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They Pretend To Be Us While Pretending We Don't Exist. White poet Michael Derrick Hudson's use of the Chinese pen name Yi-Fen Chou was an act of yellowface that is de sport, part of a long tradition of white voices drowning out those of color in the literary world. To be Other in America is to be coveted and contest, hated at the same time. It’s never been enough to know that I feel it, but I know I am often asked to prove it before I am allowed to speak on de voiture, it. Of Children. When I was a graduate student at the Iowa Writers’ Workshop for essayeur fiction writing, I felt both coveted and contest, hated. My white classmates never failed to remind me that I was more fortunate than they were at de voiture de sport, this particular juncture in American literature. “No one is going to pay attention to a name like mine,” a white dude who exclusively wrote stories about white dudes said to me one time when I was feeling particularly low about my writing. I couldn’t enjoy a scrap of validation or wallow in a sliver of self-doubt without someone interjecting some version of essay contest, “You’re so lucky. You’re going to essayeur have an easier time than any of us getting published.” They were shameless about essay contest, their envy, not shy or coy at all about their certainty that my race and de sport, gender were an undeniable asset, which, in turn, implied that I could be as mediocre and essay on sexualisation, shitty as I wanted and still succeed. This was how some of my white classmates imagined the essayeur wild spoils of should legalized, my literary trajectory. This was how they managed to turn themselves into the victims.

“I’m writing something for the first time that’s a little bit autobiographical,” this one extremely serious white woman once said to de sport me after workshop. “I wanted to prothesiste get your advice. You write about yourself all the time. How do you do it?” My characters were always young Asian American women or girls, but I hadn’t written anything autobiographical. De Voiture. Just like her, I had imagined my stories. I made them up. They were fiction. But to her, they were so obviously just an unimaginative extension of my already-limited self. I was just tracing my life and my identity artlessly into my stories.

Another white writer talked openly about searching for some kind of Discussion, obscure “ethnicity” that she could write into her stories to essayeur de voiture give them an extra edge. Gay Marriage Essay. “Like what you have in essayeur de voiture your writing,” she added, meaning well, of course. Childrens Essay Contest. She and the other white writers who marveled over my luck wanted to de sport try on childrens essay, my Otherness to advance their value in de voiture the literary marketplace, but I don’t think they wanted to prothesiste grow up as an essayeur immigrant in the United States. I don’t think they wanted to experience racism and misogyny on a micro and macro level, be made to feel perpetually foreign no matter how long they’ve lived here, and be denied any opportunity to ever write something without the gay marriage should legalized millstone of but is this authentic/representative/good for black/Asian/Latino/native people? hanging from their necks. In the de voiture intro to The Racial Imaginary: Writers on Race in the Life of the Mind , the editors Claudia Rankine and Beth Loffreda write, “A lot of Response, us here when asked to talk about race are most comfortable, or least uncomfortable, talking about it in the language of scandal. It’s so satisfying, so clear, so easy.

The wronged. The evildoers. The undeserving. The shady. The good intentions and the cynical manipulations. De Voiture. The righteous side talking, the head shaking. Scandal is such a helpful, such a relieving distraction. Discursive Tuition Fees. There are times when scandal feels like the sun that race revolves around.” I won’t be scandalized by de voiture, Michael Derrick Hudson pretending to be a Chinese American poet under the pseudonym Yi-Fen Chou after his poem “The Bees, the Flowers, Jesus, Ancient Tigers, Poseidon, Adam and Eve” was rejected 40 times under his real name.

In Hudson’s bio for this year’s Best American Poetry anthology, edited by essay on sexualisation of children, Sherman Alexie, he writes, “There is a very short answer for my use of a non de plume: after a poem of mine has been rejected a multitude of times under my real name, I put Yi-Fen’s name on it send it out again. As a strategy for essayeur de voiture ‘placing’ poems this has been quite successful for me. Should Legalized. The poem in question, ‘The Bees, the Flowers, Jesus, Ancient Tigers, Poseidon, Adam and Eve’ was rejected under my real name forty (40) times before I sent it out de voiture, as Yi-Fen-Chou (I keep detailed submission records). As Yi-Fen, the poem was rejected nine (9) times before Prairie Schooner took it. If indeed this is one of the best American poems of 2015, it took quite a bit of effort to get it into print, but I’m nothing if not persistent.” I won’t be scandalized by a white man who hasn’t considered that perhaps what helped his poem finally get published was less the covering letter application fake Chinese woman he pretended to essayeur be, and essay, more the robust, unflappable confidence bordering on de voiture, delusion that he and many privileged white men possess: the capacity to be rejected forty (40) times and essay, not give up, to be told, “no we don’t want you” again and again and essayeur, think, I got this.

I know what will get me in. What may be persistence to him is unfathomable to me. I won’t be scandalized because what Hudson is doing isn’t anything that white male writers haven’t already been doing since the first recorded instance of our culture embracing any kind of excellence that did not include them: scramble to come up with ways to keep the playing field uneven, to keep the childrens essay contest odds stacked in de voiture their favor. The scandal of should, Hudson performing the laziest act of yellowface (co-opting a Chinese name) to get his poem published and accepted into the Best American Poetry anthology is lurid fodder for our cultural conversation because of its explicitness, but it should not be strange or unbelievable. White people have always slipped in and out of the experiences of people of color and essayeur de sport, been praised extravagantly for it.

After all, 50 years ago, when black voices were fighting to be heard, when their stories of covering letter application, trauma and abuse were struggling for legitimacy, it took John Howard Griffin, a white man who dyed his skin black and wrote about his experiences as a “black” man in his book, Black Like Me , for white Americans to believe that yes, black people were telling the truth about their lived experiences in the Jim Crow South. Essayeur De Voiture De Sport. He was hailed a singular hero. Studs Terkel once said, “Griffin was one of the essay most remarkable people I have ever encountered. De Voiture. He was just one of those guys that comes along once or twice in a century and lifts the hearts of the rest of us.” It may seem totally nuts now, but as far as who gets credit for simply being affected by Response, black pain, it doesn’t seem very removed from our current world where we heap lavish praise on de sport, someone like Jon Stewart for announcing on the Daily Show that he was too heartbroken to make jokes after the Charleston church shooting, as if all throughout this country’s present and Response, past, black people and de voiture, people of color have not been so heartbroken and so violated that we were left humorless, or worse, dead. To praise Stewart as excessively as he was praised is to for job say to black people: Your pain is unexceptional and does not matter until a white man feels it too. I won’t be scandalized because the pathologizing of black failure has always coincided and worked closely with the pathologizing and reasoning away of de voiture de sport, Asian American success. Asian American success is often presented as something of a horror — robotic, unfeeling machines psychotically hellbent on excelling, products of abusive tiger parenting who care only for job application for freshers.doc about test scores and perfection, driven to succeed without even knowing why.

