investments that are financed by a progressive increase in taxation, a regressive increase in taxation, and cuts to government transfer programs. Lastly, we discuss the likely macroeconomic impact of increases in infrastructure investment that are driven not by direct public investments, but through other actions, such as regulatory mandates. It should be noted that most of the analysis in this section will rely on a set of macroeconomic “multipliers” culled from various data sources.

While such multipliers were considered slightly controversial as recently as the immediate aftermath of the drug causes, Great Recession, there has been a clear and decisive intellectual shift in recent years in favor of the view that public spending can indeed help stabilize an economy with large amounts of productive slack when the monetary authority is accommodative (see the appendix for on clothes banerjee divakaruni a long discussion of the debate over multipliers and to do to avoid depression, discretionary fiscal policy as a macroeconomic stabilization tool). Table 4 reproduces a table from essay on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni, Bivens (2011), showing multipliers for various fiscal policy changes from the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), Council of Economic Advisers (CEA), and Mark Zandi from Moody’s Analytics Economy.com (MAEC). We will use these and the method described in Bivens (2011) to construct our estimates of economic activity and employment growth spurred by increases in infrastructure investment of various kinds. In brief, this method uses estimates of the total “fiscal impulse” created by a policy change (the increase in infrastructure investment, in this case) and then applies macroeconomic multipliers from writing, various sources to measure the on clothes divakaruni, impact of the speeches on success, fiscal impulse on economic output (GDP). Next, we translate the incremental gain or loss in banerjee, GDP into on success and failure, the number of jobs supported by this increased activity. Comparisons of estimated macroeconomic multipliers.

Source: Congressional Budget Office (2012), Zandi (2011), and the Council of essay on clothes by chitra banerjee Economic Advisers (2011) Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. General observations about these rankings of multipliers are worth noting. First, infrastructure investments have some of the thesis statement, highest multipliers in the table. On Clothes By Chitra Banerjee? Partly this stems from the fact that, compared with taxes and even transfer payments, there is no leakage that occurs from money being saved by households. By definition, infrastructure spending is essays, spending, not savings. Further, infrastructure investments tend to be less import-intensive than overall spending, so there is essay banerjee divakaruni, less scope for leakages from imports as well. Second, multipliers on new york mfa creative writing program, transfer payments (i.e., food stamps, unemployment insurance, and income support payments) rival or even exceed those from infrastructure investments, so paying for essay on clothes banerjee stepped-up public investments in addiction, infrastructure by cutting government transfers is likely to be a poor strategy for boosting near-term economic activity and employment.

Third, progressive tax cuts (i.e., providing the bulk of the increase in on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni, after-tax income growth to new york university mfa creative households in the low and moderate end of the income distribution) have higher multipliers than regressive tax cuts, and business tax cuts have the lowest multipliers of all. Essay On Clothes By Chitra Banerjee? This means that if one is determined to drug causes essay pay for increased public investment in infrastructure with tax increases, raising revenue progressively by taxing high-income households and on clothes banerjee, businesses will provide the smallest countervailing drag on near-term activity and employment. Lastly, it should be noted that there has been some recent marking down of multipliers on infrastructure investments in famous classical, CBO reports. However, the rationale for this marking down is essay divakaruni, clearly not an assessment of the economic effectiveness of infrastructure investment in spurring activity and employment. Instead, it reflects the and failure, political judgment of CBO that grants to on clothes by chitra state and local governments to speeches finance infrastructure investments may result in these governments just substituting the federal finance for their own revenue without increasing overall infrastructure spending. If this is true, this argues for a change in essay on clothes by chitra divakaruni, design in infrastructure grants to subnational governments (say, by including maintenance-of-effort requirements in these grants), not an abandonment of infrastructure spending as a method of macroeconomic stabilization. Generally, such multipliers (and the job estimates of net new employment generated by them) are only significant and relevant during times of university mfa creative writing program elevated unemployment. During other times, countervailing forces—both the monetary authority’s response as well as potential “crowding out” from higher interest rates—will neutralize much of the increased activity spurred by the infrastructure spending. By Chitra Banerjee? However, given that unemployment rates have been historically high for years and threaten to be high for years to come, these types of antithesis of surfeit crossword job estimates will likely be useful to inform policy debates for quite some time. These estimates of economic activity and essay on clothes banerjee, employment creation stemming from infrastructure spending financed by federal government debt need no further steps.

For spending financed by either tax increases or cuts in government transfers, we can just apply “reverse multipliers” to obtain the countervailing impact on activity and jobs. It gets a bit trickier to assess any countervailing impact on economic activity and jobs stemming from infrastructure spending increases financed by private actors that are driven by, for example, regulatory change. But one could imagine a large increase in addiction causes essay, infrastructure spending driven by mandates on efficiency levels on new (or even existing) buildings or in utility transmission and generation (say, with a clean energy standard applied to essay on clothes by chitra all existing electrical utilities). Bivens (2012c) makes the case that increases in classical essays, private-sector investments driven by regulatory changes will, in today’s economy characterized by a large output gap, largely go through with very little countervailing effects in the form of reduced spending elsewhere in essay banerjee, the economy. This is due to a number of factors. For one, there remains a huge excess of desired savings over planned investment, epitomized by the large (and growing) stash of liquid assets piling up on corporate-sector balance sheets. Unless the regulatory changes were extensive enough that they could not be easily financed (on net) from this excess accumulation of liquid assets, it is antithesis, very hard to see reasons why the by chitra banerjee divakaruni, resulting investments should drive up interest rates and crowd out other corporate investments or private consumption. Further, historically high profit margins (themselves a function of an economy too slack to provide workers with the bargaining power necessary to generate wage growth in line with productivity) will act as a strong buffer against speeches on success, increased spending translating into higher prices that can choke off demand through this channel.

Producers have traditionally allowed profit margins to on clothes by chitra fall to keep the full amount of aggregate demand increases from speeches, translating into higher prices (and hence choking off demand for their output). Bivens (2012c) estimates that as other nonlabor costs rise (say, costs imposed by regulatory burdens), unit profits tend to buffer about 20 percent of the increase on average in by chitra divakaruni, recent decades. However, given that today’s profit margins are far above historic averages, one imagines this buffer has become significantly thicker. Lastly, many researchers have noted that inflation arising from increased spending would actually be helpful in spurring economic recovery, and could well lead to faster growth in other sectors of the university mfa creative writing, economy, given the very extraordinary circumstances in the current U.S. On Clothes By Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni? economy. A longstanding macroeconomic argument maintains that during normal economic times a higher price level will reduce the real purchasing power of classical essays fixed nominal wealth and hence reduce aggregate demand. However, another longstanding argument maintains that a higher price level also decreases the real burden of essay on clothes by chitra banerjee debt, not just wealth, and crossword, if the propensity to consume out of current debt is higher than the propensity to consume out of essay on clothes banerjee divakaruni current wealth, then a higher price level, by effectively redistributing purchasing power from lenders to debtors, can actually raise aggregate demand. Eggerston and Krugman (2012) argue that this “debt-deflation” effect is much more likely to occur in economies that have a large overhang of private debt, like the U.S. Thesis Statement About? economy today. So, even if regulatory mandates that led to increased infrastructure spending somehow pushed up domestic prices in the U.S. economy, it is highly unlikely that this would reduce spending growth in other sectors of the economy.

With all of on clothes divakaruni these considerations in mind, tables 5, 6, and 7 lay out the near-term impacts from an increase in infrastructure spending in each of the different financing options, for writing each of the three infrastructure investment scenarios. Near-term impacts on activity and essay banerjee, employment from Scenario One. Scenario One, again, tries to new york university writing program project the boost to infrastructure investment that would result from by chitra banerjee divakaruni, undoing caps to discretionary spending imposed by the Budget Control Act of 2011. Our estimate (detailed in the previous section on our investment scenarios) is that over the next 10 years reversing these discretionary caps would free up roughly $18 billion annually for (non-defense) infrastructure investment. The first column of Table 5 reports the near-term impact on GDP and employment stemming from this $18 billion boost in federally financed infrastructure investment if it is debt-financed. It uses multipliers based on data from the things depression, CBO, CEA, and MAEC, which are summarized in Table 4. For infrastructure spending we use a multiplier of 1.6—firmly in the middle range of essay by chitra estimated multipliers for this type of to do spending. This implies that the $18 billion (annual) increase in infrastructure spending yields $29 billion in additional GDP (primarily by the end of the first year, with the new increased level essentially sustained over the course of the investment period). Employment and GDP impacts of essay on clothes by chitra banerjee U.S. infrastructure investment under various financing options, Scenario One. Note: Multipliers are based on evidence reviewed in Bivens (2011) and Bivens (2012). Specifically, the multiplier for infrastructure investments is 1.6, the muliplier for progressive tax increases is (-) 0.9, the of surfeit crossword, multiplier for regressive tax increases is (-)0.35, the multiplier for transfers is 1.6, and following Bivens (2012), 20 percent of the stimulative effect of investments driven by regulatory mandates are crowded out.

For employment impacts, we assume each percentage point addition to GDP adds 1.2 million jobs to the economy. The total spending figures are based on the infrastructure investment scenarios described in by chitra banerjee, the text. Source: Author's analysis of Bivens (2012) Congressional Budget Office (2013), Council of Economic Advisors and Moody's Analytics Bureau of Economic Analysis National Income and things to avoid depression, Product Accounts. Copy the code below to essay by chitra embed this chart on your website. Unfortunately, this multiplier on statement about islamophobia, infrastructure spending is unable to capture differences in economic activity spurred depending on essay on clothes, the type of spending. The reason for this is that macroeconometric estimates of multipliers just are not that precise. The key barrier to estimating them is that there is very little truly exogenous variation in things to avoid depression, such spending. What would be needed for clean empirical identification of the effect of different types of experiments would be random assignment of different infrastructure projects across geographic spaces and economic contexts, along with a commitment from essay by chitra, other macroeconomic policymakers (particularly the Federal Reserve) that no action would be taken to boost or restrain economic activity across these experiments.

This obviously cannot (and should not) happen. Further, the multiplier on economic activity in times when the Federal Reserve is not trying to speeches on success and failure counteract any stimulus from spending (as in the current U.S. economy) is essentially a function of three parameters: the marginal propensity to spend income generated by the spending, the marginal effective tax rate on income flows generated by the spending, and essay by chitra, the import content of demand generated by the spending. As each of these parameters rise, the estimated multiplier falls. Any kind of direct government spending scores well on the first count; by definition the first round of spending is entirely not saved. This contrasts strongly with tax cuts. The marginal effective tax rate on income generated by any kind of to do depression direct spending is just not going to vary that much across infrastructure projects, as there is just not that much variation in income and payroll tax rates across the essay banerjee divakaruni, bottom 90 percent of the income distribution. This leaves the import content of final demand generated by infrastructure spending. And again, because the U.S. economy is quite closed relative to many of on success its international peers, it is hard to imagine very large differences in on clothes by chitra, the import content of infrastructure spending varying enough across types of infrastructure projects to make a large difference in the final amount of (domestic) economic activity spurred by the spending.

To estimate the employment impacts stemming from increased economic activity, we start with the addiction essay, evidence reviewed in Bivens (2011) estimating each 1 percent of generic GDP increase in by chitra banerjee, economic activity will generate 1.2 million additional jobs. So, the $29 billion in additional annual spending spurred by infrastructure investment leads to 216,000 net new jobs created (primarily by the end of the first year, with the new increased level essentially sustained over drug essay the course of the investment period). Columns (2) through (4) then examine the net impact of financing this increase in spending with progressive revenue increases, regressive revenue increases, and cuts to essay divakaruni government transfer payments, each in an amount equal to the $30 billion boost to infrastructure spending. For each, we use multipliers based on the evidence examined in Bivens (2011). For regressive tax increases (by which we mean revenue raised disproportionately from lower and moderate-income taxpayers), we average the multipliers estimated for across-the-board payroll tax cuts and a refundable tax credit, yielding a multiplier of new york university mfa creative writing program 0.9.

For progressive tax increases (revenue raised disproportionately from higher-income taxpayers), we average the divakaruni, multipliers that were estimated based on antithesis, the overall extension of the essay by chitra divakaruni, 2001 and 2003 tax cuts and a corporate tax cut (specifically, allowing accelerated depreciation of plant and equipment for tax purposes), yielding a multiplier of 0.3. Finally, for government transfers, we average the multipliers for food stamps (officially the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, or SNAP), unemployment insurance, and one-time lump-sum payments to retirees, yielding a multiplier of 1.6. The bottom line is simple enough: Any offset to the impact of infrastructure spending on speeches on success and failure, the federal budget deficit blunts the essay, GDP and employment impact of such spending. But, the biggest drag stems from trying to pay for infrastructure spending by cutting government transfers, which essentially neutralizes any near-term boost to activity or employment. Financing the boost to infrastructure investment through a progressive increase in taxes provides the smallest countervailing drag on activity and thesis about, employment, with GDP increasing by $22.5 billion and employment rising by 169,000 jobs even after the financing drag is by chitra, factored in. The middle column in the table shows that financing the infrastructure spending boost through a regressive increase in taxes still results in a $12.6 billion boost to GDP and an employment boost of on success and failure 94,500, but regressive tax increases do neutralize more than half of the near-term stimulus.

In the last column, we draw on the analysis of on clothes divakaruni Bivens (2012c) to get a less-precise estimate of the impact of implicitly financing the increase in infrastructure investment through regulatory mandates. Bivens (2012c) examined the likely macroeconomic impact of a major environmental regulation that would have forced significant investment by owners of power plants to restrict emissions of toxic pollutants. It surveyed the new york program, literature on how an by chitra divakaruni, exogenous increase in privately funded investment was likely to university mfa creative program crowd out other private spending during conditions that currently hold in the U.S. economy. It found that because such investment is very unlikely to place appreciable upward pressure on economy-wide interest rates, it was unlikely that it could be substantially “crowded out” by reduced spending elsewhere. Bivens (2012c) provides a high-end estimate that 20 percent of economic activity and employment generated by essay by chitra divakaruni the regulatory mandate would be neutralized through reduced spending elsewhere in the economy. Antithesis Crossword? Column (5) hence reflects this 20 percent crowding out if this amount of infrastructure investment were financed by regulatory mandates on essay, private-sector actors rather than directly financed by the federal government. Near-term impacts on activity and employment from Scenario Two. Table 6 generates the same numbers for the more ambitious second scenario of infrastructure investment.

The starting amount of annual spending increases is $92 billion—more than triple the amount in Scenario One. Thesis Statement Islamophobia? Column (1) indicates that the resulting GDP boost if this amount of spending were financed by an increase in federal debt is $147 billion, with 1.1 million jobs generated (primarily by essay on clothes the end of the first year, with the new increased level essentially sustained over the course of the investment period). Employment and GDP impacts of U.S. infrastructure investment under various financing options, Scenario Two. Note: Multipliers are based on evidence reviewed in Bivens (2011) and Bivens (2012c). Specifically, the multiplier for infrastructure investment is 1.6, the muliplier for regressive tax increases is (-)0.9, the multiplier for progressive tax increases is (-)0.35, the multiplier for transfers is 1.6, and following Bivens (2012c), 20 percent of the stimulative effect of to do to avoid investments driven by regulatory mandates are crowded out. For employment impacts, we assume each percentage-point addition to GDP adds 1.2 million jobs to the economy. The total spending figures are based on the infrastructure investment scenarios and are annual gains taking place over the next decade as described in the text. Source: Author's analysis of Congressional Budget Office (2012); Electric Power Research Institute (2011); and Pollin, Heintz, and Garrett-Peltier (2009) Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. Column (2) indicates that financing this increase in infrastructure investment with progressive revenue sources leads to a net increase in GDP of $115 billion, with employment increased by 862,500. Column (3) indicates that financing this increase in infrastructure investment with regressive revenue sources leads to a net increase in on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni, GDP of $64 billion with employment increased by 483,000.

Column (4) confirms that financing infrastructure investments with cuts to government transfers completely neutralizes any near-term boost to antithesis of surfeit activity or employment. Column (5) again applies the (high-end) 20 percent crowd-out estimate from Bivens (2012c) to the gross increase in activity and employment spurred by the increase in infrastructure investment if it is financed through regulatory mandates rather than through direct public spending. Under this financing option, GDP would increase by nearly $129 billion, producing 966,000 jobs. Near-term impacts on essay on clothes banerjee divakaruni, activity and employment from Scenario Three. Table 7 generates the same numbers for the much more ambitious third scenario of infrastructure investment. Of Surfeit Crossword? The starting amount of annual spending increases is essay by chitra divakaruni, $250 billion—more than eight times the amount in scenario one. Crossword? Column (1) indicates that the resulting GDP boost if this amount of spending were financed by an increase in federal debt is $400 billion, with 3 million jobs generated (by the essay by chitra banerjee divakaruni, end of the things, first year, with the level essentially sustained over the course of the investment period). Employment and GDP impacts of essay by chitra banerjee divakaruni U.S. infrastructure investment under various financing options, Scenario Three.

Note: Multipliers are based on evidence reviewed in Bivens (2011) and Bivens (2012c). Specifically, the multiplier for thesis statement about infrastructure investments is 1.6, the muliplier for regressive tax increases is (-)0.9, the on clothes, multiplier for progressive tax increases is (-)0.35, the multiplier for transfers is 1.6, and following Bivens (2012c), 20 percent of the stimulative effect of speeches on success and failure investments driven by regulatory mandates are crowded out. For employment impacts, we assume each percentage-point addition to GDP adds 1.2 million jobs to the economy. The total spending figures are based on the infrastructure investment scenarios and are annual gains taking place between 2014 and 2020 as described in the text. Source: Author's analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Employment Requirements Matrix industry codes receiving spending flows to by chitra banerjee finance across-the-board increase in traditional infrastructure to close infrastructure deficit identifed by ASCE (2013) Copy the code below to embed this chart on antithesis of surfeit, your website. Column (2) indicates that financing this increase in infrastructure investment with progressive revenue sources leads to essay by chitra banerjee divakaruni a net increase in GDP of $313 billion, with employment increased by over 2.3 million. Column (3) indicates that financing this increase in infrastructure investment with regressive revenue sources leads to a net increase in GDP of $175 billion with employment increased by statement 1.3 million.

Column (4) confirms that financing infrastructure investments with cuts to government transfers completely neutralizes any near-term boost to activity or employment. Column (5) again applies the (high-end) 20 percent crowd-out estimate from Bivens (2012c) to the gross increase in activity and employment spurred by the increase in infrastructure investment if it is financed through regulatory mandates rather than through direct public spending. Under the regulatory mandates option, GDP increases by $350 billion, and employment increases by 2.6 million. Caveats about near-term employment impacts: labor intensity of essay infrastructure investment. We cautioned above that these estimates of the near-term boost provided by infrastructure investment are highly context-dependent. So, these estimates would be totally uninformative about a program of infrastructure investments that, say, began in 2020, a year in which the overall state of the economy is impossible to predict with any certainty. We would also caution that these boosts to GDP and employment are not cumulative. Under an infrastructure investment program that boosts this spending by, say, $30 billion annually for 10 years, these boosts to GDP and of surfeit crossword, employment would manifest in the first year (roughly, some of the increase could take a bit longer to by chitra divakaruni manifest), but would not continue to rise thereafter. These estimates to the near-term boost to GDP and employment are increases in the level , not the growth rate , of these variables. This is because spurring increases in the growth of GDP or employment from and failure, public investment would require a steadily increasing contribution from year to year. Essay On Clothes? So, once policymakers assign, say, $500 billion in total public investment in university mfa creative, 2014, the only way public investment can boost the level of GDP in 2015 is to increase that year’s public investment flow.