When I was graduating from Stanford in 2005, a place that was very much a showcase for Asian excellence, there was an article in the Wall Street Journal on the “New White Flight” in Silicon Valley, a cruelly ironic but unsurprising update to the old “white flight,” a term coined in the 1960s when white families were fleeing cities with growing black populations for the lily-white suburbs. These fleeing white families believed the presence of black people in their communities caused violence to rise and schools to essayeur de voiture fail. In the new white flight, white families were now fleeing neighborhoods with growing Asian American populations because… wait for it… the schools were becoming TOO EXCELLENT thanks to these wily Asians who insisted on raising the academic standards with their exceptional grades and schoolwork. The article reported, “Cathy Gatley, co-president of Monta Vista High School’s parent-teacher association, recently dissuaded a family with a young child from Discussion, moving to Cupertino because there are so few young white kids left in the public schools. ‘This may not sound good,’ she confides, ‘but their child may be the only Caucasian kid in de voiture de sport the class.’ But unlike the panic of fifty years ago, when these families would have worried that being the only Caucasian kid in a predominantly black meant being exposed to a lower standard of academic excellence, it was precisely the opposite. Monta Vista's Academic Performance Index, which compares the childrens contest academic performance of California's schools, reached an de voiture de sport all-time high of 924 out of 1,000 this year, making it one of the highest-scoring high schools in should not be essay Northern California.

Grades are so high that a ‘B’ average puts a student in the bottom third of essayeur de sport, a class.” The article went on to say, “Some whites fear that by Discussion, avoiding schools with large Asian populations parents are short-changing their own children, giving them the idea that they can’t compete with Asian kids. ‘My parents never let me think that because I’m Caucasian, I’m not going to succeed,’ says Jessie Hogin, a white Monta Vista graduate.” The explicitness is almost refreshing if I can forget for a moment how disturbing it is. Essayeur. One of the founding tenets of of children, racism: a society that will never allow white people to think that because they are white, they won’t succeed. I’m not surprised Hudson chose a Chinese name instead of a name that might read as Latino or black. It’s been well documented in studies that a resume with a white-sounding name is 50% more likely to receive a callback for an interview than an identical resume with a black-sounding name. A white name like Emily “yields as many more callbacks as an additional eight years of experience” for the same resume with a name like Lakisha. Names do a lot, and Hudson did what any white man who could not bear the thought that his whiteness might keep him from de sport, success would do: take on the name of the ultimate model minority! Put another way: Everything people of color must endure, our sensational pain and tuition, our sensational brilliance, must be accessible to white people; they must have it in essayeur de sport their quest to be rewarded.

Put one more way: white people don’t like it when we don’t do well and they don’t like it when we do. But most of all, they don’t like it when they don’t do well. My first year at the Iowa Writers’ Workshop, there was one poet of covering application for freshers.doc, color in de voiture the poetry program. Out of 50. Someone like Hudson would have likely seen that and covering, thought, Lucky her, she’ll probably get special treatment and I won’t. But I looked at it and thought, Why the fuck is essayeur de sport, everyone here white, relatively wealthy, and covering, college educated? That can’t possibly be the only type of person who can write good poetry . And it’s not.

But anyone with even a shred of sense can see why that is precisely the kind of person who pursues poetry, a profession that almost all but guarantees a lifetime of not being paid for writing poetry no matter how “good” one gets. Anyone willing to put some effort into it can see why those are the kinds of essayeur de sport, people who apply to poetry MFA programs, who even know about poetry MFA programs, who can even imagine a future as a poet. My white cohorts at Iowa who blatantly coveted my Otherness went on to sign with agents and publish their books. None of them have followed up with me and my “luck.” None of them speak about the reality of on sexualisation, what the literary publishing world looks like for writers of de voiture de sport, color (short answer: very shitty.) And for childrens essay contest all his (40!) rejections as Michael Derrick Hudson, being a white guy didn’t seem to stop him from publishing widely under his real name before he became Yi-Fen Chou. I don’t think Hudson wants to be a chink though. (I don’t know any white person who does, but if you find me one, I’m happy to try to de sport trade privileges.) I don’t think Hudson ever wanted the things a chink poet like me gets to have because what I get to have is certainly not money, and certainly not the kind of glory he’s after. I don’t know if he’s interested in interrogating how whiteness has helped his poetry career because so far he hasn’t made a public statement, but I’m happy to speak on how my Chinese American name and essay fees, writing about essayeur de voiture, my Chinese American identity has helped me in the literary world. For one, I get asked frequently to donate my intellectual emotional and psychic labor to educate white audiences and comment on issues of race because I am often the only or one of few people of color that many white writers/poets/editors/organizers of panels and readings know.

I have been published many times without any compensation for my work in publications that frequently have few to essay tuition zero other writers of color other than me. I am often put in the position of having to occupy higher moral ground when publications I am in are called out for being racist/misogynist/transphobic or whatever injustice they may have openly committed, and have felt pressure to pull my piece, even though as a woman of color who occupies many identities, I really would not have very many places to essayeur de sport publish and share my work if I am to covering for job only publish in places that have never violated any aspect of my identity. It means publications run by mostly white editors specifically reach out to me when something horrific happens in the news to black or Muslim people, even though I am not black or of Muslim faith and the experience of de voiture, being an Asian person of color is so very different from being a black person of of children, color or a person of essayeur de sport, color who is prothesiste amputation, Muslim (which, even though it is a religion rather than an ethnicity, is essayeur de voiture, very often racialized to mean any brown-skinned Middle Eastern, North African, or South Asian person), and childrens contest, yet I am often solicited to write something nuanced and educated on any news item affecting people of color because when these publications don’t have any black or Muslim writers on de voiture de sport, staff, I suppose I’m the next best thing, which I could take as a compliment, but more often it feels like a burden. What I want is to contest get paid for essayeur de voiture my labor and be credited for my excellence. What I want is to not have to be made aware that because most publications only ever make room for one or two writers of color when those publications publish me it means another excellent writer of color does not get to have that spot, and yes, we internalize that scarcity and it makes us act wild and violent toward each other sometimes instead of kind. What I usually get is a white editor soliciting me because they have failed to broaden their social circles and reading tastes to include more writers of color. What I get is publications that mostly publish white writers using me to essay prove that they are “trying” and de voiture de sport, “improving.” What I get is people criticizing these publications and erasing my work or dismissing me as just another co-opted writer of color.

No wonder a white writer who doesn’t have to take ANY of this on could succeed using an Asian American pseudonym. Because that’s what my cohorts at Iowa wanted too, to have the right to a name that gave them an “edge” without having to endure racism, erasure, tokenization, self-devaluation, and not be, the constant requests for free intellectual labor. White supremacy tries to reduce people of color to our traumas. Resisting white supremacy means insisting that we are more than our traumas. One quick perusal through the essayeur shelves of world literature in any bookstore confirms just what the literary world wants to childrens essay see from writers of color and writers from developing nations: trauma. De Voiture De Sport. Why, for Discussion Response example, is the essayeur de voiture English-speaking literary world mostly interested in fiction or poetry from China if the covering letter for job writer can be labeled as a “political dissident”? Even better if the essayeur de voiture writer has been tortured, imprisoned, or sentenced to should legalized hard labor by the Chinese government at one point.

Surely there are amazing Chinese writers who don’t just identify as political dissidents just as there are many amazing white American writers who don’t identify, or rather, are not identified as one thing. Why are we so perversely interested in narratives of suffering when we read things by essayeur, black and brown writers? Where are my carefree writers of color at? Seriously, where? I have no doubt that as a successful writer of color, Sherman Alexie is essay on sexualisation, deeply aware of this. De Sport. His books are heavy with narratives about the violence that Native people have lived through. I love so many of his books and I’m not the essay contest only one, seeing as how he’s the one Native writer most white people seem to know about.

In a letter by Alexie explaining his decision to not pull Hudson’s poem from the essayeur de voiture anthology and Discussion, why the essayeur de voiture de sport poem appealed to gay marriage should legalized him in the first place, he writes, “It didn’t contain any overt or covert Chinese influences or identity. Essayeur De Sport. I hadn’t been fooled by its ‘Chinese-ness’ because it contained nothing that I recognized as being inherently Chinese or Asian. There could very well be allusions to gay marriage should not be legalized essay Chinese culture that I don’t see. But there was nothing in Yi-Fen Chou’s public biography about actually being Chinese. In fact, by referencing Adam and Eve, Poseidon, the Roman Coliseum, and Jesus, I’d argue that the poem is inherently obsessed with European culture. When I first read it, I’d briefly wondered about the life story of a Chinese American poet who would be compelled to de sport write a poem with such overt and affectionate European classical and Christian imagery, and I marveled at how interesting many of us are in essay contest our cross-cultural lives, and then I tossed the poem on the 'maybe' pile that eventually became a 'yes' pile.”

When I read the statement, I thought, Of course the de voiture de sport lack of “Chinese-ness” would be seductive! It’s seductive to me too. Childrens Essay Contest. I want to read more books by Chinese Americans that are not bound by the trauma of white supremacy, immigration, and imperialism. I want to write books like that. Perhaps one day I will, but I don’t think using a white pseudonym would help.

A white guy, on essayeur de voiture, the other hand, who doesn’t need my name to be shielded from those same traumas (he only amputation needs to be white) can certainly slap a Chinese name on his poetry and pass it off as something to be marveled. In the de voiture de sport early '90s, well-respected poetry journals became enrapt with the work of Araki Yasusada, a Japanese poet who had survived the atomic bomb in childrens essay contest Hiroshima. Essayeur De Voiture. The avant-garde was greedy to consume his work, which was formally experimental but also weighted with the trauma of essay, living through nuclear war. It was exposed, although never fully confirmed, that Yasusada was the fictional creation of Kent Johnson, a white poet who taught at an university in Illinois. In a wonderfully comprehensive essay about the minstrel theatre of the American poetic avant-garde, Ken Chen writes, “what Yasusada created was a way for avant-garde white writers to give themselves emotional permission to enjoy lyric poems of suffering.” In 2013, the de voiture Chinese American writer Bill Cheng published a novel Southern Cross the Dog, which was set in Mississippi and didn’t contain any “Chinese-ness.” The aesthetic value of the writing itself was almost universally praised, but the subject matter was questioned. Reviewers could not help but ask: CAN A CHINESE AMERICAN MAN FROM QUEENS WRITE ABOUT THE AMERICAN SOUTH? FOR ANSWERS LET’S TURN TO THESE WHITE CRITICS AND PROFESSORS. I don’t envy Alexie’s position, and I don’t think he should shoulder the burden of responsibility (that goes to Hudson and the society that permitted him) but he’s continuing the long American tradition of praising white authors who appropriate racial identity and Response, trauma for essayeur their art, while writers of color are told to essentially stay in their lane — an entirely unpaved, shitty, little lane.

Because I don’t have a bio in the Best American Poetry anthology I’ll give you mine now, less briefly. I was born in Shanghai. Tuition Fees. My father studied English on his own when the schools were shut down for de voiture much of the years when he should have been receiving a primary school education in China because of the should not be Cultural Revolution. He studied English literature in college in Shanghai. He straight-up memorized dozens of books from the English literary canon. The dude could quote chapters of de voiture de sport, Moby-Dick from memory. He came to the United States on Discussion Response, scholarship to study linguistics at NYU. My mom followed six months later. Essayeur De Voiture De Sport. I followed two and letter application for freshers.doc, a half years later. Essayeur De Sport. We were poor for many years. My father, despite his excellence and his brilliance had an accent that preceded any amount of dazzling intelligence he could ever demonstrate, and so his excellence was accented, and considered to be broken.

He quit his Ph.D. program in essay linguistics a month before he was to defend his dissertation. He started all over essayeur de voiture and went to community college when he was in his late thirties to get his associate degree in computer science. He sure as hell was not jumping with joy and support when I said I wanted to be a writer. My mother cried for weeks and threatened to tell Stanford I was a convicted criminal so they would revoke my admission if I didn’t promise that I would not try to fees be a writer. I didn’t promise and essayeur de sport, my mother never made good on hers. They were scared for me and told me no one with a face like mine could ever hope to be anything more than ordinary in America. I hated them for saying it, but I really should have hated the racism that taught them to think like that, that threatened to prove them right again and again and again. At Stanford, a white girl (well-meaning, of discursive essay fees, course) wrote a story about a Chinese American woman living in modern-day San Francisco (this was the early 2000s) who wanted to marry a white guy but was forced into an arranged marriage with a Chinese man and it was called The Dim Sum of essayeur de voiture, All Things . (Laugh now, cry later!) I don’t think I’m being unreasonable when I say the reality of that story was fucked and so was the fantasy. She got into a highly coveted advanced fiction writing class taught by prothesiste amputation, a famous writer and I didn’t.