Making the same public investment effort each year for a number of years only essay on clothes banerjee divakaruni increases the level of GDP in essays, the initial year, and then provides no further boost thereafter. A further caution is essay on clothes divakaruni, that there is one possible way that these macroeconomic estimates of the employment impacts of infrastructure investments could be slightly biased: if the labor intensity of such investments differed markedly from the islamophobia, economy-wide labor intensity of production that these estimates are implicitly based on. On Clothes By Chitra Banerjee? In Figure E , we quickly check if such issues are severely biasing our results by comparing the average labor intensity (jobs created directly, and overall, including through supplier effects) of our three scenarios of infrastructure investments with overall measures of labor intensity. Famous Classical Essays? We find that infrastructure investments are indeed less labor-intensive than economy-wide averages; each $1 million in infrastructure spending generates roughly 20–25 percent fewer jobs than each $1 million in essay on clothes by chitra banerjee, general economic output. Direct and total jobs supported by $1 million in final demand, economy-wide average and under three infrastructure investment scenarios. The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel.

The data underlying the figure. Note: This chart shows the relative labor intensity of infrastructure investment. Source: Author’s analysis of speeches and failure data from Employment Requirements Matrix (ERM) data supplied by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Copy the code below to essay on clothes embed this chart on causes essay, your website. This decreased labor intensity is by chitra, driven by a couple of factors. First, manufacturing activity in the United States is crossword, far less labor-intensive than economy-wide averages. There has been extraordinarily rapid automation and capital-deepening in on clothes banerjee divakaruni, this sector for decades.

Globalization has surely contributed to this in the United States, as standard trade theory argues that increased opportunities for trade should (and almost surely did) lead capital-abundant countries like the United States to focus tradable-goods production in capital-abundant industries and shed production in labor-intensive sectors. Crossword? One, however, should be careful to not assume this move toward capital-intensive production holds generally. The same logic of globalization that pushes U.S. production toward capital-intensive sectors works in essay divakaruni, reverse for university writing many other countries. By Chitra Divakaruni? Labor-abundant countries (like those in much of the university, global South) should actually increase production in labor-intensive sectors as a result of essay on clothes by chitra banerjee global integration. Second, the construction sector is famous, a very input-intensive sector. But the problem from the perspective of essay by chitra banerjee raw job creation is that many of these inputs come from the very capital-intensive manufacturing sector, and this leads to total labor intensity of construction spending that is even a shade below economy-wide averages as well.

This argues that a strategy aimed at maximizing the number of jobs generated through infrastructure investments needs to thesis statement about islamophobia carefully pick sectors that receive direct spending flows. Of course, since construction and manufacturing industries both are notably less labor-intensive than economy-wide averages (and utilities even more so), it may be quite hard to find traditional infrastructure projects that will generate a greater-than-average number of on clothes divakaruni jobs through direct and supplier channels. However, the lower number of jobs generated through direct and thesis about, supplier channels could well be counterbalanced, at least in part, by the higher wages and capital incomes generated through such spending. This is true essentially by definition: If $1 million in final demand for industry X supports fewer jobs than $1 million in final demand for industry Y , then industry X must either have higher wages or see more of the essay on clothes divakaruni, income generated through final demand flow to capital owners. These higher labor and capital incomes likely will boost the Keynesian re-spending multiplier estimates that result from infrastructure spending. Additionally, we should note here an important distinction, that between the causes essay, implicit employment multiplier of a given amount of spending versus the implicit employment multiplier of a specific job. Essay By Chitra Banerjee? Because manufacturing and construction activity in the U.S. economy are capital and causes essay, intermediate-input intensive, this means that the direct and supplier jobs supported by a given spending flow are lower than if that spending flow went into other industries.

But, the essay banerjee, high capital and intermediate input intensity means that each job in manufacturing and construction is islamophobia, associated with the support of many more jobs in other sectors. To say it another way, it might cost a bit more to by chitra banerjee divakaruni generate a job in construction and manufacturing, but this job will support more jobs in ancillary sectors than a job created more cheaply in other sectors. Evidence on the employment multipliers of jobs across sectors is presented in Bivens (2003). It is important to note again that the thesis about, estimates of by chitra divakaruni near-term economic activity and employment in this section are highly context-dependent and things to do to avoid depression, will not be valid during periods when there is substantially less economic slack. The next section will look at the types of on clothes banerjee divakaruni jobs likely to be created through these scenarios of infrastructure investment, and these estimates of the structural employment composition of classical infrastructure investments are much less context-dependent and should hold for investments undertaken over at least the next decade and do not depend on the extent of economic slack. Long-run estimates of the labor market impact of infrastructure investments. Assessing the composition (as opposed to net new level) of employment generated through infrastructure investments takes a much different set of essay on clothes banerjee tools than assessing the near-term impacts on net economic activity and university writing program, employment. Further, such compositional impacts will hold regardless of the essay banerjee divakaruni, state of the larger macroeconomy. To assess the composition effects of infrastructure investments, we primarily rely on two datasets.

The first is the employment requirements matrix (ERM) generated by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) as part of its employment projections program. New York Mfa Creative Writing Program? The ERM, based on extensive input-output relationships between industries and occupations, provides data on direct employment and employment in supplier industries generated by essay by chitra a given amount of spending on final output of 195 separate industries. So, $1 million spent on the final output of the automobile manufacturing sector generates X number of jobs directly in this industry, but also X jobs in the steel manufacturing industry, Y jobs in of surfeit crossword, the glass manufacturing industry, Z jobs in the accounting services industry, etc. This information on supplier industries is particularly important in assessments of by chitra infrastructure investments. Spending on the final output of construction and new york, manufacturing (the two most prominent input sectors in infrastructure-investment packages) generates many more supplier jobs than other sectors, so a full accounting of jobs (number and composition) generated through increased activity in them demands analysis of supplier industries. The second core dataset used in this analysis is the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of roughly 60,000 households that is used to estimate the national unemployment rate (among other things).

Workers surveyed in essay by chitra divakaruni, the CPS are asked their industry of employment. Essay? While the industry coding scheme used in on clothes by chitra banerjee, the CPS differs from that used by the BLS ERM, we developed a crosswalk between them that allowed a near-perfect match. The key advantage to merging the ERM with the CPS is that the latter (as a household survey) contains rich information on demographics and labor-force characteristics of a given industry’s workforce. For this study, we have used information on gender, race, union status, educational attainment, and wage levels to assess the composition of employment. Of Surfeit? To gain sufficiently large sample sizes in each of the 195 industries to make reliable estimates, we pooled four years of CPS data (2008 to 2012). On Clothes By Chitra Divakaruni? Data on the demographic and labor-force characteristics of each of the 195 industries’ workforces are available from the author upon speeches, request. In the language of matrix algebra, the total number of jobs created through a given vector of on clothes by chitra banerjee spending can be represented as follows. Let i be the 195?1 vector with 195 rows (one for to avoid depression each industry) and on clothes divakaruni, only one column, which indicates how much new infrastructure spending has been earmarked for each industry.

Obviously, many (most, in statement, fact) of the entries in this vector will be zeroes—as very few industries will receive money directly (retail trade, for example, is not generally a sector that people think of supporting directly in the name of improving the nation’s infrastructure). Let e be the 195?195 ERM. Each of the 195 columns and rows corresponds to a single industry. Essay On Clothes? A given column represents $1 million in final demand. Each of the 195 rows in this column displays how many jobs are supported in every industry by this $1 million in final demand for thesis statement islamophobia spending in the industries that directly receive infrastructure investments. By Chitra Banerjee? While the single-largest share of total jobs supported by $1 million in construction spending is always in the directly receiving industry itself (and generally on the diagonal of the matrix), nearly all industries see at least some share of the total jobs supported through infrastructure investments. To estimate this number of jobs supported by infrastructure investment, J , simply perform the following matrix operation:

This operation yields a 195?1 vector, with 195 rows again corresponding to each industry in the model. The single column summarizes how many jobs in each industry are supported by the given spending on infrastructure. Perhaps counterintuitively, even though direct spending may occur in a small number of rows (sometimes just one) of our initial 195?1 spending vector, there will be very few zeros in the rows of the 195?1 jobs vector output. Almost all kinds of production require a huge array of inputs from nearly every other industry. Most of the jobs created in supplier industries through this amount of construction spending will be very small relative to the jobs directly created in speeches on success, construction, but non-zero job support will be widespread. It is important to note that the number of jobs supported by on clothes infrastructure spending output from the jobs model is a measure of gross, not net, job creation. That is, if a given amount of infrastructure spending supports 1 million jobs in causes essay, total, this does not mean that the economy as a whole will see a net increase in employment of 1 million. Rather, a portion of these 1 million jobs may be pulled from currently employed sectors of the economy.

Again, the banerjee divakaruni, macroeconomic multipliers identified in the previous section are far superior in assessing the net job creation impacts of infrastructure spending. That said, the gross jobs numbers identified in our model do convey important information. For one, they give a good relative ranking of the labor intensity of different kinds of spending and can, by themselves, allow judgments to to avoid depression be made about the best place to engage in investment spending if the goal is to increase the by chitra banerjee, greatest number of job opportunities in the economy. And, even more importantly, it is the gross number of jobs created that must be combined with the types of jobs created that will allow researchers to judge how relative labor demand for to do depression different subpopulations in the labor market will fare. Essay On Clothes Divakaruni? This point will be made plain in the section below where we examine how the number and essays, type of jobs created through infrastructure spending result in changing demands for workers with different levels of educational attainment. Next, we simply multiply the on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni, number of jobs created in each industry (either through direct spending or through supplier effects) by the industry demographic shares and then sum these up across industries to get the total number of jobs in new york, each category (both direct and supplier jobs) that are created through a given amount of infrastructure spending. Again, in the language of matrix algebra, this can be expressed as follows. Let d be the essay by chitra, 195?22 vector of statement demographic characteristics by by chitra banerjee divakaruni industry (these 22 demographic categories are those listed in Tables 8–10 of this paper). Define f as the 1?22 vector of jobs supported in each demographic category through a package of new york program infrastructure investment and compute it as: Tables 8, 9, and essay by chitra banerjee divakaruni, 10 present the outcomes, showing the total number of jobs, broken down into direct and thesis about, supplier jobs, generated by scenarios one, two, and three, respectively. Additionally, the composition of these jobs by demographic and labor-force characteristics is also presented.

Employment impact by demographic group : Scenario One ($30 billion) Source: Author's analysis of Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group microdata and essay on clothes by chitra banerjee, ERM from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, as described in text. Copy the code below to embed this chart on things to do depression, your website. Employment impact by demographic group : Scenario Two ($92 billion) Source: Author's analysis of essay divakaruni Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group microdata and ERM from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, as described in text. Copy the code below to embed this chart on things to avoid, your website.

Employment impact by demographic group : Scenario Three ($250 billion) Source: Author's analysis of Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group microdata and ERM from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, as described in text. Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. Outputs from infrastructure investment Scenario One. In the first scenario, the on clothes, $18 billion annual increase in and failure, infrastructure spending from lifting BCA spending caps is sufficient to support roughly 139,000 jobs, with 83,000 direct jobs in industries receiving the spending flows and 56,000 jobs in essay, industries that supply intermediate goods to the final industries.

This job count does not include jobs “induced” by Keynesian effects. Addiction Causes Essay? There are essentially three methods one could take for estimating the essay, number of induced jobs created. The first would assume that the net employment impacts consistent with the top-down approach to estimating economic activity and jobs created through infrastructure spending used in famous, the previous section are preserved regardless of the labor intensity of jobs created through the direct and supplier channels estimated here. Banerjee? In this case, one could just take the difference between the overall macroeconomic estimates of employment creation and speeches, the numbers supported in direct and on clothes banerjee, supplying industries as the “induced” job creation; this numbers roughly 76,000 jobs supported through Keynesian multiplier effects. This method implicitly assumes that the extra labor and capital incomes associated with each job generated through the direct and supplier channels makes up one-for-one for the lower-than-average job counts per $1 million in final demand through infrastructure spending. However, there is thesis, very little direct evidence to support an assumption this strong. The second approach would assume that the ratio of jobs generated through the direct and supplier channels to total jobs created is the same as the ratio of economic activity generated through the direct flow of spending and induced effects, i.e., the macroeconomic GDP multiplier.

For the infrastructure investments assessed in this report, this ratio is on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni, 1/1.4. For this first scenario of statement about infrastructure investments, this would lead to an estimate of just under 56,000 induced jobs. This method, however, yields a much-reduced overall number of essay on clothes banerjee jobs generated through infrastructure spending, and implicitly assumes that even the jobs induced through infrastructure investment are less labor-intensive per $1 million in final demand than economy-wide averages. The last approach would be to simply average these two approaches. This would allow the antithesis of surfeit, total amount of on clothes employment spurred by infrastructure investment to be lowered (correctly) by the fact that the direct and supplier industries are less labor-intensive on speeches on success and failure, average, yet would not carry through the essay on clothes, strong and not obviously correct assumption that even jobs induced through infrastructure investments are less labor-intensive than the economy-wide average. In the first scenario, the average of these two approaches is 66,000 induced jobs. Finally, we should note again that long-run estimates of induced jobs are essentially impossible to forecast. During most economic times, the level of overall employment in the U.S. To Do To Avoid Depression? economy is essay on clothes by chitra divakaruni, primarily driven by decisions made by of surfeit crossword the Federal Reserve, which has generally succeeded in setting the overall unemployment rate for the economic generation before the Great Recession struck. To be clear, the Fed’s unemployment target has often been too conservative, and they likely have used monetary policy to keep unemployment rates higher than they needed to be to foster inflation stability (the second prong of the Fed’s “dual mandate”). But, they have hit the targets they aimed for in reasonable amounts of essay on clothes by chitra banerjee time, at least until the Great Recession. Characteristics of direct and supplier jobs.

As the receiving industries are heavily tilted toward construction and manufacturing (which is naturally going to be the case for infrastructure investments), the characteristics of jobs created through this spending skews heavily toward these sectors, which are quite different from the on success, rest of the essay on clothes divakaruni, economy. For example, 77 percent of the total jobs created through these investments are held by men, including 85.4 percent of the direct jobs. Even the supplier jobs, however, are 64.9 percent male, compared with an economy-wide average male share of new york mfa creative writing employment of just 50.2 percent. The share of jobs supported through this scenario of infrastructure investments accounted for by non-Hispanic whites is actually quite close to the economy-wide averages: 72.9 percent of these jobs relative to non-Hispanic whites’ 71.9 percent share of overall employment. The share of non-Hispanic whites in jobs supported in direct versus supplier industries is essentially identical. Non-Hispanic blacks are significantly under-represented in jobs generated through this infrastructure spending scenario, with 5.9 percent of by chitra divakaruni jobs, compared with an overall non-Hispanic black employment share of 8.7 percent. On Success And Failure? Much of on clothes banerjee divakaruni this is driven by the low share of non-Hispanic blacks in direct jobs generated through infrastructure spending, 4.7 percent. Conversely, Hispanics are over-represented in jobs supported by infrastructure spending, with a share of famous 15.4 percent, compared with the essay on clothes banerjee divakaruni, 12.3 percent share of Hispanics in overall employment.

This over-representation is entirely driven by a relatively high Hispanic share in drug addiction causes essay, direct jobs generated through infrastructure spending, 17.6 percent. In regards to age, infrastructure investments in this scenario skew heavily toward the employment of prime-age workers (25 to essay on clothes divakaruni 54 years old), with this group accounting for 72.6 percent of overall job creation through infrastructure, relative to their 66.9 percent share of on success and failure overall employment. Banerjee? Older workers (55 and antithesis of surfeit, over) are roughly proportionately represented relative to economy-wide averages, so it is younger workers (younger than 25) who are disproportionately under-represented in essay on clothes banerjee, jobs supported by infrastructure investments. Again, these trends are largely driven by jobs supported through direct spending in infrastructure, not jobs supported in new york, supplier industries. Educationally, jobs supported by infrastructure investments in this scenario skew toward fewer credentials: 12.7 percent of jobs supported are held by those who do not have high school degrees, compared with 9.4 percent of overall employment. This is largely driven by the 14.9 percent share of direct jobs holders that lack high school degrees. On the higher end, 23.0 percent of jobs supported through infrastructure spending in this scenario are filled by someone with a bachelor’s degree or more education, compared with 32.6 percent of overall employment. Only 18.5 percent of direct jobs created through infrastructure spending in by chitra banerjee, this scenario include workers with a bachelor’s degree or more education.

However, despite this relative lack of formal educational credentials, the jobs generated through infrastructure spending in mfa creative writing program, this scenario are much less likely to pay low wages than the on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni, economy-wide average. Only 9.5 percent of jobs generated through infrastructure investments in this scenario, and only 7.0 percent of jobs directly generated, are in the overall bottom quintile of the wage distribution. And only 18.0 percent of jobs generated through infrastructure spending in this scenario, and only 17.5 percent of jobs directly generated, are in the second-lowest wage quintile. Conversely, 23 percent of jobs generated through infrastructure spending in this scenario, and 23.3 percent of mfa creative writing jobs directly generated, are in the highest wage quintile. In the second scenario, the $92 billion annual increase in on clothes by chitra divakaruni, infrastructure spending derived from investing in building energy efficiency and the smart grid would support nearly 888,000 jobs, with over 599,000 directly in industries receiving the spending flows and 288,000 in industries that supply intermediate goods to the final industries.

Again, this job count does not include jobs induced by Keynesian effects. Speeches? Using the three methods described in the section on Scenario One outputs for on clothes by chitra banerjee job creation, one finds that the induced jobs created in Scenario Two number 210,000 jobs, 355,000 jobs, and 282,500 jobs, respectively. Characteristics of direct and supplier jobs. Overall, the construction sector accounts for classical an especially significant weight in the overall investment package in this case, and its job characteristics are even more different from the rest of the essay by chitra banerjee divakaruni, economy than are jobs in classical, the manufacturing sector. This reveals itself perhaps most starkly in the breakdown of essay on clothes divakaruni jobs allocated between male and female workers: 80.4 percent of the total jobs created through investments in this second scenario are held by causes men, including 87.8 percent of the direct jobs. Even the supplier jobs, however, are 65.2 percent male, compared with an economy-wide average male share in essay on clothes banerjee divakaruni, employment of just 50.2 percent.

The share of jobs supported through this scenario of infrastructure investments accounted for by non-Hispanic whites is actually quite close to antithesis crossword the economy-wide averages: 73.4 percent of these jobs, compared with a 71.9 percent share of on clothes divakaruni overall employment. The share of non-Hispanic whites in jobs supported in direct versus supplier industries is, just like in the first scenario, essentially identical. Non-Hispanic blacks are even more significantly under-represented in jobs generated through this infrastructure spending scenario than under the first scenario, with just 5.4 percent of jobs, compared with an overall non-Hispanic black employment share of 8.7 percent. Much of this is driven by the low share of classical essays non-Hispanic blacks in direct jobs generated through infrastructure spending, 4.4 percent. Conversely, Hispanics are even more over-represented in jobs supported by infrastructure spending in this scenario than in the first, with a share of essay divakaruni 16.2 percent, compared with the to avoid, 12.3 percent share of Hispanics in overall employment. This over-representation is again predominantly driven by a relatively high Hispanic share in direct jobs generated through infrastructure spending, 17.9 percent. In regards to age, infrastructure investments in this scenario skew even more heavily toward the by chitra banerjee, employment of prime-age workers (25 to 54 years old) than in the first scenario, with this group accounting for drug addiction 72.6 percent of overall job creation through infrastructure, relative to their 66.9 percent share in overall employment.

Further, infrastructure investments in this scenario see significant under-representation of essay on clothes by chitra both older workers and younger workers (younger than 25). Famous? Younger and older workers account for 9.5 and 17.8 percent of jobs, respectively, supported by by chitra divakaruni infrastructure investments in this scenario, compared with economy-wide averages of 13.2 and drug essay, 19.9 percent. Essay By Chitra Banerjee? Again, these trends are largely driven by program jobs supported through direct spending in infrastructure, not jobs supported in supplier industries. Educationally, jobs supported by infrastructure investments in this scenario skew even more heavily toward fewer credentials than in essay banerjee divakaruni, the first scenario: 13.7 percent of jobs supported are held by those who do not have high school degrees, compared with 9.4 percent of overall employment. University Mfa Creative Writing? This is largely driven by essay the 15.5 percent share of on success and failure job holders supported by direct spending who lack high school degrees. On the higher end, only 19.6 percent of job holders supported through infrastructure spending in this scenario have a bachelor’s degree or higher, compared with 32.6 percent of the overall population. Only 15.2 percent of direct jobs created through infrastructure spending in this scenario include workers with a bachelor’s degree or greater. Again, however, despite this relative lack of formal educational credentials, the jobs generated through infrastructure spending in this scenario are much less likely to pay low wages than the essay on clothes by chitra, economy-wide average. Only 9.4 percent of things depression jobs generated through infrastructure investments in this scenario, and only 7.1 percent of jobs directly generated, are in the overall bottom quintile of the wage distribution.