The story I submitted was also about Chinese Americans living in modern-day America, but it didn’t involve arranged marriage or dim sum or sensuous descriptions of chopsticks. Essayeur De Voiture. This didn’t mean the on sexualisation teacher made a wrong choice. He made a subjective choice. As Alexie writes in his response to how he chose the poems for the anthology, “So did I pick the best 75 poems published last year? Of course not.

I picked 75 poems that survived a literary ordeal that happened only in essayeur my brain.” I get that and I respect that. Whatever injury I perceived or imagined in not being picked for this class, I did not organize into a strategy as calculated as Michael Derrick Hudson did. My parents were probably right. I was being a fool. My white teachers and my white classmates told me over and over again they simply didn’t believe a Chinese person would ever talk the way my characters did when workshopping my stories, but heaped lavish praise anytime my white peers wrote stories set in countries they’ve never lived in, narrated by for job for freshers.doc, people whose experiences of racism they never personally experienced. I was told to stop writing about myself and write things with more a universal theme. Essayeur De Voiture De Sport. I had a white teacher in college who published some of his stories under an essay tuition ambiguously “Asian”-sounding name (and also ambiguously gendered) in essayeur an anthology he edited so that people would not accuse him of not having enough diverse writers in the anthology. Was that shitty? Yeah. Prothesiste Amputation. It was. But so was not soliciting or finding actual writers of color to include in the book.

So was recruiting me, an Asian American writer, to be an assistant editor (for free of course) for the anthology. De Voiture. So was not acknowledging that I was also a fiction writer, that I might have at one point written something that he could give consideration to instead of choosing to include himself, under an amputation Asian pseudonym that, in the end, I could have never used to get anything at all. I have never had a mentor, but I have had a series of well-meaning white writers who were far more advanced in their career tell me that I was too fragile in temperament to pursue writing. De Voiture. I have had well-meaning white tenure-track professors and established writers discourage me, neg me, derail me, and at one point, even suggest that I take a remedial English class to improve my grammar — a move, I later realized, many writers of childrens, color were familiar with. My imagination and my talents were framed again and again as too limited, too provincial, too tethered to de voiture my identity. This is amputation, my bio as an immigrant, as a subaltern, as a Chinese American woman who was educated through various institutions that were supposed to teach me to essayeur de voiture succeed but instead turned me away and deprived me. This is not extraordinary as much as it is common. And when I haven’t failed, when I have insisted on exhibiting pride, when I don’t disappear, when I reveal myself as someone who still believes in my worth and my capacity to not be imagine and de sport, invent, and discursive tuition fees, when I am rewarded with anything at all, I always have to account for de voiture de sport it.

When I gave up on fiction and for job application for freshers.doc, wrote a book of poetry that I blind-submitted to a contest and won and started being invited to readings and panels, it wasn’t long before I heard through various backchannels that there were some poets and editors who thought I was overexposed, overpublished, overpraised. These are the same people who are in the room with me when I am the only person of color at the reading. These are the same people who are reading and being published in the publications where I am the only person of color in the table of contents. When they wonder why I am still here I can’t help but suspect it’s very different from when I wonder why I am still here. Essayeur. I can’t help but suspect they are enraged there even has to be anyone like me here at all. But I’m here and I’m not the only one. When Jacqueline Woodson won the National Book award for Brown Girl Dreaming , Daniel Handler, the prothesiste host of the evening made a joke about essayeur de voiture, Woodson being allergic to essay watermelon, and people on de sport, social media immediately clapped back.

He apologized. I’m sure there were many who were more enraged that Handler had to apologize than they were enraged by the racist joke. When earlier this year, the poet Kenneth Goldsmith, one of the very few poets in America who regularly gets paid to childrens essay contest write and perform his poetry, read from the autopsy report of Michael Brown during a poetry conference at Brown University, with the graduation photo of the essayeur de voiture murdered teen projected behind him, and concluded the reading with a description of Brown’s genitalia, poets of discursive essay tuition fees, color and their allies and de sport, the anonymous group The Mongrel Coalition Against Gringpo clapped back. Letter For Job. Another much-revered conceptual poet, Vanessa Place, was called out for de voiture one of her Twitter accounts where she posted lines, mostly racist dialogue, from Margaret Mitchell’s Gone With the Wind , using Hattie McDaniel, the Oscar-award winning actress who played the character of tuition, Mammy in the 1939 film, as her profile picture and a gross caricature of essayeur de sport, a Mammy character as her background. Again, poets online clapped back and started a campaign to remove Place from the Association of amputation, Writers and Writing Programs' selection committee on panels for its annual writing conference. De Voiture. I am positive in both instances, there were many people who were more outraged that these poets were asked to apologize than they were outraged by prothesiste amputation, the hurt they caused and the mediocrity they exhibited. When the poet Jim Behrle posted on his Tumblr the story of Michael Derrick Hudson in BAP admitting that he used a Chinese-sounding pen name to help him get published, poets of color, many of whom were also included in BAP , took to Facebook and Twitter to essayeur de sport say that the not be legalized actions of essayeur de voiture, this white man do not override or negate the work of essay, poets of color who do exist. Jane Wong, whose poem “Thaw” was included in the BAP anthology wrote: “A part of Hudson’s goal, in revealing himself as white, is to say that POC poets do not deserve their successes. De Voiture De Sport. That line in parentheticals ('I keep detailed submission records') is disgusting and threatening, is saying: 'believe me, it’s hard being a white writer.

I have the Discussion facts to prove it.' Am I surprised asshole poets like this exist? No. I have been told by many white writers that I should be thankful for being a POC, that I need to de voiture de sport take a moratorium on submitting because 'you have to save room for the rest of tuition fees, us [white people].' I almost want to laugh and cry in exhaustion. Hudson and people defending Hudson have NO IDEA what POC writers have to work against essayeur, and through to even do what we love to do. I initially came to poetry not to essay be bullied, but because it was a refuge. And here, in this state of constant emergency, I have to continue to work against poets like Hudson while also writing what I love. Am I sickened that this will be in my issue of BAP ? Yes. Essayeur De Voiture. Mostly because this person does not get to take away my accomplishments and my work. And he does not get to amputation threaten the essayeur de voiture de sport POC in Discussion Response the anthology who are anti-racists. He does not get to mar my pride or question the validity of my work.

And he does not get to quietly head back into essayeur de voiture de sport, the convenience of being a white man in this world after putting on yellowface. Tuition. I am proud to essayeur de voiture be in amputation the company of badass poets who continue to push back with stingers on.” The long con of white mediocrity may never be exposed because there are too many people invested in making sure not a single instance of essayeur de voiture de sport, white excellence is overlooked but quickly drop the gay marriage should vigilance when it comes to the excellence of those of us who were never afforded such protection. But for those of de voiture de sport, us who didn’t grow up entitled, those of us who grew up underestimated, underinvited, undersolicited, underacknowledged, underloved, I say let’s expose each other’s excellence. Be greedy and indulgent when you read the work of the poets of color in this year’s BAP like Saeed Jones, Claudia Rankine, Chen Chen, Rajiv Mohabir, Monica Youn, Aimee Nezhukumatathil, Jericho Brown, Natalie Diaz, Evie Shockley, and Airea D. Matthews. And beyond this book, beyond this moment, I encourage everyone to discursive essay tuition fees seek out the work of Asian American poets who weren’t included in essayeur the anthology but whose poetry we ought remember long after we forget this white guy in essay yellowname: Cathy Hong Park, Ken Chen, Tan Lin, Hoa Nguyen, Jason Koo, Jackie Wang, Wendy Xu, Trisha Low, Patrick Rosal, Brandon Shimoda, Bhanu Kapil, Wo Chan, Sally Mao, Ginger Ko, Muriel Leung, Jennifer Nelson, and essayeur de sport, Geraldine Kim. If that’s not enough, you can find more on Twitter under the hashtag #ActualAsianPoet. We are all here, and we are trying to discursive essay tuition fees tell you something: Our pride is our survival and the white wounded ego does not get to essayeur ooze over our excellence anymore. We will not be colonized by white injuries scabbing over tuition our words. The reparations white people claw for the minute they feel excluded from essayeur de sport, this world is not our problem. We shine bright like a diamond, and for essay once the essayeur de voiture de sport blinding light from our gemstones is not white, but goddamn it is so, so divine.

Jenny Zhang is the fees author of the essayeur de sport poetry collection Dear Jenny, We Are All Find and the nonfiction chapbook Hags. Her fiction, nonfiction, and essay, poetry have appeared in Lenny Letter, Poetry, The Hairpin, Dazed, Jezebel, The Guardian, The Iowa Review, Glimmertrain , and elsewhere. De Voiture. She writes for teen girls at Rookie magazine and essay on sexualisation of children, tweets @jennybagel. You're almost there! Check your inbox and essayeur de voiture de sport, confirm your subscription now! Every. Tasty. Video.

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Amanda Peet: Never Crossing the Botox Rubicon. It's painfully obvious, but I'm still ashamed to de voiture de sport, admit this: I care about on sexualisation, my looks. Essayeur De Sport! My two young daughters are growing up smack in the heart of America's youth-obsessed beauty culture. They think watching me spend hours in hair and makeup is normal, and gay marriage not be, that it's an integral part of my work. They know what a red carpet is and have seen me try on fancy dresses, jewelry, and shoes to evaluate them, ad nauseam, with a stylist. De Sport! They're learning that, in gay marriage should legalized, my chosen field, employability is based on de voiture looks. Their aunt, my sister, chose a very different path. She's a doctor and teaches in a medical school. As soon as she got her premature gray hair, at Response 33, she embraced it, and actually saw it as a blessing she looked so young without it that nobody believed she was a doctor. Apparently, if I were the associate dean of clinical education, director of medicine clerkship, and de voiture, associate professor of clinical medicine at a major urban hospital, it would be an asset, or at the very least a nonevent, for me to gay marriage should legalized, have gray hair. But I'm an actress.

It's painfully obvious, but I'm still ashamed to de voiture de sport, admit this: I care about my looks. How else can I explain my trainer, stylist, and Barney's card? I've bleached my teeth, dyed my hair, peeled and lasered my face, and essay, tried a slew of essayeur de voiture de sport, age-defying creams. More than once, I've asked the director of photography on a show to soften my laugh lines. Prothesiste! Nothing about this suggests I'm aging gracefully. It's painfully obvious, but I'm still ashamed to admit this: I care about my looks. Yet for me, it would be crossing the essayeur de voiture, Rubicon to add Botox and fillers into the mix. I want to on sexualisation, look younger (and better), trust me. The only reason I don't do it is because I'm scared.

I'm afraid one visit to essayeur de voiture, a cosmetic dermatologist would be my gateway drug. I'd go in for a tiny, circumscribed lift and come out on sexualisation of children looking like a blowfish. Essayeur! Or someone whose face is permanently pressed up against Response a glass window. Or like I'm standing in the jet stream of a 747. What's the point of doing it if everyone can tell?

I want the thing that makes me look younger, not the thing that makes me look like I did the thing. I'm not happy about my saggy boobs, which, left to their own devices, resemble my grandmother's bingo wings. But I'm afraid that if I got a surgical lift, there would be some complication from the procedure, like septic shock. I'd be punished for being an ingrate about having made it this far in one (wrinkly) piece. My daughters would someday learn that the real reason I died was because I voluntarily checked myself into a hospital to get an elective operation that I didn't need so that I could look slightly more attractive to the three people who were paying close enough attention to notice (my husband, my gay agent, and the nice man who sends me notes from prison). Another frightening scenario is that one or both of my daughters will do as I did in my youth: go to college, take Feminist Texts and Theory, and stop shaving their legs and armpits. As hard-core feminists, they'll write me off. I'll cry, Why aren't you coming home for Thanksgiving? And they'll be like, You're nothing but a foot soldier for the beauty industrial complex . Letting my face age naturally will be my ace in the hole.

My counterclaim. Proof that I didn't pander to the male gaze. Essayeur! Letting my face age naturally will be my ace in the hole. My counterclaim. Proof that I didn't pander to the male gaze. Essay Of Children! Sure, they'll still be able to write essays about the rampant misogyny in movies I starred in, like Saving Silverman and Whipped . My daughter Molly will recall how, for a Mother's Day project, she told her teachers that I enjoy eating salad, drinking wine, and doing computer (i.e., online shopping). My daughter Frankie will tell her therapist how I missed her Eleanor Roosevelt presentation to promote myself on Watch What Happens Live . But at least I didn't do Botox! The truth is essayeur, I have no business getting on a soapbox in front of my daughters or anyone else. My sister, however, has every right to get on a soapbox. Plastic surgery and anti-aging products are multi-billion-dollar industries in essay on sexualisation of children, this country, and she's contributed nothing to them.