In this scenario, however, the large under-representation of jobs in the lowest wage quintile is not matched by over-representation in the highest quintile. Instead, it is the middle and upper-middle quintiles that see a large over-representation of essay by chitra divakaruni jobs supported by infrastructure investments in this scenario: 24.6 percent and 26.2 percent of jobs generated through this scenario’s infrastructure investments are accounted for causes essay by the third and essay on clothes by chitra, fourth wage quintiles. In both cases this is driven more by wages in direct industries, although jobs supported by supplier industries are also mildly over-represented in these wage quintiles relative to antithesis of surfeit crossword the economy-wide average. In the third scenario, the essay, $250 billion annual increase in infrastructure spending made possible through an across-the-board increase would support more than 2.2 million jobs, with nearly 1.5 million directly supported in industries receiving the spending flows and just under 800,000 jobs supported in industries that supply intermediate goods to the final industries. Again, this job count does not include jobs induced by Keynesian effects. Using the three methods described in statement, the section on scenario one, outputs for job creation, one finds that the induced jobs created in scenario three number 1.8 million jobs, 900,000 jobs, and 1.4 million jobs, respectively. Characteristics of direct and supplier jobs.

The receiving industries in this scenario are again heavily tilted toward construction and manufacturing (which is naturally going to be the by chitra banerjee, case for infrastructure investments). Largely as a result, 74.1 percent of the essay, total jobs created through investments in this third scenario are held by men, including 79.1 percent of the direct jobs. Even the supplier jobs, however, are 64.5 percent male, compared with an economy-wide average male share in employment of just 50.2 percent. The share of jobs supported through this scenario of infrastructure investments accounted for by non-Hispanic whites is essay on clothes, close to the economy-wide averages: 69.1 percent of addiction essay these jobs relative to a 71.9 percent share of on clothes non-Hispanic whites in overall employment. The share of non-Hispanic whites in jobs supported in direct versus supplier industries is very close.

Non-Hispanic blacks account for things to do 10.0 percent of jobs in this scenario, compared with an overall non-Hispanic black employment share of 8.7 percent. Much of this is driven by the relatively high share of non-Hispanic blacks in essay divakaruni, direct jobs generated through infrastructure spending, 11.2 percent. Hispanics are again slightly over-represented in jobs supported by infrastructure spending in this scenario, with a share of 14.3 percent, compared with the 12.3 percent share of Hispanics in overall employment. This over-representation is again predominantly driven by a relatively high Hispanic share of direct jobs generated through infrastructure spending, 15.1 percent. In regards to to avoid age, the employment of prime-age workers (25 to 54 years old) accounts for essay by chitra banerjee 70.4 percent of new york mfa creative writing overall job creation through this infrastructure scenario, relative to their 66.9 percent share of overall employment. Further, infrastructure investments in this scenario see significant under-representation of younger workers (younger than 25), with this group accounting for by chitra 7.8 percent of jobs supported by infrastructure investments, compared with an economy-wide average of 13.2 percent. Older workers are slightly over-represented, accounting for new york mfa creative writing 21.9 percent of jobs supported in this infrastructure investment scenario, compared with an economy-wide average of 19.9 percent. Again, these trends are largely driven by jobs supported through direct spending in infrastructure, not jobs supported in supplier industries.

Educationally, jobs supported by infrastructure investments in this scenario skew slightly more heavily toward fewer credentials, with 11.2 percent of by chitra banerjee divakaruni jobs supported held by those without high school degrees, compared with 9.4 percent of overall employment. On the higher end, only 21.4 percent of those in jobs supported through infrastructure spending in this scenario have a bachelor’s degree or higher, compared with 32.6 percent of employees overall. Again, however, despite this relative lack of formal educational credentials, the jobs generated through infrastructure spending in this scenario are much less likely to essays pay low wages than the economy-wide average. Only 11.2 percent of jobs generated through infrastructure investments in this scenario, and only 10.0 percent of jobs directly generated, are in the overall bottom quintile of the wage distribution. Degree and treatment of residential construction bias in our results. The construction sector is hugely important in infrastructure investment, accounting for a disproportionate share of essay divakaruni such spending relative to its economy-wide importance.

Further, because construction is relatively labor-intensive compared with many other forms of infrastructure spending (if not compared with economy-wide averages), it has large impact on employment estimates spurred by such spending. However, the construction activity undertaken in infrastructure spending projects is overwhelmingly nonresidential construction. Yet neither of the core datasets used in this analysis—the BLS ERM and the CPS—disaggregate the overall construction sector into essay, residential versus nonresidential construction. If the demographic and/or labor force characteristics of the residential construction sector are notably different than the rest of the construction sector, then the estimates above may be biased. More specifically, one could imagine that the residential sector of construction is more Hispanic and less likely to be unionized than the nonresidential sector. On Clothes? We have been unable to find any previous attempt to speeches assess the extent of this bias. Therefore we propose a test to on clothes banerjee examine how much this issue biases our results. Our approach is to thesis statement islamophobia use variation provided by state-level differences in the share of the overall construction workforce that is in essay divakaruni, the residential sector, as well as state-level differences in the demographic and labor-force characteristics of the overall construction workforce, to see if residential-heavy state construction workforces are also disproportionately Latino and/or characterized by high union density. Figure F1 is a scatterplot showing the bivariate relationship between the share of construction employment that is residential and the share of writing program a state’s construction sector that is essay on clothes banerjee, Latino, averaged across all years in our sample. The full scatterplot shows little relationship (confirmed by a bivariate regression), but if one removes two data points, Texas and Washington, D.C. ( Figure F2 ), a positive relationship between the residential share of construction employment and share of the construction workforce that is antithesis, Latino does appear (and is also confirmed by a bivariate regression).

Figures F3 and F4 show similar scatterplots, but this time examining union density as the essay on clothes banerjee, relevant labor force characteristic. F3 shows, for all states, the relationship between the average unionization rate of construction in the state and the residential share of antithesis crossword construction employment in the state; there is no apparent relationship in the scatterplot. Scatterplot F4 controls for banerjee overall union density in each state by looking at the difference between union density in construction relative to union density in the state overall. This still shows little obvious relationship to the residential share of construction employment in a state. Source: Author’s analysis of Current Population Survey microdata. Copy the new york, code below to embed this chart on your website. Next, we test to see if the relationships (or lack thereof) in the simple bivariate scatterplots hold up in multivariate regressions. We run regressions that examine the correlation between the by chitra banerjee, Latino share of overall construction employment and the share of the construction workforce that is unionized in a given state and the residential share of construction employment. Table 11 shows the results from multivariate regression testing the relationships in the scatterplots for robustness. It adds a number of controls to examine whether or not the bivariate relationships examined in famous classical essays, Figure F continue to hold.

Testing for bias in demographic outcomes of construction investments. * Denotes significance at 5% level. Source: Author's analysis of data from the essay on clothes, Quarterly Census on Employment and Wages (QCEW), as described in text. Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. Results on new york university mfa creative writing program, Latino share of essay banerjee divakaruni population. Specifically, the regression in essays, column (1) relates the Latino share of construction employment to essay on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni the residential share of construction employment and includes state unemployment rates, state and year fixed effects, and a state-specific time trend. The coefficient on of surfeit, the residential share of construction employment is economically significant, but does not pass conventional thresholds of statistical significance (significant only at the 25 percent threshold). Moreover, we should account for on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni the possibility that high shares of famous classical residential construction may be associated with overall Latino population in a state, not just construction workers. This check is particularly important if rising Latino population shares actually cause higher rates of residential investment. Including this state Latino population share reduces the size of the coefficient on the residential share of construction employment, as shown in divakaruni, Column (2).

It is certainly possible, of antithesis of surfeit crossword course, that this examination can miss ways in which a larger residential share in on clothes by chitra banerjee, overall construction could have a higher share of Latino employment than the nonresidential sector. We control for a state’s overall population that is Latino in our regressions. But if, for example, Latino workers are disproportionately mobile across state lines and actively seek work in residential employment, then both the Latino share of state population and the Latino share in residential employment would rise as workers moved to find residential construction jobs. We assessed this by looking at on success, the share of young Latino men in essay on clothes banerjee, construction as our dependent variable, and use only the overall Latino share in the state’s population in our list of controls. If it is young Latino men searching for to do to avoid residential construction who are more mobile than other Latino groups, then by controlling only for overall Latino population in a state, one can still allow this “job chasing” to boost Latino shares in construction employment when residential shares of construction are larger. However, our results essentially mirrored our earlier regressions (shown in Columns (3) and by chitra banerjee, (4)).

The results are different, however, for testing whether or not high shares of residential employment in the overall construction sector might bias estimates of unionization rates of nonresidential construction. Column (5) shows the results of a regression that has the state-level unionization rate of the construction sector as the dependent variable. Independent variables include the overall state unionization rate, the state unemployment rate, a state and things depression, year fixed effect, and a state-specific time trend. The coefficient on the residential share of construction employment is negative and statistically significant. Further, as shown in column (6), this coefficient remains statistically significant even when state overall unionization rates are included in the regression. Because the effect of by chitra banerjee divakaruni residential shares of construction employment on Latino shares of construction employment did not pass standard statistical thresholds for new york university program significance, we do not make any allowance for how the types of jobs created by nonresidential construction (i.e., the kind of projects often undertaken during infrastructure investments) may be different than those mechanically estimated by our models. By Chitra Divakaruni? We can still, however, give a sense of how much the coefficients we estimated might matter economically in the chance that failure to find statistical significance was driven by insufficient sample sizes or underpowered tests.

The relative stability of the coefficient on residential construction through various specifications makes us think this is worth doing. The coefficient estimates from column (2) suggest that each 1 percent increase in the residential share of construction employment leads to roughly a 0.1 percent (.084 in the table) increase in the Latino share of overall construction. Nationally, the residential share of construction employment is thesis statement about, almost exactly 50 percent. If one wanted to essay banerjee divakaruni know what would happen to the Latino share of construction employment in projects that were 100 percent nonresidential, one would simply reduce the of surfeit, Latino share of employment by 10 percent. Given the overall national average Latino share in construction employment of 16.2 percent in on clothes banerjee, 2012, this translates into a 1.6 percentage-point reduction in the share of thesis statement about employment generated through infrastructure projects that is accounted for by Latinos, relative to what is generated by our input-output model in this paper.

More relevantly (because it was statistically significant), the coefficient relating the residential share of construction employment to unionization can also be used to provide an adjustment to the previous estimates in this paper regarding the share of jobs created through infrastructure investments that are unionized. The coefficient from Column (6) indicates that each 1 percent increase in the residential share of construction employment is associated with a 0.73 percent decrease in the unionization rate. Again, taking the fact that today’s residential/nonresidential employment share is 50/50, a series of infrastructure projects that were entirely nonresidential would boost the unionization rate by on clothes by chitra banerjee 73 percent relative to causes essay what would be estimated through our input-output model. Given the current unionization rate in construction of 15 percent, this would imply roughly a 10 percentage-point increase in essay on clothes by chitra divakaruni, unionization rates relative to our input-output model results. This is clearly an economically significant difference. Of course, policymakers who believed higher unionization rates could be economically desirable should not necessarily take much comfort in the fact that residential construction has so much lower union density. Thesis About Islamophobia? The degree of essay on clothes unionization—both nationwide and by things to avoid depression sector—is strongly influenced by national policy (see Schmitt and on clothes banerjee divakaruni, Mitukiewicz 2012 on this). But infrastructure investment is not particularly well-suited to affecting the degree of unionization. Issues regarding the university, optimal financing of essay on clothes by chitra infrastructure investments.

As noted previously, if the antithesis crossword, goal is to on clothes increase economic activity and things to do to avoid depression, employment in a slack economy, the optimal mode of financing infrastructure investments in the near term clearly is with increased public-sector debt. However, it is essay on clothes banerjee divakaruni, generally thought that other forms of of surfeit crossword government spending that serve as effective economic stimulus when deficit-financed during times of economic slack (transfer payments directed to lower-income households, for on clothes example) should be made deficit-neutral if they are to things to avoid depression be continued during times of banerjee divakaruni normal economic functioning. In the United States, the clearest example of this rule regarding “pay-fors” can be seen in the construction of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), often known simply as “health reform.” In this case, even though the new york university writing program, ACA was legislated during times of extraordinary economic weakness in 2010, the architects of it ensured that the banerjee, entire cost of the drug causes, ACA was more than paid for in the 10-year budget window. The rationale for this imperative to pay for permanent (or at least long-term) increases in government spending is straightforward: During normal economic times, an increase in government borrowing will put upward pressure on long-term interest rates, as government demand for loanable funds competes with private borrowers. This increase in long-term interest rates can threaten to “crowd out” a range of private investment projects, lowering the potential size of the on clothes by chitra banerjee, private capital stock and reducing productivity growth. However, this logic does not apply so forcefully to permanent (or long-term) increases in public investments (including infrastructure). Even if these are deficit-financed and do indeed lead to some crowding out of private capital investments, as long as the marginal public investments are as productive as the famous classical essays, marginal private investments that were crowded out, overall productivity growth is unaffected. Given the falling ratio of public to private capital stocks in recent decades, it seems quite possible that marginal public investments will have rates of essay banerjee divakaruni return that are competitive with (if not exceeding) marginal private investments.

Further, if public capital formation is complementary with private capital formation (as is found in much research), then a boost in the level of infrastructure investments might lead to antithesis of surfeit crossword a “crowding in” of private investments. Making infrastructure investments “deficit-neutral” also carries economic costs. This recognition of the on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni, deep flaws in the conventional wisdom insisting that all increases in public spending be fully paid for in deficit terms informs such actions as past calls for separate capital and current accounts in the U.S. Drug Causes? federal budget. Further, it is explicitly acknowledged in essay by chitra, the “golden rules of budgeting” released by the Treasury of the United Kingdom in the late 1990s, which stated that government consumption spending should be balanced with revenue over the business cycle, but that borrowing for public investments may be deficit-financed. The recognition that public investments can raise productivity growth even if deficit-financed becomes even more salient when one considers that the alternative to debt financing often carries economic costs of its own.

Taxation is the most commonly considered alternative to debt financing, and taxation is clearly not “free” in terms of economic costs. Even small deadweight costs of taxation can make revenue-financed public investments a worse deal than deficit financing. Of course, taxation of crossword harmful externalities is clearly good policy in and of itself, regardless of what these taxes finance. While this report has focused on “core” infrastructure investments, it is important to note that often the by chitra banerjee divakaruni, dividing line between what is a public “investment” versus “consumption” can be blurry, and erring too much on the side of classifying public spending as consumption can lead to suboptimal policy responses. Take the biggest category of public spending: transfers to individuals. In most fiscal accounting, this would be classified as pure consumption spending. As such, if one focused mechanically on antithesis of surfeit crossword, boosting the rate of measured productivity growth, it would seem to make theoretical economic sense to essay on clothes divakaruni finance increases in public investments (infrastructure) with cutbacks to government transfers. However, a growing body of research has pointed out the substantial economic gains that result from wide swathes of transfer spending (see Bivens 2012b for an extended analysis of the rates of return from “non-core” public investments). Spending on nutrition assistance, for example, can be both economically and fiscally beneficial in the long run because it is an statement about, investment in children’s healthy physical and mental development.

And even public health care financing can boost living standards growth relative to private financing if the monopsony power of government payment reduces rents in the medical care provision sector and leads to better cost control. So, even besides the on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni, normative implications of cutting transfer payments to antithesis of surfeit finance public investment, one should examine very carefully the implicit rate of essay divakaruni return even of spending classified as pure transfers before assuming that this method of drug addiction causes essay infrastructure finance is essay by chitra divakaruni, clearly better than either deficit- or revenue-financed spending. So far, the discussion in this section has involved a number of cautions about financing stepped-up infrastructure investments with instruments (increased revenue or cuts to other government spending, particularly transfers) that may reduce living standards of households. However, it should also be noted that because infrastructure investments have the potential to provide benefits progressively, even investments that are financed directly by user fees may well be a net plus for such households. In the United States, for example, transportation costs are the second-highest category of household spending behind rents. And the share of to do depression household budgets accounted for by transportation costs are much higher for the bottom 90 percent of households than for the top 10 percent (see Walsh et al.

2011). Essay By Chitra Banerjee? Given this, infrastructure investments that can reduce the cost of famous classical essays transportation significantly—say, by providing public transit options or by repairing highways so that automobiles do not require as frequent repairs—will provide benefits that are progressively distributed. Even from the perspective of aggregate economic efficiency, the on clothes divakaruni, optimal mode of financing infrastructure investments is far from clear. Conventional wisdom about government spending (that any long-term increase always needs to be made deficit neutral) is antithesis of surfeit crossword, clearly wrong, and even some propositions that are firmly accepted by professional economists (that financing public investments by cutting government transfers will boost prospects for essay on clothes banerjee divakaruni aggregate living standards growth) may well be wrong. But given the to do to avoid depression, extraordinarily large rise in income inequality in recent decades in the United States, we would argue that focusing just on aggregate economic efficiency is far too narrow. The link between aggregate productivity growth and living standards growth for the vast majority has weakened enormously in essay on clothes divakaruni, recent decades. Given the nature of public investments and infrastructure spending, they seem to us a prime opportunity to ensure that some of the benefits of economic growth can be enjoyed by a wider swath of American households than have benefited from trends in market income growth in recent decades.

Policymakers should not shy away from analyzing this redistributive effect of infrastructure spending and its optimal financing and making normative judgments about antithesis, this spending and financing. Climate economics argues strongly for deficit-financing public investments. There is, moreover, one issue regarding infrastructure investments and redistribution that pure positive economics can prove useful in analyzing: the essay on clothes by chitra, degree of “sacrifice” required of things to avoid depression present generations to begin mitigation of carbon emissions to slow global climate change and bequeath future generations a much-reduced likelihood of essay on clothes divakaruni climate catastrophes. In much of the economics literature regarding this issue, the degree of current “sacrifice” is assumed to to do to avoid depend upon the discount rate. On Clothes Divakaruni? The larger the discount rate, the less current generations should sacrifice. However, as shown in a series of papers by Rezai, Foley, and Taylor (2009), mitigating carbon emissions actually requires no sacrifice at all from current generations.

Carbon emissions are an unpriced externality, so correcting for this externality only increases the economy’s intertemporal production possibilities frontier (PPF), making any requirement of speeches on success and failure generational sacrifice unnecessary. Intuitively, what this means is that today’s generation can invest more in carbon mitigation while keeping current consumption unchanged simply by by chitra divakaruni investing less in conventional capital stock. The most likely candidate for capital stock investments that are being overinvested in are quite clearly in the private sector. Private capital investments are driven strongly by assessments of profitability and hence relative prices. But it is exactly these relative prices that are “wrong” because of the unpriced externality of carbon emissions. Mfa Creative Program? On the other hand, public capital investment decisions are much less directly connected to issues of on clothes profitability and relative prices, and so are much less likely to have been overinvested in due to of surfeit crossword the unpriced externality of GHG emissions.

There are many ways theoretically to engineer this expenditure-switching from conventional capital to essay on clothes divakaruni capital that mitigates carbon emissions, but in practice one way seems obvious: Finance public investments—including infrastructure investments—that mitigate carbon emissions by famous increasing budget deficits that will crowd out some conventional capital stock investments. It’s important to essay by chitra note that this is not a normative result: The expenditure switch from conventional capital to carbon-mitigating investments is clearly efficient in the positive sense. And, this method of classical accommodating this expenditure switch is also efficient; by deficit-financing the investments in carbon mitigation and placing upward pressure on interest rates, the conventional capital investments that will be forgone are those with the lowest rates of return. The impact of infrastructure investments on growth and macroeconomic stabilization. Besides boosting the potential for broad-based living standards growth, an on clothes banerjee divakaruni, acceleration of productivity carries other potential benefits as well. A number of researchers have identified the acceleration of productivity growth in the late 1990s as a key reason why estimates of the classical essays, non-accelerating inflation rate of essay divakaruni unemployment (NAIRU) fell over this period.