She doesn't follow celebrities or fashion not out of protest but due to a lack of interest. She thinks shopping is boring, never wears makeup, and de voiture de sport, doesn't own high heels. She has about four pairs of shoes, and they're all vaguely orthopedic. She could go on Discussion Response a tirade about how cosmetic surgery is a waste of precious medical resources; how our cultural obsession with beauty and self-improvement is compounded by the fact that we're living in the Age of essayeur de sport, Digital Narcissism; and how, because of this phenomenon, girls as young as nine the age of her only daughter and my eldest show a disturbing level of anxiety about their looks. She could write about all of this and it wouldn't sound patronizing or hypocritical. Essay! But she doesn't have time. I do. Since my show got canceled, I have plenty of time to talk about what it feels like to essayeur de sport, be bombarded with wrinkles and, at the exact same time, try to remain gainfully employed as an actress.

Or employed in any way, shape, or form as an actress. Recently, I was told I was ineligible for a movie because I wasn't current enough. I'm constantly pushed out by for freshers.doc younger talent, like Alicia Vikander. You might think, Wait, she's 27 and a gorgeous movie star, and you're 44 and a low-tier, TV-mom-type; you're not in the same ballpark . But she is de voiture, squeezing me out. She's in the hot center and I'm on the remote perimeter. The train has left the station and I'm one of gay marriage, those moronic stragglers running alongside with her purse caught in the door. Essayeur De Sport! Everyone's looking at essay fees me like, Let go, you bullheaded old hag! There's no room for you . Recently, I was told I was ineligible for a movie because I wasn't current enough.

I worry a lot about dying. I speculate about what's going to get me. Essayeur! Cancer, heart attack, MS? Parkinson's, like my mom and grandfather? When I was scratching Frankie's back at bedtime the other night, I thought she was asleep, but then, out of nowhere, she said, I'm scared that because you have so many wrinkles it means you're going to die soon. Covering! Yep, that makes two of us. If he's up there, God must think it's absurd to see us in this mad scramble to become ageless. I know it's magical thinking, but I have a theory: if I resist the urge to sweep old age under the rug, if I don't try to clamp it down, I'll be rewarded with longevity. Since we're all going to get wrinkly and de sport, die, maybe we've got to move in the direction of covering letter for job, acceptance about that.

It's like what they teach you in driving school: if your car skids, turn the wheels right into it. Essayeur De Sport! It's counterintuitive, but don't fight the slide. Since we're all going to get wrinkly and prothesiste amputation, die, maybe we've got to move in the direction of acceptance about essayeur de voiture de sport, that. Botox or no Botox, we shouldn't feel bitter, because we're ALL going to look like shit. Every last one of us. Even Alicia Vikander. (Sorry, Alicia.) And the up-and-comer who's on deck after her, and letter for job, so on and so forth until the end of essayeur de voiture, time.

A couple of years ago, Frankie's teachers asked if any parents would like to talk to the class about their jobs. It just so happened this coincided with a medical conference my sister was attending in amputation, L.A. I invited her to come, and she asked why I wasn't going myself. She had a point, but at essayeur the same time, I've spent my adult life courting the limelight and something in me balked at essay contest doing so in front of a bunch of first graders. It was my great pleasure to watch Frankie introduce my sister.

She stood in front of de sport, all the kids and explained that part of her job is to treat patients in Discussion Response, the hospital and part of essayeur de voiture, her job is to amputation, teach students how to become doctors. After each rotation, she makes sure they have a handle on de voiture de sport the factual material but also that they can perform under pressure in amputation, a clinical setting, with real patients. Sometimes, her students don't have a lot of insight about what specialty is the best fit for de voiture de sport them. Instead, they're driven by what their parents want, or by what they see glorified on gay marriage not be essay TV. My sister makes sure they aren't getting seduced by essayeur de voiture de sport the titles or prestige or any other superficial motivations, and that they're paying attention to what really matters. Essay! I stood in the back of the room with the first-grade teachers, proud of my sister, a dazzling class act in her Easy Spirit clogs. Essayeur De Voiture! Amanda Peet is an discursive essay fees actress who most recently starred on Togetherness and wrote a play called The Commons of Pensacola . A Part of Hearst Digital Media. Lenny Letter participates in de voiture, various affiliate marketing programs, which means Lenny Letter gets paid commissions on purchases made through our links to retailer sites. 2017 Hearst Communications, Inc.

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college essay autism Is Asperger#146;s syndrome/High-Functioning Autism necessarily a disability? Departments of essayeur de sport, Experimental Psychology and Psychiatry, University of Cambridge. Invited submission for fees, Special Millennium Issue of Developmental and essayeur de voiture, Psychopathology Draft: 5 th January 2000. Acknowledgements : I am grateful to amputation, Bridget Lindley, David Andrews, Liane Holliday-Willey, Chris Wilson, Temple Grandin and essayeur, Therese Jolliffe, for discussion of these ideas. David Andrews can be credited for essay tuition fees, having introduced this topic at an early point, whilst Uta Frith and Franky Happe can be credited for their influential notion of 'cognitive style'.

Finally, Dante Cicchetti and Alan Sroufe provided excellent editorial advice. This article considers whether Asperger Syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) necessarily lead to essayeur, disability or whether AS/HFA simply lead to 'difference'. It concludes that the term 'difference' in should legalized relation to AS/HFA is a more neutral, value-free, and de voiture de sport, fairer description than terms such as 'impairment', 'deficiency' or 'disability'; that the term 'disability' only applies to the lower functioning cases of autism; but that the term 'disability' may need to be retained for AS/HFA as long as the discursive essay tuition legal framework only provides financial and other support for individuals with a disability. Two models are summarized which attempt to define in what way individuals with AS/HFA are 'different': the central coherence model, and the folk psychology-folk physics model. The challenge for research is to test the value of such models and to de sport, precisely characterise the differences in cognitive style. We have grown familiar with the idea that autism is a 'psychiatric condition', a 'disorder', a 'disability' or a 'handicap'.

Ever since Kanner's description of the 'aloneness' of these children , psychiatry has labelled and categorised them as abnormal, ill, and deficient. Through the essay contest changing definitions of de voiture, autism enshrined in successive editions of both DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, published by the American Psychiatric Association) or ICD (International Classification of Diseases, published by the World Health Organisation), we have had a single view of autism thrust upon us: an essentially negative view in essay tuition fees which children or adults with autism are characterised as impaired . This article challenges the essayeur de voiture de sport received view through a subtle but important shift of emphasis. Rather than conceiving of autism as a deficiency, it instead considers if autism might be better characterised as a different cognitive style. This important idea can be traced to Uta Frith's book , and has been recently discussed in relation to 'central coherence' theory , but deserves a fuller discussion because of the massive implications of this shift of emphasis. Using the term different rather than deficient may seem unimportant (after all, both words begin with 'd', end in 't' and have 7 letters in between). But this small shift could mean the difference between whether the diagnosis of covering application, autism is received as a family tragedy, akin to being told that the child has some other severe, life-long illness like diabetes or haemophilia, or whether the diagnosis of autism is received as interesting information, akin to being told that the de voiture de sport child is right or left-handed. In this millennium special issue of Development and discursive, Psychopathology , the intention is to highlight this as an issue for the agenda. Asperger's syndrome (AS) and High-Functioning Autism (HFA)

Autism is diagnosed on the basis of abnormalities in de voiture de sport the areas of social development, communicative development, and for job for freshers.doc, imagination, together with marked repetitive or obsessional behaviour or unusual, narrow interests . Individuals with autism may have an essayeur de sport IQ at any level. Should? By convention, if an de sport individual with autism has an IQ in the normal range (or above), they are said to have 'high-functioning autism' (HFA). If an prothesiste amputation individual meets all of the criteria for de voiture, HFA except communicative abnormality/history of language delay, they are said to have Asperger's syndrome (AS). In this paper, we focus on AS and HFA since we accept that an individual who is lower-functioning necessarily has a disability in the form of retardation. What is not clear, and therefore the subject of the Discussion Response debate presented next, is de sport, whether individuals with AS/HFA necessarily have a disability.

For the prothesiste present purposes, we consider the arguments in de sport relation to AS and HFA, without attempting to draw any distinction between these. The arguments for viewing AS/HFA as a difference rather than a disability. The child spends more time involved with objects and physical systems than with people (Swettenham et al., 1998); The child communicates less than other children do; The child tends to tuition, follow their own desires and beliefs rather than paying attention to, or being easily influenced by, others#146; desires and beliefs (Baron- Cohen, Leslie Frith, 1985); The child shows relatively little interest in what the essayeur de voiture social group is doing, or being a part of it (Bowler, 1992; Lord, 1984); The child has strong, persistent [2] interests; The child is very accurate at perceiving the details of information (Plaisted, O'Riordan Baron-Cohen, 1998a; Plaisted, O'Riordan Baron-Cohen, 1998b) The child notices and recalls things other people may not (Frith, 1989);

The child#146;s view of amputation, what is relevant and de sport, important in a situation may not coincide with others (Frith, 1989); (dates, . The child may be fascinated by patterned material, be it visual (shapes), numeric timetables), alphanumeric (number plates), or lists (of cars, songs, etc.); The child may be fascinated by essay on sexualisation of children, systems, be they simple (light switches, water taps), a little more complex (weather fronts), or abstract (mathematics); The child may have a strong drive to collect categories of objects (e.g., bottletops, train maps), or categories of de voiture, information (types of lizard, types of on sexualisation, rock, types of fabric, etc.); and. The child has a strong preference for experiences that are controllable rather than unpredictable. The list could be expanded but these 12 behavioural features are sufficient to illustrate that children with AS/HFA are different in ways that can be described in value-free terms: none imply any necessary disability. Rather, most of the above facts show the child as immersed in the world of things rather than people. This might be a basic way of defining the difference between a person with an autism spectrum condition and one without it . Being more object-focused than people-focused is clearly only a disability in an environment that expects everyone to essayeur de sport, be social. But a moment's reflection highlights the injustice of this expectation. Thus, people who show the opposite pattern (of being more people-focused than object-focused) are not necessarily considered disabled.

On this view, people with AS/HFA would cease to be disabled as soon as society's expectations change. For example, a child with AS/HFA who prefers to stay in discursive essay the classroom poring over encyclopaedias and essayeur de voiture, rock collections during break-time, when other children are outside playing together, could simply be seen as different, not disabled. It is essay, not clear why the child with AS/HFA is seen as doing something less valuable than the essayeur other children or why their behaviour should be seen as an letter for job application index of impairment. Equally, a child with AS/HFA who has strong narrow interests of an essayeur de sport unusual nature (learning the prothesiste names of essayeur de voiture de sport, every kind of bird) may be different to a typical child who has only been interested to learn the names of common animals. But surely the narrow deep knowledge is no less valuable than the Discussion broad, shallower variety, and certainly not a necessary index of essayeur, deficit? A final example should help drive this point home. Just because a child with AS/HFA notices the unique numbers on lamp-posts which the rest of gay marriage not be, us are unaware of, does this make him impaired? We could say it is de voiture, simply different. The same argument can be applied to all of the other facts listed above. II.

The neurobiology of AS/HFA is not better or worse than in essay contest typical development. AS/HFA involves a range of neural differences. A full review of these is beyond the scope of this article, but the reader can consult other excellent summaries . In some regions of the brain increased cell density has been found , - for example, in the limbic system - whilst in other regions of the brain structures are reported to essayeur de sport, be smaller. For example, the cerebellar vermis lobule 7 and the posterior section of the corpus callosum have both been reported to be reduced in size in autism. However, whilst these neural abnormalities signal differences between brains of people with and without AS/HFA, they cannot be taken as evidence that one type of brain is better or worse than the other. Similarly, AS/HFA appears to be strongly familial, implying a genetic aetiology, and the first report from an international molecular genetic consortium study reported a linkage on Chromosome 7 in affected individuals . The molecular genetic basis of AS/HFA remains to be worked out in detail, but again such findings are at childrens essay, best evidence of difference and in no way implies that the genotype of essayeur, AS/HFA is deficient. III. 'Difference' avoids value-laden judgements. Many features of essay, AS/HFA may be redescribed in ways that are more neutral, in terms of AS/HFA comprising a different 'cognitive style', with no implication that this is de sport, better or worse than a non-autistic cognitive style . For example, the AS/HFA cognitive style may be described as being more object-oriented, and more focused on detail. Another change in terminology is that the term 'autistic spectrum disorders' is gay marriage legalized essay, being replaced by the term 'autistic spectrum conditions'.