The NAIRU is an estimate of how low unemployment can go before further boosts to aggregate demand will manifest in higher price growth rather than faster output growth. In the years leading up to the late-1990s boom, estimates of the NAIRU for the United States had risen to things to do well over 5 percent, and sometimes close to by chitra divakaruni 6 percent, meaning that policymakers (particularly the Federal Reserve) were prepared to slow economic growth through contractionary macroeconomic policies if the unemployment rate threatened to crossword go below this threshold. Further, this was not an idle threat. Between 1979 and essay divakaruni, 1995, the antithesis, actual unemployment rate exceeded the estimated NAIRU by more than 30 percentage points cumulatively—and not just during official recessions. Yet in the late 1990s, unemployment fell far below these NAIRU estimates and yet inflation did not accelerate. Instead, millions of American workers were employed who would not have been had policymakers put on the brakes when unemployment passed below ex ante estimates of the NAIRU, and American wages saw their first across-the-board period of growth in a generation. This episode highlights two things. First, the idea that a well-estimated NAIRU can ever be a good guidepost for policymakers should be reexamined and likely abandoned. Besides the U.S. episode between 1979 and 1995, it is quite likely that many large Western European economies also suffered through a decade or more of excess unemployment because the monetary authorities in these countries similarly strove too hard to by chitra not allow the overall unemployment rate reach too-conservative NAIRU targets. Second, however important it is to do away with the concept of a well-estimated NAIRU as a reliable ex ante guide to policy, it remains the case that in the near future official estimates of the NAIRU will likely be vitally important to what policymakers do.

If these estimates are too high, then millions of potential work years and hundreds of billions of potential wage earnings for famous essays low- and moderate-income workers could be sacrificed. One must stress that it is the estimated value of the on clothes banerjee, NAIRU that is important, not whether a hard and fast NAIRU actually exists or what its actual (as opposed to speeches and failure estimated ) value is. This is because even if there is no firm NAIRU , as long as policymakers think that there is and aim to keep the unemployment rate from breaching it, then great economic gains can be had by lowering the by chitra, estimated value of the NAIRU. To put it bluntly, as long as the U.S. Federal Reserve thinks it knows the antithesis of surfeit crossword, value of the on clothes by chitra, NAIRU, this makes it extraordinarily unlikely that unemployment will be allowed to drift beneath it. Given this, what the U.S.

Federal Reserve estimates the NAIRU to be becomes extraordinarily important. An acceleration of productivity, particularly when preceded by a period of sluggish wage growth, has the to do, potential to significantly reduce the estimated NAIRU. Essay? In perfectly flexible labor markets, an acceleration of productivity growth would be accompanied by an equal acceleration of drug addiction essay wage demands. However, as a long line of research, summarized by Ball and Mankiw (2002) has pointed out, workers’ wage aspirations are likely inertial. So, when hourly wage growth averaged far less than 1 percent per year for on clothes banerjee the period between 1979 and 1995, this became the accustomed pace of wage growth for these workers. When productivity began accelerating in 1995, however, this opened up a large and growing wedge between wage aspirations and productivity growth, providing more room for famous unemployment to fall without sparking wage-push inflation. It should be noted that the conditions for essay divakaruni an acceleration of productivity to university writing push down the estimated NAIRU clearly exist today. Productivity has slowed dramatically in recent years, with average productivity growth between the beginning of the Great Recession through the first half of 2013 essentially matching the essay on clothes by chitra, 1979 to 1995 pace that has often been dubbed the “Great Productivity Slowdown.” Further, wage aspirations for American workers are clearly at rock-bottom levels. The bottom 80 percent of things to avoid depression American workers saw inflation-adjusted declines in wages in each of 2010, 2011, 2012, and the first half of 2013. Further, the potential for an ambitious investment effort in by chitra banerjee, infrastructure to boost measured productivity levels is real.

Bivens (2012a) estimated that an effort that boosted infrastructure investments by $250 billion per year for an extended period would boost measured productivity growth by roughly 0.3 percent per year—more than half the acceleration seen in the late 1990s that was associated with the information and communications technology (ICT) investment boom. Given the very large downward adjustments to estimates of the NAIRU during the late 1990s ICT boom, as well as the conditions prevailing in the U.S. economy today (specifically, low rates of productivity growth and very low wage aspirations on the part of most American workers), it does not seem unreasonable to famous classical essays think that an ambitious public investment agenda focused on infrastructure spending over the next decade could lower the estimated NAIRU by essay on clothes by chitra divakaruni a percentage point over that decade. This percentage-point decline, if exploited by policymakers who ensure the actual unemployment rate is at least as low as the NAIRU, translates into an additional 1.4 million employed Americans each year and to thesis about islamophobia significantly higher wage growth even for those workers who would have been employed over the decade anyway. This report has analyzed the potential effectiveness of on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni increasing infrastructure investments as a means to on success alleviate large economic challenges facing the U.S. economy in by chitra divakaruni, the short and long run. In the short run, this pressing challenge is the failure to make significant progress in causes, spurring a full recovery from the Great Recession. As of the end of 2013, key measures of labor market recovery, such as the divakaruni, employment-to-population ratio of prime-age adults, had recovered just a fifth of the decline experienced during the Great Recession. Further, overwhelming evidence exists that the wedge between actual economic activity and employment levels and levels that would prevail in a healthy economy is nearly entirely a function of deficient aggregate demand.

Infrastructure spending, particularly if deficit-financed, is routinely found by macroeconomic modelers to statement be among the most effective tools in essay on clothes divakaruni, pushing the economy back toward full employment. Any policy that aims to blunt the impact of infrastructure investment on federal budget deficits will also blunt its impacts in spurring recovery, but infrastructure investments financed by nearly any means besides cuts to transfer spending (i.e., unemployment insurance, safety net programs, and social insurance programs such as Social Security and Medicare) will still provide a substantial boost to economic activity and employment. In the longer term, some of the U.S. economy’s most pressing challenges concern the pace of things depression overall productivity growth and how the benefits of essay on clothes by chitra banerjee this growth are distributed across households. After an thesis, acceleration of productivity growth beginning in 1995, the years before and since the Great Recession have seen a relatively steady decline in the pace of growth. Further, for most of the past three decades, vastly disproportionate shares of overall productivity growth have accrued to the richest households, rather than being shared relatively uniformly across households.

A substantial program of infrastructure investments can help on both fronts. A long literature (some of it quite recent) has identified strong impacts of infrastructure investments on spurring overall productivity growth. And nearly by definition, the benefits of infrastructure investment are likely to be more broadly shared across households at a range of income levels. Another (related) long-term challenge the U.S. economy faces is banerjee divakaruni, ensuring access to high-quality jobs for traditionally disadvantaged segments of the labor market: women, minorities, workers without a four-year college degree, and young workers. A key question for policymakers is whether or not infrastructure investments could be expected to provide high-quality jobs for such groups without any other policy action to ensure that it does . This report has examined three scenarios of infrastructure investments in speeches, the U.S. Essay On Clothes Banerjee Divakaruni? economy, each with significant near-term impacts in a still-slack economy if financed with debt. The first scenario examines the potential boost to infrastructure spending made possible by cancelling the budget “sequester” that would otherwise automatically reduce spending levels over the next decade. It would generate $30 billion annually in additional infrastructure over the next decade and create 360,000 jobs at the end of the first year. The second scenario examines infrastructure investments that combine substantial upgrades to residential and thesis about islamophobia, commercial building efficiency along with an essay divakaruni, upfront investment in constructing a national smart grid. It would generate $92 billion annually over the next decade, creating 1.1 million jobs. Writing Program? The third scenario calls for $250 billion to be spent over the next seven years, creating 3 million new jobs. Making these stepped-up infrastructure investments deficit-neutral reduces their boost to near-term activity and employment, though they are still net boosts to activity and employment under any method of financing except for cutting government transfers.

The estimates of near-term impacts are admittedly imprecise. Essay On Clothes Banerjee? For example, macroeconomic multipliers used by private-sector forecasters and official government agencies are not fine-grained enough to vary significantly across different types of infrastructure spending. Famous? This is simply because there is not enough exogenous variation in the data regarding these different types of projects to allow fine-grained differences in economic multipliers to be estimated. This report noted that the labor intensity of infrastructure projects in the United States tends to be lower than economy-wide averages. Essay On Clothes By Chitra? This is due mostly (directly or indirectly) to the very low labor intensity of statement islamophobia U.S. Essay On Clothes? manufacturing. Famous? A key driver of this low labor intensity in by chitra divakaruni, U.S. manufacturing, however, is specialization driven by globalization.

This specialization, however, will work in reverse for famous classical many countries in the global South, so one should be very careful indeed in assuming that what holds in data regarding the labor intensity of on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni U.S. infrastructure spending will also hold for speeches other countries. While there are not enough data to on clothes divakaruni provide precise estimates, a number of careful researchers have suggested that infrastructure maintenance projects (or, an emphasis on “fix it first”) may well be more labor-intensive than new construction. Thesis Islamophobia? This makes intuitive sense: Maintenance projects seem to be associated with far less capital and input-intensive techniques of production than new builds. It seems that this could well be a useful consideration for designing specific infrastructure investment projects aimed at essay by chitra divakaruni, maximizing employment growth in the near term. In the longer term, even if such investments do not lead to net new jobs created because of antithesis countervailing macroeconomic influences, they will still significantly change the on clothes banerjee, composition of labor demand in the U.S. Drug? economy. Specifically, the jobs generated through such investments are disproportionately male, disproportionately Latino, disproportionately require less than a four-year college degree, disproportionately middle- and by chitra divakaruni, high-wage, and skew away from younger workers. In terms of speeches many employment and social goals that might plausibly be met through infrastructure spending, this is banerjee, a mixed bag of results. Spurring employment opportunities for non-white workers in the U.S. economy is a laudable goal, and infrastructure projects do indeed skew toward Hispanic, non-white workers. Thesis Statement? However, employment generated through these projects skews away from black workers, and overall infrastructure investments do not generate employment that skews toward non-white workers generally. Similarly, infrastructure investments tend to generate employment that skews very heavily male.

For those concerned generally about securing equal access to occupations for women, this could seem like a strike against such investments as employment policy. Finally, on the downside, infrastructure investments generate jobs disproportionately for on clothes banerjee divakaruni workers older than 25. For countries experiencing severe youth employment problems, this is a real concern. However, these genuine concerns could argue more strongly for creating complementary policies to infrastructure investments, rather than arguing simply for speeches not undertaking these investments, the latter of which would, of course, do damage well beyond employment outcomes. On Clothes By Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni? For example, regulatory, policy, and legal levers should be used to ensure that jobs in construction and manufacturing are indeed open to workers of all genders, races, and ethnicities. Islamophobia? And in the United States, the lack of young workers in construction and manufacturing could well argue that the country’s apprenticeship programs are sorely lacking and need modernization and support. But some of the news about the employment outcomes that would be expected from infrastructure investments even without complementary policies can be seen as hopeful. Essay By Chitra Banerjee? For one, the jobs generated would boost demand for workers without a four-year university degree.

This is essays, a group that in the United States in recent decades has seen the worst wage outcomes, so anything boosting demand for their labor would be a positive. Importantly, this group remains the large majority of American workers. Further, the jobs generated by infrastructure investment are predominantly middle-wage jobs—and the share of jobs generated in the bottom quintile is very small. This is most welcome in an economy that has had extraordinary difficulty in generating decent jobs for most of the labor force in the past decade. Besides their direct impacts on the labor market, an increase in infrastructure investments has been shown by a large and growing research literature to yield large economic returns and carry the potential to boost productivity growth.

Given the sharp deceleration in U.S. Essay On Clothes By Chitra Banerjee? productivity growth since the statement islamophobia, beginning of the Great Recession, this effect alone could justify additional infrastructure investments over the next decade. Even more importantly, if this boost in productivity led (as it did in the late 1990s) to a drifting down of on clothes by chitra divakaruni policymakers’ estimate of the NAIRU, and if this lower estimated NAIRU led to more expansionary macroeconomic policy, this would be a huge win for employment generation across the board. Further, because traditionally disadvantaged workers (non-white minorities, workers without a four-year college degree, and young workers particularly) benefit the most from any reduction in overall unemployment, infrastructure investments that boost overall productivity carry the potential to also hit many social and employment goals. All in all, if policymakers were determined to ensure that any spending flow directly employed as much labor as possible in the U.S. economy, they could probably find better activities than infrastructure investments. But given the large potential benefits of new york mfa creative writing infrastructure investments stemming from essay on clothes by chitra divakaruni, its boost to statement islamophobia productivity growth, macroeconomic stabilization, and job quality, and given as well that any direct (and supplier) employment generation disadvantage is quite mild, concerns about employment generation should certainly not preclude infrastructure investments in the United States.

Further, developing countries assessing the impacts of infrastructure spending should take heart that much of the labor-intensity disadvantage of infrastructure investment may be particular to essay the United States (and maybe its advanced-country peers). Josh Bivens joined the Economic Policy Institute in 2002 and is currently the director of antithesis research and policy. His primary areas of research include mac­roeconomics, social insurance, and globalization. He has authored or co-authored three books (including The State of Working America, 12th Edition ) while working at EPI, edited another, and has written numerous research papers, including for academic journals. He appears often in media outlets to offer eco­nomic commentary and has testified several times before the U.S. Essay On Clothes Banerjee Divakaruni? Congress. He earned his Ph.D. from The New School for Social Research.

This work was prepared for drug causes a project undertaken by the International Labour Organization (ILO) to study the employment impacts of on clothes by chitra infrastructure spending. Financial support from the ILO is gratefully acknowledged. Appendix: Macroeconomic multipliers. Since the Great Recession of 2008 and the attendant brief resurgence of new york university mfa creative writing fiscal policy as a macroeconomic stabilization tool, there has been an ongoing debate about the size of fiscal multipliers: how much economic activity (GDP) is spurred by an increase in government spending. The broadest case that public spending can boost economic activity comes directly from the accounting identity for GDP (identified as national output, or Y , in essay on clothes banerjee, the identity below): (1) Y = Consumption Spending (or, C) + Investment (I) + Government spending (G) + Net exports (X-M) Increasing government spending directly increases gross domestic product, per (1). Further, it is drug causes, theoretically possible that each dollar of increased government spending (or tax cuts) can lead to more than a dollar of increased economic output. The intuition is simply that if, say, $100 is spent by the government to essay on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni employ new street cleaners, these cleaners will spend this income buying, say, food and antithesis, clothing. Essay On Clothes Banerjee Divakaruni? This boosts the income of food and clothing retailers, who can then go out and thesis about islamophobia, increase their spending on other items. On Clothes Divakaruni? This iterative process is things to avoid depression, often referred to by chitra banerjee in macroeconomics textbooks as the “multiplier effect” of fiscal support, and it is driven simply by the fact that consumption spending is both a component of and essays, is itself a function of overall income. We can express this by having consumption spending be composed of an autonomous component ( C0 ) and a component that depends on essay by chitra banerjee, disposable (that is, after-tax) income ( c (1- t ) Y ). This allows us to rewrite our identity for GDP as:

Rearranging terms gives us the following expression for Y : From here, changes in autonomous expenditures (including G ) will boost GDP by of surfeit crossword an amount equal to essay on clothes by chitra their change multiplied by drug 1/(1-MPC). The higher is the MPC, the larger is the multiplier. It is largely differences in the MPC that lead to on clothes divakaruni differences in estimated multipliers for different sorts of fiscal support. Support aimed at low-income households and direct government spending for infrastructure projects, for to do to avoid depression example, are often thought to have higher multipliers, as less money “leaks” out of aggregate demand because savings rates are either zero (infrastructure spending) or quite low (low-income households tend to spend a much larger share of any incremental gain to income than higher-income households).4. Textbook macroeconomics clearly teaches that the essay on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni, most effective way to use discretionary fiscal policy to boost economic activity is to finance this support with increased debt. If increased government spending (which adds to GDP directly through the accounting identity) is instead financed with increased taxes (which subtract from GDP by speeches and failure reducing households’ disposable personal income and hence reduce consumption spending), then it is by chitra banerjee divakaruni, much less effective. Because of this, the size of the “fiscal impulse” stemming from discretionary fiscal stabilizations is often measured simply as the increase in the federal budget deficit engendered by a fiscal policy intervention. However, textbook macroeconomics also clearly teaches that even deficit-financed fiscal policy support may not boost overall GDP in many economic circumstances. The most-cited reason why deficit-financed fiscal support may fail to boost GDP in many circumstances is often referred to in shorthand as “crowding out.” By increasing its borrowing, the federal government is competing with private-sector borrowers for loanable funds. Crossword? This increased competition may well raise overall interest rates, and some private-sector borrowers may decide at these higher rates to not engage in the investment or consumption project they would have engaged in at lower rates. Hence, the extra activity spurred by fiscal policy crowds out some degree of private-sector activity by pushing up interest rates.

In the extreme, this crowding-out can be complete, leading to no increase at all in essay on clothes by chitra, economic activity stemming from statement islamophobia, large increases in essay on clothes, fiscal support.5. These simple mechanics of mfa creative crowding out, however, assume that interest rates move sharply enough, and assume as well that economic activity is responsive enough to these interest rate movements to materially negate the impact of increased fiscal support. However, when overall weakness in the demand for loanable funds (say, in the aftermath of the burst housing bubble) has pushed interest rates all the way down to essay on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni zero lower-bound (or ZLB), it dims the prospects for fiscal support to completely overwhelm this intense downward private pressure on rates and push interest rates up high enough to begin choking off more privately supported activity than the fiscal support is supporting itself. Yet many arguments expressing skepticism about the efficacy of ARRA leaned clearly on the role of crowding out in rendering it ineffective.6. The importance of the ZLB on interest rates in antithesis of surfeit, contemporary debates should be stressed. The primary reason why there was much stronger and more widespread support among macroeconomists for discretionary fiscal support for the economy in 2009 than in any other recession in recent memory is divakaruni, entirely explained by the fact that interest rates were at the zero bound. This bound both constrains the ability of the Federal Reserve to fight recessions with its own conventional tools (and hence adds to the desirability of expanding the portfolio of countercyclical policies), and substantially allays the fear that increased fiscal support will lead to crowding out. If fundamental economic forces have pushed interest rates down to zero (or as close to zero as they can effectively go, in the case of longer-term rates), that should allay fears that increased government borrowing will lead to upward pressure on these rates so intense that it leads to great withdrawal of investment spending in the economy. Another argument against statement islamophobia, the efficacy of discretionary fiscal support concerns the notion of Ricardian equivalence: the notion that an increase in deficits will be recognized by households as a future tax increase, and essay on clothes by chitra divakaruni, hence will spur them to increase their own savings to things build up wealth to pay these higher future taxes. There are a couple of reasons to doubt that the full Ricardian effect of rising private savings sterilizes increased public dissaving. For one, some of the increased future taxes that will pay back today’s deficits will fall on on clothes by chitra banerjee, future generations, so the current generation will indeed see a fall in new york university, its lifetime tax burden as a result of the public dissaving.

Second, many households (particularly in a downturn associated with financial market distress) may be liquidity-constrained, preferring a marginal dollar of consumer spending over a marginal dollar of savings, but currently unable to borrow. On Clothes By Chitra Divakaruni? To the extent that public dissaving relieves this constraint, it can increase current spending. Lastly, if the fiscal boost from dissaving comes in the form of spending (say, on infrastructure projects), then there is no reason why private saving should rise to pay off this extra public debt one-for-one in the current year. For example, if the federal government borrows and spends $1,000 per person to build highways this year, households will only have to reduce their spending by (the net present value of) $1,000 over the rest of their lives to pay the new york university, higher future taxes that result. So, the Ricardian equivalence mechanisms do not mean that it is impossible for any kind of public dissaving to boost overall spending in a given year. Besides the mechanics of crowding out and Ricardian offsets, however, the case against discretionary fiscal policy stabilizations has also rested on issues of timing . By Chitra Banerjee? Because fiscal policy support is often associated with lags both in deliberation (the inside lag) as well as implementation (the outside lag), many macroeconomists have argued that fiscal policy support may arrive too late, that is, after an statement about, economic recovery had already spontaneously begun.

These arguments went so far as to claim that the essay on clothes banerjee divakaruni, fiscal support could arrive late enough to new york university mfa creative writing program push an essay by chitra banerjee divakaruni, economy directly into overheating, leading to inflation and interest rate spikes. Because monetary policy tends to operate with a much-shorter inside lag, recent decades have seen a growing (but not universal) agreement among policymakers and macroeconomists that most recession-fighting responsibilities should be borne by central banks, and about islamophobia, not by on clothes Congress and the president.7. Ironically, the case against discretionary fiscal stabilizations seems to have achieved its greatest foothold among policymakers and depression, economists just as this crucial timing argument was clearly losing much of its force. While recessions between 1947 and 1990 were indeed quite short and recoveries tended to follow rapidly after business cycle troughs, recessions since 1981 have taken progressively longer time before economic resources were again fully utilized. Given this record, it seems very hard to give credence to banerjee worries that fiscal support legislated during a recessionary period will come so late that it will push an already-recovered economy directly into thesis about islamophobia, overheating.

Automatic stabilizers versus discretionary policy. We will end this discussion by noting a glaring disconnect between the amount of essay on clothes divakaruni political controversy surrounding the thesis about, increase in budget deficits associated with automatic stabilizers and those associated with discretionary fiscal support (say, for example, the ARRA passed in the United States in 2009). From an economic point of view, except for the issues raised by timing lags , deficits are deficits, and if they are desirable or undesirable, one’s analysis should not change based on whether they occur mechanically or through policy changes. Yet ARRA was a much larger political controversy than the essay by chitra, much larger increases in famous classical, deficits associated with the role of automatic stabilizers during the Great Recession. Essay On Clothes By Chitra Divakaruni? For example, many criticisms of ARRA leveled by economists opposed to it invoked the problem of things to do to avoid crowding out as the reason why it would not work to stabilize economic activity.8. But very few economists (none, in fact, that this author could find) argued in 2008 that the rising budget deficits driven mechanically by the slowing of economic growth should be closed rapidly through policy action. If concerns over crowding out were not thought to apply to these large increases in deficits stemming from automatic stabilizers, then it is far from obvious why they would apply to essay on clothes by chitra banerjee increases stemming from discretionary fiscal measures either. After all, the about islamophobia, market for loanable funds does not know which increment of increased federal government demand for borrowing is discretionary (i.e., legislated specifically to fight an essay on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni, ongoing recession) versus which increment is nondiscretionary (i.e., responses in means- and speeches and failure, circumstances-tested programs and progressive marginal tax rates) and cannot respond differently to each. Further, the types of public dissaving associated with rising deficits driven by on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni automatic stabilizers (specifically, falling taxes and increased government transfers) are much more likely to engender a full Ricardian offset from rising private savings in theoretical models (tax cuts in particular are fully sterilized in the most rigid Ricardian models). The U.S. Essays? federal budget deficit rose by more than 9 percent of essay by chitra banerjee GDP between 2007 and 2009, but ARRA could only account for a bit over 2 percentage points of this increase; the large bulk of the increase between those years was the automatic outcome of antithesis tax revenues falling as economic activity collapsed, and essay divakaruni, needs-based safety-net spending rising.

Given this near-completely sanguine acceptance among policymakers and mfa creative program, applied macroeconomists of the large increases in budget deficits stemming from automatic stabilizers, timing lags associated with discretionary fiscal policy interventions are the only source of worry about the potential effectiveness of ARRA that make much analytical sense. Given the track record of long recoveries from by chitra divakaruni, recessions in the early 1990s and early 2000s, and given that as of December 2011—four years after the previous business cycle peak and two-and-a-half years after the official end of the recession—employment remained 5.8 million below the essay, prerecession peak, the timing-lags objections to ARRA are not in on clothes banerjee, retrospect particularly compelling.9. Of course, there is and failure, a more cynical reason why many policy analysts had no problem at all with the much-larger increases in budget deficits that predated ARRA: they took place under a different presidential administration. In recent years, the debate about the size of economic multipliers in divakaruni, the U.S. economy centered almost entirely around the impact of ARRA. Contemporaneous estimates of the effect of infrastructure projects undertaken in and failure, a slack economy when the essay on clothes banerjee, monetary authority was highly likely to fully accommodate the increase in federal debt in classical essays, the United States relied, understandably enough, on on clothes, models and estimates of prior fiscal policy interventions. Drug? So, for example, when the CBO released its quarterly report on the effect of ARRA on economic activity and essay by chitra banerjee, employment, it relied on multipliers estimated in this previous literature. This led to some misunderstanding; several critics of the ARRA and increased public spending during recessions claimed that estimates of antithesis ARRA’s effect simply reflected “assumptions” made about multipliers by the CBO (or other private-sector forecasters who had quite-similar estimates of essay banerjee its impact). To Avoid Depression? This was not the case: Multipliers (upon which the CBO estimates were based) are not simple assumptions, they are the result of estimations, and these “model-based” estimates of ARRA’s impacts were perfectly valid and, as subsequent econometric work has shown (to be taken up later in this section) actually quite good predictors of the effectiveness of ARRA spending in essay on clothes by chitra divakaruni, supporting economic activity. Speeches On Success? Nearly all model-based estimates of ARRA’s effectiveness were unanimous in predicting that it would indeed support economic activity (see Figure G for a representative sampling).

Estimates of ARRA’s boost to U.S. Banerjee Divakaruni? GDP in 2010 Q2 by various sources. The data below can be saved or copied directly into university mfa creative writing program, Excel. The data underlying the figure. Note: ARRA stands for the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Source: Council of Economic Advisers (2011)

Copy the essay on clothes banerjee divakaruni, code below to university writing embed this chart on your website. Prospective estimates of multipliers: “Average” multipliers are not an appropriate guide. However, it is clearly true that a good estimation of macroeconomic multipliers is challenging. Essay On Clothes Divakaruni? By far the things to do depression, most important first step in obtaining estimates of banerjee multipliers that are applicable to speeches on success and failure the effect of ARRA on on clothes divakaruni, the U.S. economy in 2009 and 2010 is to restrict one’s estimates of prior episodes of fiscal policy interventions to those undertaken in similar economic contexts. Importantly, this means situations during which unemployment rates were high and capacity utilization rates were low, as well as situations where interest rates were quite unlikely to rise in of surfeit, response to increased fiscal support, either because the central bank had moved to lean against the fiscal impulse or because private-sector demand was so high that the increase in marginal borrowing done by the federal government rapidly pushed up interest rates. Many studies did not follow this rule of looking only at fiscal support in these specific conditions. Many studies instead looked at fiscal support undertaken over very long stretches, and unsurprisingly found small average multipliers.

But these small averages could well be the result of very large multipliers during times of high unemployment and on clothes divakaruni, low interest rates, combined with low (or even negative) multipliers during times of increased fiscal support when unemployment was already low and interest rates high (see Romer 2011 for to do to avoid more on this point). In short, average multipliers are not useful for answering the questions about essay on clothes by chitra, ARRA’s effectiveness; instead, only studies of the effect of fiscal support on high-unemployment economies near the ZLB on interest rates are useful. This obviously rules out some of the more prominent claims about the effectiveness of fiscal policy, such as those of crossword Barro and Redlick (2011). On Clothes Banerjee Divakaruni? This study looked at increases in deficit-financed government spending undertaken since World War II to obtain an estimate of multipliers. They use military spending as the measure of government spending. Their empirical results are dominated by on success World War II and Korean War periods, when very large increases in military spending were not accompanied by on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni large increases in economic activity. However, by the onset of essay World War II the economy enjoyed more-than-full employment; the unemployment rate by 1941 was 4.7 percent, and between 1942 and 1945 unemployment averaged less than 1.5 percent. Further, wage and price controls were passed (in part) to contain inflation that would have resulted from banerjee divakaruni, excess aggregate demand.10 Similarly, during the Korean War (1950–1953), the unemployment rate averaged just 3.3 percent. The simple prescription that multipliers cannot be reliably estimated during times when the drug causes, economy was close to full employment and when interest rates would rise sharply in response to increased fiscal support is violated in a surprising number of studies invoked in the debate over ARRA’s effectiveness in its first two years.

Some notable studies that did not suffer from this problem, however, were Eggertsson (2009); Hall (2009); Ilzetzki, Mendoza, and by chitra banerjee divakaruni, Vegh (2010); and Woodford (2011). Unsurprisingly, given that they are actually all estimating the central parameter of interest—the effect of new york program fiscal support in depressed economies near the by chitra divakaruni, ZLB on interest rates—all these studies find that the multiplier on things to avoid depression, particular forms of fiscal support (direct government spending, in particular) is well over 1 and often close to 2. It is also worth noting that the Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) did not just use previously estimated values of economic multipliers to predict the effect of ARRA. They also estimated a vector autoregression (VAR) model to predict what GDP would have been with no fiscal support based on its pre-ARRA trajectory (and historical relationships between key variables) and then compared that prediction with its actual (post-ARRA) performance. This VAR approach predicted effects of ARRA that were in line with those predicted by essay on clothes by chitra divakaruni economic multipliers. The estimates in this report on the impact of statement about islamophobia infrastructure investment rely heavily on the CBO and CEA multiplier estimates. As the next section will note, however, these prospective estimates have been largely vindicated by retrospective, more direct empirical estimates of the effect of the components of ARRA. Retrospective estimates of economic multipliers of the components of ARRA. Now that ARRA has largely run its course, there is now actual data to essay on clothes by chitra banerjee try to test to see if one can directly estimate its impact on economic activity.

Again, however, this is much harder to do than is often recognized. The problem, in the jargon of statement islamophobia econometrics, is by chitra, how to gain “clean identification” of ARRA’s impact. Take, for example, one obvious (but naive) way to glean its effects: Compare states that have gained more ARRA funding than others to see if economic conditions improved more significantly in those high-ARRA-aid states. The problem with this approach is that much ARRA funding (expanded unemployment insurance and food stamps, for example) was contingent on economic circumstances, with more money mechanically going to states that have a bigger contraction of economic activity. Drug? Simply examining correlations between state-level spending and economic activity could well find a negative correlation, but one that is driven by a chain of causality that runs from depressed economic activity to more ARRA funds. The chief challenge in many attempts to estimate the impact of by chitra banerjee divakaruni ARRA is to precisely find ways around this problem of reverse causality, and university mfa creative writing program, this is the problem of “clean identification.” A series of attempts to essay on clothes do this came from drug addiction causes essay, John B. Taylor (2011), who used aggregate time series evidence on personal income and consumption to estimate the impact of the essay on clothes by chitra, tax rebates and speeches on success and failure, some social transfers (particularly the increase in unemployment benefits) contained in essay, ARRA, along with tax rebates that were passed in 2001 and 2008 in the name of providing fiscal support to the economy. Taylor used these results to argue that one could not reject the hypothesis that the tax rebates and transfers had no impact on statement about islamophobia, personal consumption spending. Taylor (2011) runs a time-series regression of personal consumption expenditures (PCE) as the dependent variable. As explanatory variables he includes “stimulus payments” and disposable personal income minus stimulus payments, with controls for oil prices and net worth lagged two quarters. By Chitra Banerjee? His sample period runs from the first quarter of 2001 to the first quarter of 2011.

As the coefficient on stimulus payments does not register as statistically significant at the 95 percent confidence level, Taylor takes this as evidence stimulus payments did not work, i.e., that they did not boost consumption spending and hence failed to provide support to overall economic activity.11. However, Baker and Rosnick (2012) show that Taylor’s results are largely driven by the period after the fourth quarter of 2008. More specifically, the ARRA tax rebates and new york writing, transfers took place in essay by chitra, the midst of a collapse in overall spending and against the backdrop of a financial crisis. Antithesis? When they add a dummy variable for the post-2007 period to the same time-series regression run by Taylor (2011), they find that stimulus payments are both statistically and economically significant determinants of consumption spending. A number of papers try to essay by chitra divakaruni exploit the state-level variation in university, ARRA payments to assess ARRA’s economic impact. Again, the on clothes by chitra banerjee, key challenge in doing this is to avoid the problem of endogeneity of state receipts—that is, the problem of states with the most depressed economic activity receiving more ARRA funds by things to do to avoid design . What is good stabilization policy (focusing more money on more depressed areas) makes for quite difficult evaluation. Wilson (2011) uses instrumental variables to avoid the endogeneity problem. All of essay on clothes them seek to isolate the purely exogenous portion of ARRA fiscal relief allocated to state governments. For example, the increased aid ARRA provided states for Medicaid payments during the recession was allocated based on a formula that made this aid a function of the drug addiction causes essay, prerecession Medicaid share paid by a state, a “hold harmless” component of funding that is based on the three prior years of state per capita income growth, and on clothes banerjee, the change in addiction essay, the state unemployment rate.

Through controls in his regression (say, by including the change in state unemployment), Wilson is able to isolate that component of increased state aid that is orthogonal to essay by chitra banerjee divakaruni its economic performance. On Success? Beside the Medicaid formula, Wilson also isolates the exogenous components of Departments of Transportation and Education aid to states associated with ARRA. Essay By Chitra Banerjee? He then regresses the change in a state’s payroll employment on the level of (exogenous) ARRA fiscal relief received. Wilson (2011) finds that the ARRA fiscal relief is positively correlated to state employment growth, and drug addiction causes essay, the result is both economically and statistically significantly (as well as robust to essay on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni different specifications). He finds that ARRA’s peak impact on depression, employment (he does not use state-level measures of GDP) occurred in the first quarter of 2010, when it was associated with employment levels in that quarter that were roughly 2 to 2.9 million jobs higher than would have been the by chitra banerjee, case absent ARRA’s support. On Success? He also finds that each job created or saved through ARRA’s fiscal support “cost” between $44,000 and $123,000 per net new job created. Feyrer and Sacerdote (2011) also use state-level variation in on clothes by chitra banerjee, ARRA spending flows to estimate its impact. They, like Wilson (2011), also utilize instrumental variables to control for endogeneity of ARRA state spending.

The instruments Feyrer and Sacerdote (2011) utilize are mean seniority of the state’s delegation in the U.S. House of Representatives and the size of the state’s population. The first instrument, the mean seniority of the state’s House delegation, is assumed to be positively correlated with state-level ARRA spending because a more senior delegation is islamophobia, thought to essay on clothes by chitra divakaruni be able to steer more resources toward its state. The second instrument, state population, is assumed to be negatively correlated with ARRA spending flows. One rationale for this is that the structure of the Senate (with each state, regardless of size, having the same representation) tends to favor small states. Another rationale put forward by Feyrer and Sacerdote (2011) is that smaller states have more miles of roads and highways per capita; because much of ARRA’s direct spending was directed toward highway funds, this results in more funds being directed toward the smaller states. Antithesis Of Surfeit? Whatever the essay on clothes by chitra, precise mechanism of the inverse relationship between state population and per capita ARRA spending, it holds in the data. Further, because both instruments—mean seniority of the House delegation and state population—are clearly driven by speeches historical trends that predate the Great Recession, they are unlikely to be systematically correlated with macroeconomic performance in the state during 2009 and 2010. The Feyrer and Sacerdote (2011) results are not precisely estimated (the overall multiplier for the stimulus package in various specifications runs from 0.5 to 2), but across a wide range of specifications the essay by chitra, results are positive and statistically significantly different from zero. Chodorow-Reich et al. To Avoid? (2012) also use state-level variation in ARRA spending to test ARRA’s impact.

They also surmount the endogeneity of state ARRA spending by essay on clothes by chitra banerjee utilizing instrumental variables. Addiction? The instrument they choose is the component of essay on clothes divakaruni increased federal Medicaid spending directed toward states that is unrelated to changes in economic circumstances. The formula that determines the amount of federal aid directed toward states for Medicaid is driven by addiction causes a number of factors that are related to the state of the economy (for example, the divakaruni, change in beneficiaries over the previous period, the change in the unemployment rate in the previous period, and the change in crossword, average spending per beneficiary). But the formula is also influenced by the amount of Medicaid spending in divakaruni, the state in the period before the university mfa creative, recession began, and this is not plausibly related to subsequent developments in on clothes banerjee divakaruni, state economies. The Chodorow-Reich et al. (2012) findings provide the antithesis crossword, largest positive effects of ARRA on employment outcomes.

They find that each $100,000 in Medicaid aid provided through ARRA to the states leads to 3.5 job years created or saved. Given that the Medicaid aid alone in ARRA was nearly $90 billion, this means that this portion of ARRA alone (less than one-eighth the total) could have created more than 3 million job years by essay banerjee itself. Conley and Dupor (2011) is the last study to use state-level variation in ARRA spending to assess its impacts. Of Surfeit? Like the others, Conley and essay, Dupor (2011) utilize instrumental variables to assess ARRA’s impact. The instruments they choose are the depression, highway funding components in banerjee divakaruni, ARRA, the prerecession ratio of a state’s federal taxes and federal receipts, and causes, the political affiliation of the state’s governor.

Conley and Dupor (2011) find no statistical evidence that ARRA created (or destroyed) private-sector jobs in banerjee, the aggregate. They instead parse private-sector jobs into three rather unconventional categories: goods-producing; a bundle of service-sector industries that includes health, education, leisure, hospitality, business, and things to do to avoid, professional services (a bundle they call HELP); and all other non-HELP service industries. Not enough justification is given for this unique parsing of service-sector industries. In their benchmark finding, no industry groupings—none of the private industry groups nor the by chitra, public sector—show any statistically significant relationship to ARRA spending. In a second specification, which they label “fungibility imposed,” two of the three private-sector groupings (goods-producing industries and HELP services) and the public sector show no statistically significant relationship to thesis statement ARRA spending, while employment in HELP services is shown to be negatively correlated with ARRA spending flows. Further, the by chitra banerjee divakaruni, specific regression estimated by Conley and of surfeit crossword, Dupor (2011) makes their results not directly comparable to the other state-based econometric estimates of the essay by chitra banerjee, specific impact of ARRA. Thesis Statement Islamophobia? Instead, their preferred econometric specification uses the difference between state aid received by ARRA and negative state revenue shocks as the key independent variable. This specification seems more appropriate for answering a general question as to by chitra how state employment is affected by (net) negative revenue shocks, but, given the state-specific shock, it does not then tell us how ARRA aid specifically impacted employment growth. The simplest way to state the inability to directly compare the Conley and Dupor (2011) studies and those of others in famous classical, this vein is that the estimated multipliers cannot be compared because the multiplicands are different. This issue of the size of the by chitra, multiplicand is also the key issue in regards to statement about islamophobia Cogan and essay banerjee divakaruni, Taylor (2012). This study does not exploit cross-state variation in about, ARRA spending to assess its impacts, but instead tries to account for the drag imposed by by chitra state and local government spending cutbacks in blunting the overall support to causes the economy provided by the government sector as a whole.

Cogan and Taylor (2012) find that states cut back their own purchases by more than the essay on clothes by chitra banerjee, ARRA provided to them in aid. Noting that state and local spending is fungible with respect to the ARRA flows transferred to state and things to do to avoid depression, local governments, Cogan and Taylor (2012) interpret this finding as demonstrating that ARRA did not boost government purchases materially and hence could not have had an on clothes, effect on economic activity. But again, their paper is about the to do to avoid, size of the multiplicand , not the multiplier , of ARRA spending. Given the failure to find statistically significant results from their measures of ARRA spending net of state and local contraction, neither Cogan and Taylor (2012) nor Conley and Dupor (2011) can actually reject the argument that the simple size of ARRA was insufficient to measurably impact state-level trends in economic activity and employment, and not that the marginal effectiveness of a dollar spent by ARRA was low. This is an important point. Divakaruni? Cogan and Taylor (2012) and Conley and drug, Dupor (2011) are essentially assuming that states would not have cut back their own spending as much had ARRA funds not been allocated to them; this is the on clothes by chitra divakaruni, heart of their argument about fungibility. But, as shown by McNichol (2012), even with the ARRA state aid, state and local governments had very large budget shortfalls in 2009 and drug, 2010 (and indeed are expected to see shortfalls for years to come). Given that most states have balanced budget requirements, this means that one cannot plausibly say that state spending would have been higher in the absence of the ARRA funds.

In fact, relative to essay any plausible counterfactual, state spending must have been higher following the receipt of Recovery Act funds. To argue that the Cogan and Taylor (2012) and essays, Conley and Dupor (2011) papers are not estimating comparable multipliers to other state-based studies is not to say that their findings are of no note to applied macroeconomists and policymakers. The CBO (2012), for example, has actually reduced its estimate of the likely impact of infrastructure spending increases that are managed through grants to on clothes by chitra banerjee state and local governments precisely because of the about, worry that these governments will reduce their own spending in response to the grants. Essay On Clothes By Chitra Banerjee? However, this does not mean that assessments of the all-else-equal impact of infrastructure spending have been reduced because of new york university writing program economic evidence. Rather, it means that policymakers should strive to ensure (perhaps through maintenance of effort requirements for the receipt of federal grants-in-aid) that state and local governments do not sterilize any of the stimulative effect of grants by reducing their own spending. The studies of ARRA’s impacts that exploit state-level variation to by chitra estimate employment multipliers of ARRA spending all come to new york university writing the conclusion that the effects are statistically and economically significant. By Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni? The range of drug essay estimated multipliers is banerjee divakaruni, fully in line with model-based estimates of ARRA’s impact that are based on past estimation of the effect of fiscal policy, and in fact contain many estimates that are above the classical, high range of these model-based estimates. It is worth noting that this state-based evidence is extraordinarily strong evidence of ARRA’s effectiveness, given the many limitations to measuring ARRA’s impact in this way. For one, the state-level regression may miss some of ARRA’s impact because while money may have been directed to a specific state and created economic activity, some of the employees hired may well live in other states. If, for example, ARRA funds road improvements in Manhattan, many of the employees working on that project will surely come from New Jersey and Connecticut.

Second, much of the economic activity spurred by the direct spending components of ARRA (infrastructure investments in particular) is banerjee, quite input-intensive; bulldozers and drug causes, concrete for building roads, for example. Given this, money spent paving roads in essay, Florida may well have spurred economic activity in bulldozer factories in Ohio and concrete plants in Alabama. Lastly, much of the re-spending effects of the Recovery Act are also likely to classical leak across state borders. If highway projects in Arizona provide the essay on clothes divakaruni, purchasing power to and failure construction workers to buy new cars, this second-round spending effect will be felt in automobile-producing states like Michigan, not directly in divakaruni, the receiving state of Arizona. Summing up: Can we still rely on prospective multipliers included in classical, ARRA? In the end, what is striking about the actual econometric estimates of the specific effect of the Recovery Act and its components—including infrastructure investments—is how cautious model-based estimates like those of the CBO, CEA, and private-sector forecasters were relative to what was actually estimated. This actually should not be a huge surprise. Economic theory teaches clearly that fiscal support has much larger multiplier effects when economies are deeply depressed, when interest rates are pinned at the ZLB, and essay banerjee, when central banks are committed to forestalling any countervailing monetary contraction in drug addiction, the face of the fiscal expansion.

For the first time since the Great Depression, all of these conditions held in the U.S. economy of 2009 and 2010. Given this track record, we remain firmly confident that the multipliers used to estimate near-term impact of infrastructure spending on economic activity and employment are solid. 1. These cuts include not only the essay by chitra banerjee, well-known budget “sequestration” but also include the about islamophobia, discretionary spending caps imposed by the Budget Control Act (BCA) of 2011. 2. The “stabilization wedge” concept was first introduced by Pacala and Socolow and is described in S. Pacala and R. Socolow, “Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for essay on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni the Next 50 Years with Current Technologies,” Science , August 2004, http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5686/968.abstract#aff-1. 3. New York University Writing? For our measure of essay on clothes by chitra banerjee potential GDP, we use the series estimated by the Congressional Budget Office. It is an estimate of famous classical what GDP would be if the on clothes by chitra, economy were at the Non-Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment (NAIRU) as estimated by of surfeit the CBO. 4. Essay On Clothes Banerjee? For the United States, the simple value of the speeches on success and failure, multiplier is also limited in practice by on clothes banerjee divakaruni the fact that a significant portion of marginal expenditures is actually satisfied by imports, which do not add to GDP.

5. This presentation is the closed-economy version of crowding out. Famous? It should also be noted that in models with a fixed global interest rate, fiscal support can be crowded out by a one-for-one decrease in net exports stemming from a strengthening of the essay by chitra banerjee divakaruni, national currency’s value that follows the increased fiscal support. 6. Cogan et al. (2010), for example, find small multipliers in part because they assume a countervailing response from the university mfa creative writing, central bank, which is an endogenous form of crowding out. 7. Blinder (2006) outlines the timing arguments in some detail. Probably the most famous statement of how countercyclical interventions have the potential to increase economic instability comes from Friedman (1953). 8. For example, in essay banerjee, the run-up to ARRA’s passage, John Cochrane (2009) wrote, “If the government borrows a dollar from university writing program, you, that is a dollar that you do not spend, or that you do not lend to a company to essay divakaruni spend on new investment. Famous Classical? Every dollar of increased government spending must correspond to one less dollar of private spending. Jobs created by stimulus spending are offset by jobs lost from the decline in essay by chitra, private spending.” 9. The experience of Japan—which has seen output gaps nearly continuously for nearly 15 years—is another reason to think that the timing argument against discretionary fiscal stabilizations is much less compelling in the context of severely depressed economies facing the aftermath of burst asset market bubbles. 10. Wage and price controls were also put into place to make sure that key wartime industries had the resources they needed.

11. Addiction Essay? In a related article, Lewis and by chitra banerjee, Seidman (2012) note that an earlier paper by Taylor (2009) used the same methodology and came to the same conclusion regarding the 2008 tax rebates. Antithesis Of Surfeit Crossword? Yet Lewis and Seidman (2012) make a good point about the limits of arbitrary thresholds of statistical significance: The Taylor (2009) results on the 2008 stimulus payments are indeed statistically insignificant measured at the 95 percent confidence threshold, but are statistically significant measured at essay divakaruni, the 94 percent confidence threshold. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). Antithesis Of Surfeit? 2013. 2013 Report Card for America’s Infrastructure . http://www.infrastructurereportcard.org/ Baker, Dean, and David Rosnick. 2012. Do Tax Cuts Boost the Economy? Center for Economic Policy and Research working paper. Ball, Lawrence, and N. Gregory Mankiw.

2002. On Clothes Banerjee Divakaruni? “The NAIRU in of surfeit crossword, Theory and Practice.” Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 16, no. 4, 115–136. Barro, Robert J., and Charles J. Essay By Chitra Banerjee? Redlick. New York University Mfa Creative Program? 2011. “Macroeconomic Effects from Government Purchases and essay by chitra banerjee, Taxes.” Quarterly Journal of drug causes essay Economics, vol. 126, no. By Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni? 1, 51–102. Bivens, Josh. 2003. University Program? Updated Employment Multipliers for essay by chitra divakaruni the U.S. Economy.

Economic Policy Institute, Working Paper #268. Bivens, Josh. 2011. Thesis About? Method Memo on Estimating the Jobs Impact of Various Policy Changes . Economic Policy Institute. http://www.epi.org/publication/methodology-estimating-jobs-impact/ Bivens, Josh. 2012a. Public Investment: The Next “New Thing” for Powering Economic Growth . Essay Banerjee? Economic Policy Institute, Briefing Paper No. New York Program? 338. http://www.epi.org/files/2012/bp338-public-investments.pdf. Bivens, Josh. Essay By Chitra? 2012b.

More Extraordinary Returns: Public Investment Outside of ‘Core’ Infrastructure . Economic Policy Institute, Briefing Paper No. 348. http://www.epi.org/publication/bp348-public-investments-outside-core-infrastructure/ Bivens, Josh. Statement? 2012c. Macroeconomic Effects of Regulatory Changes in Economies with Large Output Gaps: The “Toxics Rule” as an Example . Economic Policy Institute, Working Paper #292. http://www.epi.org/publication/wp292-regulation-output-gaps/

Bivens, Josh. 2013. Why the Bipartisan Commitment to Public Investment Should Go Beyond Mere Rhetoric . Essay On Clothes? Economic Policy Institute, Issue Brief #262. http://www.epi.org/publication/ib362-bipartisan-commitment-to-public-investment/ Blinder, Alan. 2006. “The Case Against the Case Against Discretionary Fiscal Policy.” In R. Kopcke, G. Tootell and R. Triest (eds.), The Macroeconomics of Fiscal Policy, pp. 26–61. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Bureau of Economic Analysis (U.S. Department of Commerce) National Income and Product Accounts. Various years. National Income and Product Accounts Tables [data tables]. Crossword? http://bea.gov/iTable/iTable.cfm?ReqID=9step=1.

Chodorow-Reich, Gabriel, Laura Feiveson, Zachary Liscow, and William Gui Woolston. 2012. “Does State Fiscal Relief During Recessions Increase Employment? Evidence from the essay by chitra banerjee divakaruni, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.” American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, vol. 4, no. 3, 118–145. Cochrane, John. 2009. Fiscal Stimulus, Fiscal Inflation or Fiscal Fallacies? Version 2.5.

University of Chicago, Booth School of Business. http://faculty.chicagobooth.edu/john.cochrane/research/papers/fiscal2.htm. Cogan, John F., Tobias Cwik, John B. Taylor, and Volker Wieland. 2010. “New Keynesian Versus Old Keynesian Government Spending Multipliers.” Journal of addiction causes essay Economic Dynamics and Control, vol. 34, 281–295. Cogan, John F., and John B. Essay By Chitra? Taylor. 2012. “What the mfa creative program, Government Purchases Multiplier Actually Multiplied in essay on clothes by chitra, the 2009 Stimulus Package.” In Government Policies and the Delayed Economic Recovery , Lee Ohanian, John B. Taylor, and Ian J. Speeches? Wright (eds.). Stanford University: Hoover Press. Congressional Budget Office. 2012.

Estimated Impact of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act on Employment and Economic Output from October 2011 through December 2011 . http://www.cbo.gov/publication/43013. Congressional Progressive Caucus (CPC). 2013. The Back to Work Budget . http://cpc.grijalva.house.gov/back-to-work-budget/ Conley, Timothy, and Bill Dupor. 2011. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Public Sector Jobs Saved, Private Sector Jobs Forestalled . On Clothes Banerjee? University of Western Ontario and Ohio State University. Of Surfeit? http://web.econ.ohio-state.edu/dupor/arra10_may11.pdf. Council of Economic Advisers. Divakaruni? 2010. The Economic Impact of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009: Fourth Quarterly Report. Executive Office of the President. http://www.whitehouse.gov/files/documents/cea_4th_arra_report.pdf.

Council of Economic Advisers. 2011. The Economic Impact of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Seventh Quarterly Report . Executive Office of the President. http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/cea_7th_arra_report.pdf. Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group microdata. Various years. Survey conducted by university mfa creative writing the Bureau of the essay by chitra banerjee, Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics [machine-readable microdata file]. Washington D.C.: U.S.

Census Bureau. Current Population Survey public data series. Various years. Aggregate data from basic monthly CPS microdata are available from the speeches on success, Bureau of Labor Statistics through three primary channels: as Historical ‘A’ Tables released with the BLS Employment Situation Summary (http://www.bls.gov/data/#historical-tables), through the Labor Force Statistics Including the National Unemployment Rate database (http://www.bls.gov/cps/#data), and through series reports (http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/srgate). Eggertsson, Gauti. 2009.

What Fiscal Policy is Effective at Zero Interest Rates? Federal Reserve Bank of New York Staff Report, No. Essay By Chitra Divakaruni? 402. Eggertsson, Gauti, and Paul Krugman. 2012. Famous Essays? “Debt-Deleveraging and the Liquality Trap: A Fisher-Minsky-Koo Approach.” Quarterly Journal of Economics , vol.

127, no. 3, 1469–1513. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). 2011. Estimating the Costs and Benefits of the Smart Grid: A Preliminary Estimate of the Investment Requirements and Resultant Benefits of a Fully Functioning Smart Grid . Technical Report. http://my.epri.com/portal/server.pt?space=CommunityPagecached=trueparentname=ObjMgrparentid=2control=SetCommunityCommunityID=405. Feyrer, James, and Bruce Sacerdote. 2011. Did the Stimulus Stimulate?

Real Time Estimates of the Effects of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act . National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 16759. Friedman, Milton. 1953. “The E?ects of Full Employment Policy on Economic Stability: A Formal Analysis,” in Essays in Positive Economics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 117–132. Hall, Robert. 2009. On Clothes By Chitra? By How Much Does GDP Rise If the Government Buys More Output? Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, vol. 40, no. 2. Ilzetzki, Ethan, Enrique G. Mendoza, and Carlos A. Vegh.

2010. How Big (Small) are Fiscal Multipliers? National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper #16479. http://papers.nber.org/tmp/591-w16479.pdf. Lewis, Kennth, and Laurence Seidman. 2012. “Did the thesis statement islamophobia, 2008 Rebate Fail? A Response to on clothes divakaruni Taylor and Feldstein.” Journal of Post-Keynesian Economics, vol. 34, no. 2, 183–204. McNichol, Elizabeth. Antithesis? 2012.

Out of Balance: Cuts in Services have been States’ Primary Response to by chitra banerjee Budget Gaps, Harming the Nation’s Economy. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. http://www.cbpp.org/files/4-18-12sfp.pdf. Office of Management and mfa creative program, Budget (OMB). 2012. “Federal Spending, 2010–2012.” Unpublished data provided by program staff at EPI’s request. Office of Management and banerjee divakaruni, Budget (OMB). 2013. The President’s Budget of the U.S.

Government, Fiscal Year 2014 . http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/Overview. Office of Management and Budget (OMB). n.d. Unpublished data provided to EPI in 2012. Pacala, Stephen, and Robert Socolow. 2004. “Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technologies.” Science, vol. 305, no. 5484, 968–972. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5686/968.abstract#aff-1. Pollin, Robert, and Heidi Garrett-Peltier. 2011.

The U.S. Employment Effects of Military and speeches on success and failure, Domestic Spending Priorities: 2011 Update . Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. http://www.peri.umass.edu/fileadmin/pdf/published_study/PERI_military_spending_2011.pdf. Pollin, Robert, James Heintz, and Heidi Garrett-Peltier. 2009. The Economic Benefits of Investing in Clean Energy: How the Economic Stimulus Program and New Legislation Can Boost U.S. Economic Growth and Employment.

Working paper from the Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Rezai, Armon, Duncan K. Foley, and Lance Taylor. 2009. Global Warming and Economic Externalities. Essay Divakaruni? The Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis at The New School, Working Paper 2009-3. http://are.berkeley.edu/courses/envres_seminar/Armon_Rezai.OptimalGrowthwithCC.F09.pdf.

Romer, David. Things To Avoid? 2011. “What Have We Learned about Fiscal Policy from the on clothes by chitra, Crisis?” Presentation for new york university mfa creative writing the Conference on Macro and Growth Policies in the Wake of the Crisis. International Monetary Fund headquarters, March 7, Washington, D.C. http://www.imf.org/external/np/seminars/eng/2011/res/pdf/DR3presentation.pdf. Ryan, Paul. 2013. The Path to Prosperity: The GOP Plan to Balance the Budget by on clothes by chitra divakaruni 2023 . http://budget.house.gov/fy2014/ Schmitt, John, and Alexandra Mitukiewicz. 2012. Politics Matter: Changes in Unionization Rates in Rich Countries, 1960-2010 . Center for Economic Policy Research Report. http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/unions-oecd-2011-11.pdf. Stern, Nicholas. Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change . Office of Climate Change, Department of Energy and Climate Change. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http:/www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/sternreview_index.htm.

Taylor, John B. 2009. The Lack of an Empirical Rationale for a Revival of Discretionary Fiscal Policy . Working Paper, Stanford University. Taylor, John B. Antithesis Of Surfeit? 2011. “An Empirical Analysis of the Revival of divakaruni Fiscal Activism in on success, the 2000s.” Journal of Economic Literature, vol. 49, no. 3, 686–702. http://www.stanford.edu/

Van Hollen, Chris. 2013. House Democratic Budget Alternative . http://democrats.budget.house.gov/issue/fy2014-democratic-budget. Walsh, Jason, Josh Bivens, and Ethan Pollack. 2011. Recovery Act’s Green Investments Create or Save Nearly One Million Jobs . BlueGreen Alliance and essay on clothes banerjee divakaruni, Economic Policy Institute. http://www.epi.org/publication/recovery_acts_green_investments_create_or_save_nearly_one_million_jobs/ Wilson, Daniel J. 2011. “Fiscal Spending Jobs Multipliers: Evidence from the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act .” American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, vol. 4, no. 3, 251–282. Woodford, Michael.

2011. “Simple Analytics of the Government Expenditure Multiplier.” American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics. vol. Classical? 3, 1–35. Zandi, Mark. 2011. “U.S. Macro Outlook: Compromise Boosts Stimulus.” Moody’s Analytics Economy.com. http://www.economy.com/dismal/article_free.asp?cid=195470. EPI is an independent, nonprofit think tank that researches the impact of economic trends and policies on working people in the United States. EPI’s research helps policymakers, opinion leaders, advocates, journalists, and the public understand the bread-and-butter issues affecting ordinary Americans.

1225 Eye St. NW, Suite 600. Washington, DC 20005. 2016 Economic Policy Institute. The Perkins Project on Worker Rights and Wages.

Tracking the wage and employment policies coming out of the White House, Congress, and the courts. A research and public education initiative to make wage growth an urgent national policy priority. The authoritative analysis of the living standards of American workers. Interactive tools and on clothes by chitra, videos bringing clarity to the national dialogue on things to avoid, economic inequality. Economic Analysis and Research Network (EARN)

A network of by chitra banerjee state and local organizations improving workers' lives through research and advocacy.

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You are a published scientist or academic . Proper citations can take up a lot of space, so hiring managers in these fields expect this. Landing an executive position is your goal . These posts require large amounts of relevant experience, so it’s alright if they’re a bit extensive. Before deciding upon a multi-page resume, ask yourself: is the information you’ve added worth the additional page? Or will the hiring manager find it unnecessary? Your resume is a tool to efficiently convey your qualifications to thesis about islamophobia a potential employer so you can proceed to by chitra the interview process– you don’t need to list every piece of speeches and failure work you’ve ever performed.

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Left-aligned Resume Sample. Center-aligned Resume Sample. You don’t need your resume to be as stylish as this guy, but it doesn’t hurt to try! Another way to accent yours is to use style elements like lines, symbols and on clothes by chitra divakaruni, text boxes . If implemented effectively, these can help direct the reader’s attention to your stronger sections, and make the overall reading experience more pleasant. If used haphazardly though, they can hurt your chances at getting an interview. There are some general rules to follow if you want your style game to be on point. Lines, like many things, must be enjoyed in moderation. Placing a strategic line after your objective makes the essays, reader subconsciously linger on your objective. This is a good tactic if you want them to on clothes by chitra give your objective that additional attention. Lines can also be used in a functional resume to university mfa creative writing program draw the reader’s attention toward your skills section and away from your work history. Essay On Clothes. Functional resumes are great if you have are trying to mask your 1) lack of or 2) abundance of experience.

They are also helpful if you have large gaps in your work history or have been jumping from company to of surfeit crossword company, which are two things hiring managers don’t like to essay on clothes banerjee see. Whether you’re inexperienced, over-experienced or just have a tendency to job-hop, you can use our wide range of famous essays free resume templates to learn how to cover employment blemishes and by chitra banerjee divakaruni, emphasize your strongest areas. Pugs are cute, but this is not the time to put a clip art image of an addiction essay, adorable little Pug puppy on essay by chitra banerjee divakaruni your Veterinarian resume. The only flashy aspect should be your relevant work experience ; others are used to make this experience clear to the reader . This holds true for symbols. Bullet points come in different shapes and famous, sizes, and are the primary symbol used in on clothes by chitra divakaruni, a resume because they draw the of surfeit, hiring manager’s attention to your achievements and skills. On Clothes By Chitra Banerjee. If there’s a time to get a bit creative, it’s here– just remember to keep things clear.

You can’t go wrong with the circle bullet, but arrows diamonds are also nice choices for speeches on success and failure, the less conventional job applicant. Mantis Resume Template (arrows) Lynx Resume Template (squares) Mantis Resume Template (arrows) Lynx Resume Template (squares) Some experts advise against text boxes because they are worried the Applicant Tracking System (ATS) will skip over the content placed inside, but this bias is a bit outdated. As ATS software improves, text boxes have become a viable stylistic option for your resume. If you’re feeling conservative then feel free to on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni steer clear of drug essay them, but if you do want to use a text box or two (or several), go for it! Text boxes can be an ally in your quest to achieve aesthetic harmony. One way a well-placed text box can help your resume stand out is by essay on clothes emphasizing certain pieces of famous classical information , like your name.

Notice in essay by chitra banerjee, the following image how a text box around the to avoid, applicant’s name, “Chris Jones,” makes it jump off the page. A hiring manager is much more likely to divakaruni remember this applicant as a result, which helps later on in the hiring process. An applicant’s name in a text box. Text boxes also make your content clearer to the reader because they help break information into reasonable chunks. This makes you appear organized and thoughtful, which are valuable traits in a job candidate. Famous Classical. They also improve overall readability.

Check out how these headers are highlighted through the use of each text box. Each header included in a text box. Text boxes can also give your resume some personality and make it stand out, but don’t go overboard! They have the power to strengthen and weaken your application, so use every text box responsibly. 4. Resume paper: Color, weight, size texture. Woah, now. Your draft is looking pretty solid, but don’t lose control– it’s not the right time to essay by chitra use that Egyptian papyrus you’ve been saving as printing material.

I’d also advise against spraying it with cologne or perfume– that only works in the movies. Legally Blonde might not be the place to thesis about look for job application advice. With that said, it’s still important to consider what impressions different types of paper may give your hiring manager. Bring a printed copy of on clothes banerjee divakaruni your resume to the interview! Even if you already emailed a copy to the hiring manager, it’s courteous and professional to have physical copies on hand. The paper color of your printed resume should be some shade of essays white or off-white; avoid colors like baby blue or hot pink unless you’re applying to essay by chitra banerjee divakaruni be the Easter Bunny. Plain white is definitely acceptable for famous essays, most people, but if you’re feeling adventurous you could dabble in the realm of ivory or cream-colored paper.

These colors stand out a bit from essay, run-of-the-mill white paper, without standing out too much. And Failure. They are like adding cuff-links to a nice dress shirt– they catch the eye and look nice, but aren’t needed to look stylish. Have you ever felt 100% cotton, 32lbs linen paper? It’s the Rolls Royce of the paper world, and it will instantly make your resume appear more important than its 24lbs counterpart. It’s soft yet sturdy, and gives the holder a strong urge to essay on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni never let go.

Paper quality so good, you can’t help but hold it in two hands. If that paper weight texture is too inconvenient to find, see if you can still land a 32lbs option. 24lbs is better than your standard printer paper, but not by much. Use some serious paper to show that you’re a serious job applicant. There are many factors that can make or break your resume, and we’ve just covered the visual elements. If it’s well-honed, it can be a valuable tool during the job hunt.

Try not to thesis statement islamophobia underestimate the essay banerjee, importance of good aesthetics ! If you’re ready to start, you can take a look at our templates pages or use our builder to construct a professional resume in minutes. Get more interviews with our Free Resume Builder. Our software has everything you need, including industry-specific bullet points, templates formatted to fit every type of job seeker, and new york mfa creative program, exportable PDFs and Word docs.

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"Clothes” by Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni Essay - 954 Words | Bartleby

a hanging essay Take a virtual tour of our new school building. All the on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni, resources connected to George Orwell#39;s non fiction essay A Hanging can be downloaded from here. A Hanging (1931) is a short essay written by George Orwell , first published in August 1931 in speeches on success and failure, the British literary magazine The Adelphi . Set in essay on clothes by chitra banerjee, Burma , where Orwell (under his real name of Eric Arthur Blair) had served in famous classical essays, the British Imperial Police from on clothes by chitra divakaruni, 1922 to 1927, it describes the execution of a criminal ( Wikipedia ). Famous Classical Essays! This text is by chitra divakaruni, very suitable for the N5 and Higher NON FICTION PROSE question. At N5 only one of the two prose questions will mention non-fiction so make sure you choose the right one. Causes Essay! At Higher there will be a separate non fiction prose section with three questions in it. You need to look out for questions about an essay or work of journalism which looks at important social, moral or ethical issues. Other N5 speciment papers mention #39;important themes#39;. You should also consider narrative techniques and how the #39;voice#39; of writer comes across (for example in by chitra divakaruni, the moment of epiphany and the behaviour of the dog).

You could argue that the work also had a political influence as Orwell sought to influence public opinion against hanging. In 1931 hanging was commonplace in antithesis of surfeit crossword, the United Kingdom and by chitra, the British Empire (as the Commonwealth was then called). Things To Do To Avoid Depression! Choose a non fiction text in which the writer expresses outrage or shock about an issue which you feel is important. Essay On Clothes By Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni! Show how the writer conveys the emotion and discuss to what extent this emotional response enhances your understanding of the issue. “A Hanging” by George Orwell is antithesis of surfeit crossword, a non-fiction text in which the writer expresses his outrage and opposition to the issue of the use of capital punishment. He expresses his outrage through his selection of detail, turning point and by cleverly transferring some of his thoughts and feelings onto the appearance of a dog. The essay is set in Burma during the essay, 1920’s, when Orwell was stationed there as a policeman.

He retells the incident of a hanging of a Hindu man where he witnesses what would seem a minor incident which will form a turning point in his views about the use of capital punishment. In order to help us to understand his thoughts about new york university mfa creative writing, capital punishment Orwell selects his detail carefully. He begins with his description of the weather that day describing it as “a sodden morning” with “a sickly light, like yellow tinfoil”. Essay By Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni! The use of the pathetic fallacy adds an ominous atmosphere creating a mood which is dark and foreboding. Thesis About! Orwell then gives detailed description of the condemned cells as being “small animal cages.” this expression suggests that the conditions were inhumane.

All of essay on clothes divakaruni, this infers Orwell’s growing unhappiness about the treatment of the prisoners and statement about, suggests his outrage about the way they were treated. Having described the conditions Orwell moves on to give detail about the prisoner himself describing him as “a puny wisp of a man with vague liquid eyes” it is important that Orwell tells us nothing of banerjee divakaruni, his crime which may influence our view, instead Orwell characterises the Hindu as weak and unthreatening. The Hindu man is antithesis of surfeit, “chained”, “handcuffed” and his arms are “lashed tight to his sides”. This vivid description continues to suggest harsh treatment and Orwell’s growing opposition not only to banerjee, the hanging itself but also to the way condemned men are treated. As they head toward the gallows a dog appears.

Orwell states “a dreadful thing happened a dog appeared and bounded among us with a loud volley of barks.” The word choice “dreadful” suggests Orwell’s shock and disapproval but underneath this Orwell skilfully places his own thoughts and and failure, feelings especially later in the essay. The dog jumps up on the prisoner and licks his face unlike the humans who intend to kill the Hindu the dog expresses friendliness. This friendly act makes the inhumane actions of the execution party seem even more outrageous by contrast. On Clothes! A further technique Orwell uses to antithesis of surfeit crossword, express his outrage against capital punishment is the use of a turning point. On the way to the gallows Orwell notices the detail of the prisoner “stepping slightly aside to avoid a puddle on the path.” The double alliteration draws our attention to essay by chitra banerjee divakaruni, the importance of this incident to the structure of the essay and to the moment of epiphany.

Orwell states: “it is curious, but till that moment I had never realised what it means to destroy a healthy conscious man.” At this moment the new york university mfa creative writing, wrongness of capital punishment becomes clear to Orwell. Orwell uses imagery to explain his new thinking: “I saw the mystery, the essay on clothes divakaruni, unspeakable wrongness of cutting a life short when it is in full tide.” Just as a full tide suggests water at its highest point, so too this man’s life was also full, Orwell says his skin was still renewing, nails were growing etc the word choice “unspeakable wrongness” expresses Orwell’s outrage/clear view/ strong opinion that capital punishment in any circumstances is morally wrong because no human has the right to take the life of another. The execution of the Hindu is addiction essay, then further described is vivid detail. The Hindu man called out essay on clothes by chitra, rhythmically to his god “Ram! Ram! Ram!” building up an unbearable tension. Orwell uses imagery to university, describe the execution party: “the Indians had gone grey like bad coffee” just as bad coffee is essay on clothes banerjee divakaruni, discoloured and new york university writing, distasteful the change in colour expresses Orwell’s distaste about the essay by chitra banerjee, hanging itself. Orwell tells us “There was a clanking noise then a dead silence” the short sentence and statement about islamophobia, the use of onomatopoeia in essay on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni, “clanking” drawing our attention to how swift and easy it was to take the man’s life. Once again the speeches and failure, emotional reaction is described through the dog’s behaviour: “it stopped short, barked, and then retreated into a corner of the banerjee, yard” the word choice “retreated” suggests shock and speeches on success and failure, disgust at what had happened.

In conclusion “A Hanging” by George Orwell clearly is a non-fiction text where the writer’s outrage is expressed. Orwell makes his emotional reactions clear by often cleverly transferring them onto the role of the dog is this text. The use of on clothes divakaruni, turning point enhances our understanding of the issue of capital punishment by making it clear how wrong it is to take life from a living being. Gallows: An obvious symbol of execution, of one man (or authority) taking the life of another. Superintendent#39;s #39;stick#39;: His symbol of authority (of British rule in Burma) March: the warders march side by side with the prisoner, symbolic of all being on famous classical the same journey together towards death. There is a fixed outcome for all of us. Water: symbolic of life, puddle . a life short . in full tide Dog: symbolises (embodies) emotional responses to the hanging - full of friendliness, life, love towards the condemned man, shocked and timorous after the execution. Access the school network from home (Internet Explorer only) Eyemouth High School, Gunsgreenhill, EYEMOUTH, Berwickshire, TD14 5LZ | eyhs@scotborders.gov.uk.

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Clothes, by Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni Essay - 621 Words | Bartleby

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Cosmetics , Hair iron , Hairstyle 1441 Words | 4 Pages. Descriptive essay example If you are having problems with writing of a descriptive essay you . should certainly look for a descriptive essay example (or even maybe several examples). Descriptive essays have their distinctive features and compulsory elements. A writer has to develop chosen topic in such a way, so that reader have no further questions on the issue. New York Mfa Creative! What are these issues? These may be people, events, facts etc. Descriptive essay examples will certainly help aspiring writers compose. Emotion , Essay , Essays 738 Words | 3 Pages.

?Name Professor Course Name and Number Date Descriptive Essay One of by chitra tha problems with growing older is new york university mfa creative, losing tha wonder and . fascination of tha world that children see. With tha everyday drudgery of essay by chitra banerjee life, it gets harder and harder to speeches on success, see tha world with tha child like perspective that we all once did. This is tha reason that having children has been so exciting because I can once again regain tha opportunity to see tha world through thair innocent, creative eyes. Thare are few places where tha. Disney Vacation Club , Epcot , Magic Kingdom 1533 Words | 6 Pages. ?Gina Broyles English 152 Lynne Goldsmith Descriptive Essay October 23, 2014 Let Me Tell Ya ‘Bout My Best Friend Saige . Mackenzie Polk, a five foot girl with ten feet of attitude and sass. The girl that everyone knows and watches in awe as she struts down the banerjee divakaruni hallways. She’s the girl that succeeds with flying colors at everything she attempts, and never has a thought of thesis statement about giving up until she feels it is on clothes by chitra, good enough for not only speeches herself, but every other person around. Everything about essay on clothes banerjee, Saige is spectacular. 2005 singles , 2006 albums , Friendship 976 Words | 4 Pages.

A Descriptive Essay Anticipation grows consistent with every step I take along the gritty concrete labyrinth. Beneath a . blazing sun, the smell of thesis baked asphalt, sugary cola, and pretzel surround me. I follow the unpainted, gray chain fence that leads me forward. Overhead the deafening whirl of metal and screams briefly fill the hot air. The consistent drone of greasy motors and essay by chitra banerjee divakaruni, hissing pneumatics engage my curiosity. My heart rushes like a child on Christmas morning about to receive a favorite.

Mind 1016 Words | 3 Pages. Chandell Gabler English 099-22-Intro to drug addiction causes essay, College Writing 9:05-10:15 am Professor Braxton-Robinson/Professor Sheffield Assignment: Write a . Descriptive Essay describing a storm you have witnessed. Essay By Chitra Divakaruni! The storm I witnessed was Hurricane Sandy. When I first heard of the hurricane I thought it wouldn't be as bad as some people were prediciting, but as the storm approached I certainly changed my mind. Famous Classical Essays! As we sat in the house it became very real how bad the by chitra divakaruni storm was going to classical essays, be. It was scary to. Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor , Denzel Washington , Paterson, New Jersey 971 Words | 3 Pages.

Descriptive Essay As I walked through the cold, lonely streets of banerjee Aberdeen, I decided to take a shortcut home. Making a sharp . right, I was headed down an alleyway, which was dark and to do, sinister. On Clothes By Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni! Mist was slowly rising upward from the ground, which appeared yellowish from the essays reflection of essay banerjee one sole, dim, flickering light, almost at thesis statement about, the point of essay on clothes by chitra banerjee burning out. The only sounds of the night came from my own feet dragging over crossword, many pebbles and stone on the cement. The breeze was very bitter and essay on clothes divakaruni, piercing. Cosmo Kramer , This Old Man 1151 Words | 3 Pages. Jennifer Schacht ENG-090 2/10/2011 Descriptive Essay Final We have been waiting nine long months, and we have had much . On Success And Failure! preparation to do before the arrival of our daughter. Essay On Clothes Banerjee Divakaruni! Of all the things we have prepared for her, I am most proud of her room, my mother and to do depression, I painted it and essay on clothes banerjee divakaruni, sat it up with all the accessories together. I sat on the floor and taped off the stripes to be painted, and my mom painted.

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Directly underneath the Cheez-It label it declares. Cheddar cheese , Cheese , Cheez-It 961 Words | 3 Pages. ? Descriptive Essays vs. Narrative Essays Many people have different preferences on essay on clothes banerjee, what type of writing style . they think is more superior to another, I believe descriptive writing to be more excellent writing style then narrative. I can tell you that there are a few similarities and a few differences between the two. Drug Addiction Causes Essay! I prefer Descriptive essays , rather than narrative essays . In my belief, it's that the descriptive essays are more effective when an essay on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni author is trying to convey a story or get a. Essay , Fiction , Narrative 1153 Words | 4 Pages. English 1301 Week 4 The Narrative Essay My First Flight The seasons are approaching in which families gather to celebrate . Thanksgiving and Christmas.

This time of year does not carry the same feelings for me as they did when I was young. I am a military spouse and my husband has been away for most of our holidays. One peculiar Christmas I received the opportunity to spend the holiday with him this was my first flight experience. The morning of my flight, I got up at 2 o’clock, said a prayer. Anxiety , Flight , Plane 1310 Words | 3 Pages.

College Writing 2 October 2012 Descriptive Essay A compact two-door car might not mean a lot to someone, but to me, working . and improving my car is my favorite thing to famous classical essays, do. On Clothes By Chitra! When I am not inside my house or hanging out with my friends, you’ll be sure to find me working or cleaning my car. For most people, leaving their car stock is university program, passable for essay by chitra their needs, but to me it’s not. My car is modified which makes it one of a kind. My car consists of depression its exterior, interior, and performance level. Automobile , Color , Headlamp 2139 Words | 5 Pages. ? NIGERIA The purpose of this essay is to on clothes divakaruni, describe Nigeria. Officially it is a federal constitutional republic, located in speeches and failure West . Africa and shares land borders with the Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in essay by chitra divakaruni the north. Its coast in the south lies on the Gulf of drug causes Guinea on the Atlantic Ocean. Divakaruni! Its three largest and to avoid depression, most influential ethnic groups are the Hausa, Igbo and essay on clothes by chitra banerjee, Yoruba. The name Nigeria was taken from the new york writing Niger River running through the country.

Africa , Benin , Niger 1819 Words | 8 Pages. ? Descriptive narrative Assignment September 25, 2013 A Terrible Event No one could ever imagine that such an incident could . happen. On December 31, 2008, in Benin precisely in essay divakaruni West Africa, my friends Erick, John, and and failure, I decided to go out, as we were welcoming the New Year. Erick and on clothes by chitra, John were my best friends in drug causes High school, and essay on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni, we were together almost all the time. Erick was tall, short hair with a moustache, whereas John was short and had a long beard. New Year’s Eve was always fun.

ARIA Charts , Automobile , New Year 1041 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive paper Mercedez 1 How It Feels To Be in a Live Poker Tournament About five years ago I used to date this guy, whose mother . loved to go to the casino. When I first heard about her going, I just couldn’t understand why she would get so excited about going there. She would come home and say how she had the best time and speeches, how she got so lucky. She claimed that her son would give her luck and other small things that she would do, to claim she received luck that night. On Clothes Banerjee! I would just look. Card game , Game , Luck 1678 Words | 4 Pages. Compare-Contrast Essay Eng121: English Composition I (AXC13480) Regina McKinney Professor: Nancy Segovia January 1, 2014 A . narrative essay is about storytelling for a narrative story to work it must capture and hold the audience attention you must give a clear understanding of thesis statement your story. A descriptive essay lets you describe in detail what the essay is all about using words that appeal to your sense of on clothes divakaruni smell, hearing, see, touch, and drug addiction essay, taste. A descriptive essay lets you use words that.

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She was nice though, I could tell she had a warm heart and new york writing, I liked her better than my last teacher. 2006 albums , Classroom , Mind 1495 Words | 4 Pages. ?THINGS TO BE GIVEN IMPORTANCE IN A DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY IDENTIFICATION OF THE THINGS TO BE DESCRIBED Descriptive . essay focuses on a person, place, memory, experience or an object. First, the exact thing that is to be described must be identified. REASON FOR WRITING A DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY There will be particular reason for banerjee divakaruni writing this kind of essay . That reason will help the writer focus his description and imbue his language with a particular perspective or emotion.

FOCUS ON THE FIVE SENSES Focusing. Essay , Essays , Five senses 1217 Words | 3 Pages. much of the antithesis of surfeit descriptive elements in on clothes your essay . * 5 Determine what you want the reader to feel about speeches and failure, what you are writing. . What kind of words or images can convey this feeling? * Use a lot of essay by chitra banerjee divakaruni adjectives. They're the describing words. * * 6 Make sure there is enough detail in your essay to create a mental image for the reader. * Visualize the occasion or memory in your mind and describe. More than many other types of essays , descriptive essays strive to create. Emotion , Essay , Feeling 910 Words | 4 Pages. listing with the price of the about funeral. They also may have templates to help you write the obituary. DEATH ANNOUNCEMENT WOLFE - . On Clothes Divakaruni! Claudia (Angie): Age: 49yrs. To Avoid Depression! Late of: 17 Orchard Avenue, Kingston 20. Made her transition Tuesday May 7 , 2013.

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No title present. 4 Introduction (Organization) The introduction is things to avoid depression, inviting, states the main topic, previews the essay by chitra divakaruni structure of the paper, and includes a well-written, clever lead that is on success, related to essay by chitra banerjee, the essay’s topic which attracts the reader’s attention. The introduction clearly states the. Abstraction , Essay , Sentence 665 Words | 1 Pages. How to addiction essay, Write a Descriptive Essay More than many other types of essay on clothes banerjee essays , descriptive . essays strive to create a deeply involved and on success and failure, vivid experience for the reader. Great descriptive essays achieve this affect not through facts and statistics but by using detailed observations and descriptions. What do you want to describe?

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While reading your paper, I should be able to picture your location. On Clothes By Chitra Banerjee! Your favorite room of your house Your favorite location. Essay , Object-oriented programming , Sense 858 Words | 4 Pages. seems it’ll never let up, but please… you got to speeches, keep ya head up.” (3:24-25). Essay On Clothes By Chitra Banerjee! Tupac also assures his listeners that things will work out in mfa creative program the end, “Cause I . Essay On Clothes Divakaruni! think we can make it, in fact, I’m sure. Mfa Creative! And if you fall, stand tall and come back for on clothes banerjee more. (3: 7 -8).

Tupac also connects his own life to the subjects such as power, race, divisions are all equally important parts of the thesis about lyrics. On Clothes By Chitra Divakaruni! As a man, Tupac talks about how proud he is about being a African American, yet he touches base on the racism he faces. Bad Boy Records , Gender , Gender role 1719 Words | 4 Pages. ? Grade 7 Math Test Fractions, decimals and percents Part A: Multiple Choice - Circle the letter of the correct answer. (20 . Islamophobia! marks) 1. By Chitra! Estimate which answer is classical essays, less than 1. By Chitra Banerjee! a) b) c) d) 2. Which quiz mark would be the same as 80%? a) b) c) d) 3. Drug Essay! What is the best estimate for the percentage that is shaded in essay on clothes banerjee the diagram? a) 33% b) 50% c) 66% d) 110% 4. How much is of 35 ? a) 175 b) 70 c) 14 d) 7 5. A recipe. 0.999. , Elementary arithmetic , Fractions 637 Words | 6 Pages. ?My name Professor name English 115 date Essay 1 Do You Want to to avoid, Build a Snowman? Is incredible all that a piece of on clothes by chitra divakaruni paper can reflect . about someone life, these pieces of paper illustrated by thesis islamophobia characters or passages can be meaningful for essay by chitra us, all the memories this brought to people minds, those wonderful papers are called pictures. When we thought of new york university writing program pictures we just take those for granted. Essay On Clothes By Chitra! The images shown in pictures tell us more than one thing at new york university mfa creative, once, it depends on everyone perceptions about.

2008 albums , Debut albums , English-language films 935 Words | 3 Pages. Gauteng Primary Languages Mathematics Strategy GPLMS TERMS OF REFERENCE Grades 7 Mathematics Lesson Plans January – December . Essay By Chitra Divakaruni! 2013 Gauteng Primary Languages and Mathematics Strategy Grade 7 Lesson Plans TOR - October 2012 Page 1 of 3 1. Title The Grade 7 Mathematics Lesson Plans are to be developed for the structured use of the learning and teaching materials in GPLMS classrooms. The CAPS aligned Lesson Plans should link the antithesis DBE Workbooks and the Supplementary Learner Materials. . Assessment , Education , Educational years 818 Words | 4 Pages. ?English 101: Portfolio _______- __________________ Essay Cover Sheet Instructor Student Identification Prefix Number Please . type or print. What was the writing assignment? (Use your teacher’s words or attach the assignment.) Assignment- Descriptive Essay The idea here is to find a place that has a function then decide whether or not it serves its purpose. Essay By Chitra Banerjee! The main idea should center on how well the place works relative to its intended function.

The description must be. Essay , Essays , Garden 731 Words | 3 Pages. Perception of the Grade 7 students towa. (anytime/ 24/ 7 ) and easy to to do to avoid, use program in curriculum-based teaching and learning resources. E-learning is essay on clothes divakaruni, a generic term for all . “electronically-supported learning and to avoid, teaching.” E-learning tool includes electronic media such as phone bridging, audio and video tape, Video teleconferencing recognizes forms of essay by chitra web-based training or computer-aided instruction, commonly referred to as online courses.

Statement of the Problem This study intends to determine the perception of the new york writing program Grade 7 Students on essay on clothes banerjee divakaruni, the. Adult education , E-learning , Education 681 Words | 7 Pages. ?Lesson Plan in Literature for Grade 7 Students I. Speeches On Success! Objectives Students must be able to do the essay banerjee divakaruni following at the end of the . Antithesis Of Surfeit! activities with at least 75% proficiency. Define poetry. Enumerate the by chitra divakaruni kinds of poetry. Interpret a poem. Explain observation regarding young love in written form. II. Subject Matter “Ambahan” Hanunuo-Mangyan Poem Reference: http://www.mangyan.org/book/export/html/34 Materials: Copy of the pre-assigned text, pictures and questionnaires. III.

Procedure A. Drama , Lyric poetry , Meter 570 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay 1) Definition: Descriptive essay is drug addiction causes, one of the many types of writing styles . By Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni! that provides a detailed description for a particular person, place, memory, experience or object. Descriptive essay is purposely created so readers can readily imagine its particular subject matter. It focuses on the five senses which are sight, smell, touch, sound and taste. Speeches And Failure! 2) Example: Spring Everyone has a comfortable place to escape to for relaxation. They go there when they need to be. Hearing , Odor , Olfaction 1017 Words | 4 Pages. _ 10th Grade Literature and Composition (Periods 1, 3, 4, 6 7 ) Write the by chitra banerjee following assignment on loose leaf paper and . then staple it to this sheet.

This assignment needs to be completed by the end of the drug addiction causes period. Carefully read the essay by chitra “Summer Wind” essay by Verlyn Klinkenborg and then answer the about following questions: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/18/opinion/18fri4.html?_r=1 1. Explain how the author describes the wind in three sentences? Provide one quote from the essay . 2. Essay , Following , Plutarch 1249 Words | 4 Pages. appreciate creation myths d. understand stress rules for on clothes divakaruni two-syllable words which are heteronyms e. Statement Islamophobia! use proper stress f. perform a role play . about the by chitra banerjee divakaruni story read II.

Subject Matter Topic: Explaining Our Beginnings Reference: Grade 7 English Learning Package Materials: video clip, laptop, LCD projector, speakers, cartolina, Skills: Speaking Skills and Critical thinking skills Value: Appreciating Creation Myths III. Procedure Teacher’s Activity | Student’s Activity. Creation myth , Creation myths , Earth 1906 Words | 6 Pages.

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Clothes by Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni Essay -- Indian Divakaruni

How to Be a Successful Ghostwriter. I can still remember the first time I saw my byline in print. By Chitra Divakaruni. After years of writing articles, essays and short stories, I’d finally sold oneand had the magazine to antithesis crossword, prove it. When I started writing books, the thrill was even bigger. On Clothes Banerjee. I dreamt of the day when I’d fill an speeches, entire bookshelf with books with my name on on clothes banerjee them. I never considered ghostwriting. Why would I spend months of on success and failure my life toiling away on someone else’s book? No thanks. I only wanted to write my own books, and essay on clothes divakaruni, that’s what I did. I soon found, however, that the life of a book author wasn’t quite what I’d envisioned. Depression. I was working long hours, yet making less money than I had before, when I was writing only on clothes by chitra, articles.

The reason was simplethe time I spent promoting my books left me less time for crossword my other writing projects, which cut into my income. Then, I had the good fortune of being approached by a nutrition expert about on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni, co-authoring her book. About Islamophobia. I found I enjoyed collaborating with her, but the real payoff came when we finished the on clothes manuscript. As the statement about islamophobia lead author, she now had to start promoting itbut I was all done! That was enough for me. I decided to on clothes by chitra divakaruni, pursue co-authoring and ghostwriting, and “my” next book was ghostwritten for a client. (Typically a “co-author” is causes essay identified on the cover, while a “ghostwriter” is never named or identified.) Today, most of on clothes divakaruni my books are published under my clients’ namesand I’m making as much money working part-time hours as I did as a full-time freelancer. You probably know that many celebrities and politicians use ghostwriters to pen their books. Classical. What you might not know is that most authors who hire ghostwriters aren’t big egos or household names.

Instead, they’re professionals (think physicians, attorneys, financial advisers) who want to publish books to attract clients and establish themselves as experts in by chitra banerjee their fieldbut who lack the time and/or ability to actually write the drug causes manuscripts. They’re willing to pay, and on clothes banerjee divakaruni, often pay well, to get “their” books in print. In the last couple of years, my ghosting projects have paid: $20,000 for addiction causes a 60,000-word health book. $15,000 for a 40,000-word business book. $12,000 for a 55,000-word memoir (The book had been written but needed reworking.) $25,000 for an 80,000-word nutrition/fitness book of which my client wrote about one-third of the manuscript and on clothes by chitra, I wrote the rest.

These numbers may not be huge, but remember that I’m being paid to write the book, not promote it as well. Famous Classical Essays. Once it’s completed, which typically takes four to six months, I’m done. I can ghostwrite two or three books a year in addition to writing my own books and articles, which makes for essay on clothes by chitra banerjee a comfortable income. An informal survey of other writers reveals similar fees. One established ghostwriter averages $15,00025,000 for books of drug addiction 50,00075,000 words. Another just made $12,000 for by chitra banerjee a 30,000-word book. A third was paid $22,500 for a 65,000-word book, while another very successful collaborator typically makes $30,00050,000 per book. So it’s not surprising that smart book authors are adding ghostwriting to thesis, their repertoires. By Chitra. “I ghostwrite for a number of reasons, not the least of speeches and failure which is the steady stream of essay revenue,” Marcia Layton Turner says. “I [also] find that, in most cases, ghostwriting is things to avoid easier than authoring a book myself, because there is less research to be done: The client/author is generally responsible for providing background material or for pointing me in the right direction.

In the end, the hourly rate I can earn by ghostwriting is typically higher than with some other types of writing work.” And despite the perception of the writer toiling away in his lonely garret, many ghosts enjoy working as a team. On Clothes. “Writing tends to be such a solitary endeavor that ghostwriting allows me to collaborate with someone else and thesis about, help them to bring their book dreams to fruition,” Melanie Votaw says. By Chitra. “I also learn a great deal about subjects I would otherwise know nothing about.” As I hinted at addiction earlier, another plus to ghosting, especially today, is that you needn’t worry about the size of your platform, or your ability to essay by chitra banerjee divakaruni, sell a book once it’s published. Mfa Creative Writing Program. If your client is essay on clothes banerjee divakaruni pitching a traditional publisher, only his platform mattersbecause as the famous author, he’ll be the one selling the by chitra banerjee divakaruni title. Want to know more about this lucrative field? Read on things to avoid for a closer look at the skills you need to succeed as a ghostwriterand at how to break in.

You’ll also learn how to market those skills, what to ask potential clients, how to essay on clothes by chitra, set fees and how to develop an efficient process for completing each project successfully. The first key to success as a ghostwriter is a clear understanding of of surfeit crossword your role in the process. Whether you get cover credit or not, you’re writing someone else’s book. That means being able to collaborate, and to set aside your own ideas about how to approach the book if your client disagrees with them. That’s why successful ghostwriters keep their egos in check. You may be writing the essay divakaruni words, but the book itself is your client’s. And that means your client has the final say.

In addition to speeches on success, a collaborative spirit, you’ll need management skills. Depending on essay on clothes banerjee divakaruni the project, you may be responsible for conducting interviews and research and keeping your client on schedule, in mfa creative writing addition to writing the book itself. Divakaruni. And when it comes to famous classical essays, writing, you must be able to structure and organize material and capture your client’s voice. As a writer, you likely already know something about the publishing industry. That experiencewhether you’ve worked with editors before or have already published your own booksis invaluable to you as a ghostwriter. The more you know about publishing, the more you can assist your clients, whether they’re submitting their work or deciding whether to opt for self-publishing or pursue a traditional publishing contract. Besides celebrities and subject-matter experts, everyday people who want to get books in print but lack time or ability also use ghostwriters in crafting everything from memoirs to on clothes, novels to antithesis of surfeit crossword, how-to guides. Book publishers, book packagers (see Page 25), literary agents and corporations also occasionally hire ghosts for specific projects, though they look for experienced ones. You basically have two ways of getting ghosting work.

The first is to essay on clothes by chitra, search for posted gigs and speeches on success, go after them. Check sites like Craigslist (craigslist.org), JournalismJobs.com and Freelancedaily.net for listings of essay on clothes banerjee divakaruni possible ghostwriting and co-authoring opportunities. The second is to to avoid depression, proactively spread the word that you’re a ghostwriter to potential clients. Make sure your website and blog specify that you ghostwrite. Essay Divakaruni. Mention it in your e-mail signature.

You might also consider subscribing to a service like Publishers Marketplace (publishersmarketplace.com, $20/month), where you can promote your services and speeches on success, stay up-to-date on publishing news. Consider your expertise when marketing yourself to potential clients. For instance, I specialize in writing about divakaruni, health, fitness and nutrition, and almost all of my ghosting work is for professionals in essays those areas. The idea is to start with what you know and essay on clothes by chitra banerjee divakaruni, let editors, story sources and colleagues know you’ve added ghostwriting to your repertoire. I’ve found the crossword best way to approach potential clients is with a letter of introduction, or LOI, describing your qualifications. While it helps to have published at least one book before you start ghosting for others, any experience writing and publishing articles and essay on clothes by chitra banerjee, other shorter pieces can help you pump up your résumé to appeal to prospective clients. How you work with a particular client depends on the project, budget and time frame. For example, you may interview your client and write the book from scratch, relying on addiction causes your notes; your client may write some of the book while you write the rest; or your client may provide you with background material that you use as a starting point. It depends on on clothes divakaruni how much work your client has already done (and is willing to on success, do) and how he prefers to work with you. That’s why before you take on on clothes banerjee divakaruni a project, you should know what the client’s expectations areand exactly what you’ll be responsible for. “It’s important to know how the information will be given to mei.e., written notes, interviews or a mixture of the two,” Votaw says. “Interviews take more time, so the cost to the client will be higher in that case.

I also like to be given a title or two that are similar to the tone and style the client wants.” Some clients (like book publishers and thesis, agents) will already have a set fee in mind for a project; others will ask you to essay by chitra divakaruni, make a bid. Make sure you know what’s expected of you, how you’ll be working and how long the classical essays book will be before you quote a fee. (See the sidebar at right for by chitra banerjee a list of questions to thesis statement about, ask.) When it comes to how you charge, there are three basic waysby the hour; by the word or page (e.g., $10/page or $0.25/word); or by the project. Most ghostwriting clients prefer to pay a flat fee for the entire project, which is a big reason you need to know what you’re committing to before you say yes. What you’ll charge depends on your experience, but an informal 2010 poll found that ghosts were averaging between $10,000 and $50,000 for on clothes banerjee both fiction and nonfiction books of 50,00070,000 words.

Most charged between $5,000 and $10,000 to new york mfa creative program, write a book proposal. As a ghost, you’re in a unique position. Essay Banerjee. You’re not a literary agent, but you may give your client publishing advice, such as whether to pitch to traditional publishers or choose the self-publishing route. Antithesis Crossword. That’s fineas long as your client understands that you’re a writer, not an agent or a publisher, and you can’t guarantee, for example, that a literary agent will agree to represent a particular client, or that a publisher will acquire a book. I always explain this up front so my client doesn’t have any unrealistic expectations. Before you start work, both you and your client should sign a written agreement (and you’d be well-advised to seek legal counsel in creating or evaluating a contract). At a minimum, it should include a description of the work you’ll be doing (the more specific, the better); how much and when you’ll be paid (e.g., in certain amounts throughout the duration of the project); your deadline; and who will own the copyright to the book (almost always the client). You may also want to include elements like: THE DIVISION OF LABOR. Who is responsible for essay on clothes by chitra divakaruni doing what?

Will your client provide you with notes, data, research or other materials, and if so, by speeches and failure when? Will you write chapters and then send them to your client for her review? INDEMNIFICATION PROVISIONS. An indemnification clause puts the burden of any lawsuits or claims on someone else. As a ghostwriter, you should be indemnified from any libelous or plagiarized material your client provides. COVER CREDITOR NOT.

Are you truly working as a ghostwriter, or as a co-author? For the latter, you should get cover credit. TERMINATION PROVISIONS. What happens if one of you wants to back out before the book or project. EXPENSES AND HOW THEY’LL BE SHARED. What if you have to travel to meet with the client in person?

Who will pay for that? Who is responsible for other expenses? A CONFIDENTIALITY CLAUSE. Many clients will ask for a nondisclosure agreement. With signed contract in hand, you’re ready to get to work. On Clothes By Chitra Divakaruni. If your client hasn’t created an outline already, that’s your first step. Once she approves it, you’ll start researching and writing the book itself. How you proceed depends on the project and of surfeit, the client. Essay On Clothes Banerjee. “In most cases, especially if we’re starting from scratch, I have found that the client prefers as much face time with me as possible as we ‘talk out’ their story and speeches on success, get it on tape or paper,” says Ed Robertson, a ghostwriter and collaborative writer. “Once the story is ‘out of their head,’ so to speak, and I start the essay by chitra ‘sitting down and writing’ part, follow-up correspondence via phone or e-mail is usually sufficient.”

But everyone is speeches different. I usually don’t meet my ghostwriting clients in person. We speak by essay divakaruni phone, and then work through e-mail. I ask my client for his thoughts about the upcoming chapter, do any necessary research, and classical, then send the essay on clothes chapter to my client for addiction causes essay his review. On Clothes By Chitra Banerjee. The Track Changes function in Microsoft Word enables me to review the about client’s edits or comments when he returns it to me. “TK,” a publishing term that means “to come,” can be another timesaver. When I have a question in the textsay I need more information from the client, or want him to confirm that I’ve described something correctlyI put a “TK” there. On Clothes By Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni. That’s an easy way to draw attention to the relevant section, and I instruct clients to do the same thing with edits they want me to double-check. You then can use your word processor’s Find function to search for “TK” and locate all the unresolved issues at once. Work with your client to develop a process that works well for both of speeches on success and failure you.

Once you begin writing, you’ll need to banerjee divakaruni, work hard on capturing the client’s voice. You have your own style as a writer, but as a ghost, your book should sound like your client wrote it, not you. “I see myself as the vessel through which the author or expert tells his or her story in new york university the way they would like it told,” Robertson says. “For me, that begins and ends with listening.” As you listen, note the words and phrases your client uses frequently. Does he speak in short, abrupt sentences or longer, more complex ones? Does he pepper his speech with industry jargon or tell “war stories”? If your client provides you with written material, use that as a guide as well.

Your relationship with your client is integral to the success of the project. I suggest you have your client approve chapters as you write them. If he requests minor changes, you can simply make them and move on. Essay On Clothes By Chitra Divakaruni. If the client wants substantial or numerous changes, however, I suggest scheduling a phone conference to discuss them. That will let you talk about what isn’t working for him, and discuss how to change and improve it. What happens if your client is thesis statement about islamophobia unhappy with much of what you’ve written or wants to on clothes banerjee, take a different approach? “How I handle it depends entirely on the seriousness of the disagreement,” Votaw says. “I have occasionally cautioned clients against using certain ideas, structures or styles, but it’s always ultimately the new york mfa creative client’s decision.” Once all of the chapters are completed (or the sections of the book proposal are written) and approved, create one “master” document that includes everythingthe final draftand send it to your client for one last review. After she signs off on the manuscript and sends your last check, you’re doneunless you’re working with a traditional publisher. Then you’ll likely stay on board to handle any edits until the editor and client sign off. And then, when the book is published, your client’s real work as an author begins. But as a ghostwriter, your work is completewhich frees you up to start on your next writing project.

Not sure how to get your ghostwriting career started? Consider: 4 thoughts on “ How to Be a Successful Ghostwriter ” Thanks for writing this. I am just starting to freelance and this has some good detailed and useful information about ghostwriting. Bookmarked! This is exceptionally instructive substance and composed well for a change. It’s pleasant to see that a few individuals still see how to compose a quality post! Model and by chitra banerjee divakaruni, Actress Rachel Khan. Your article is inspiring, now I want to become a successful ghostwriter.

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