Like the term 'cognitive style', this avoids the possibly pejorative associations of the term 'disorder', though it may be questioned whether even using the term 'condition' is an appropriate medicalizing of an individual's cognitive style. But the spirit of such changes in de sport terminology is clear. It is possible to describe AS/HFA in value-free ways. IV. The difference view is more compatible with the 'continuum' concept. A further argument for favouring the difference view over the disability view is that it is essay tuition, easier to de sport, accommodate within the now widely accepted notion that autism appears on a continuum . The notion of a continuum assumes that there is an underlying dimension or set of dimensions along which all people vary. Childrens Essay Contest? There is still debate over precisely what constitutes the underlying dimension. Later in the paper we consider two models which aim to characterise the autistic spectrum. Arguments for viewing AS/HFA as a disability rather than a difference.

1. Differences are caused by de sport, cognitive deficits. The obvious first rejoinder to covering for job application, the difference argument is that children with AS/HFA show differences precisely because they are disabled, impaired, suffer cognitive deficits, etc. Thus, one might argue that they are less influenced by others because they do not spontaneously stop to consider other people's points of view, feelings and thoughts (the theory of mind deficit) ; they may communicate less and may be less socially focused for the same reason; their unusual perception may arise because of essayeur, their weak central coherence ; whilst their strong interests may reflect a failure to essay contest, switch attention flexibly, possibly as a sign of de voiture, their executive disorder . For all these reasons, the rejoinder goes, we should retain the notion of discursive, AS/HFA as a disability. This could be regarded as unfair because there may be a chicken-and-egg problem in de sport the logic. We cannot yet prove that their difference is essay contest, due to essayeur de voiture de sport, a disability and not the essay other way around.

For example, is de voiture, their mindblindness the cause of them being less socially-focused/more object-focused, or a consequence of prothesiste amputation, it? The development of essayeur de sport, a mind-reading skill may require months of social input so a lack of early social interest could contribute to mindblindness. One could make a similar case in relation to their weak central coherence: Is this a cause of their relatively greater interest in detail , or simply a consequence of it? 2. Lack of social interest reflects disability. Here is a second argument for seeing AS/HFA as a disability: the absence of a behaviour may itself reflect a disability in that area. In this case, the essay contest lack of normal sociability or communication is seen as a sign of disability. But this can be seen as unfair: it calls attention to what someone does not do (so well, or so much) in the case of AS/HFA, when we do not do this in the case of people without AS/HFA. For example, I do not spend much, if any, time thinking about mathematics problems, but I spend quite a lot of time thinking about people. In contrast, the person in the next door office spends a lot of time thinking about mathematics problems, and hardly any thinking about people.

Yet I do not describe myself as having a disability in mathematics. I would instead say that I simply prefer to spend time thinking about people: they are more interesting to me. To call what a person does little of a disability could be seen as unreasonable. De Sport? It might be a little like saying that the basketball player Michael Jordan has a deficit in essay contest fine motor coordination on the grounds that he is essayeur de voiture, not known for spending much (if any) time engaged in needlework. This may be true of him, but to highlight this aspect of Response, his skills, whilst ignoring his obvious assets in hand-eye coordination, physical speed, strength, agility, etc., is to put things back to front, and would be an unfair description of him.

3. AS/HFA is a disability when viewed from the essayeur de voiture family or peer perspective. One might argue that AS/HFA is discursive, a disability when viewed from the perspective and needs of their family and the wider social groups, (e.g. school, peers, etc.). Parents may be at their wits end over the extreme behaviours their child shows. For example, the child may insist that the living room light should be on essayeur de voiture, whilst the hallway light should be off, that the plug switches should all be in the 'up' position, and just certain taps should be on, etc. Covering Letter For Job For Freshers.doc? . Or the child may be engaging in very antisocial behaviour (spitting, faecal smearing, etc.). Quite reasonably, parents, teachers, peers and others should not have to put up with such a tyrannical, strong will on the part of their child, or with antisocial behaviour, since they as parents, teachers, or peers also have needs.

A child's inflexibility or antisocial behaviour should clearly not be given free reign if it is interfering with other people's liberty unreasonably, or interfering with safety, hygiene, etc. Help with parenting may be needed, to facilitate the de sport child accommodating to others, and discursive essay fees, vice-versa. But this is still not a clear justification for calling AS/HFA a disability - it is no more justified than a woman saying her husband is disabled simply because his hobby is essayeur, dominating her life unreasonably, or saying that your neighbour is essay fees, disabled simply because his behaviour interferes with your privacy. Individuals clearly need to accommodate to each other, since there may be a clash of essayeur de voiture, interests or styles, but is discursive tuition fees, one disabled? Not necessarily. 4. AS/HFA is a disability because of de voiture de sport, its associated medical conditions.

Another argument may be that AS/ HFA should be viewed as a disability because it carries with it an increased risk of medical conditions, such as epilepsy or mental retardation. For example, in classic autism, epilepsy occurs in one third of cases and mental retardation (IQ below the average range) occurs in about three quarters of cases . However, such associated medical conditions are clearly not specific to AS/HFA, and it is AS/HFA-specific features that are under discussion. Epilepsy or mental retardation may be justifiably seen as disabilities. These will require separate examination. But is Discussion, AS/HFA (which by definition involves no retardation) necessarily a disability? One might argue that some associated conditions are clearly disabilities. An example is language impairment. Essayeur De Voiture De Sport? Many young children with HFA have little language.

In some cases this applies to both their expression and Response, comprehension. The combination of an autistic lack of social interest, together with little or no language, can be seen as a major disadvantage in a world of de voiture de sport, other people. Even if we down-play the importance of sociability, the child can still be regarded as disabled in being delayed in developing the ability to make his or her needs known. But whilst the notion of a disability may reasonably apply to extreme cases, the earlier point remains valid: that individuals with HFA need not necessarily be viewed as disabled as most of covering for job application for freshers.doc, them will develop enough language even after a delay. 5. AS/HFA is a disability because it involves special needs and extra support.

Perhaps the most compelling reason for viewing AS/HFA as a disability is that such individuals clearly have special needs (they need to be recognised as different, may require different kinds of teaching methods or schooling, or specific kinds of treatment) and access to such support in the present legal framework only flows to the child and their family if the essayeur de sport case can be made that autism is a disability. Not Be Legalized Essay? Special funding does not automatically flow simply because one regards the de sport child as 'different'. Given this economic reality, one should not remove the term 'disability' from the description of AS/HFA without ensuring that extra provision would still be available even if the term 'difference' was more appropriate. This is really an issue relating to social policy, health and education economics, and the legal system. Characterising the underlying difference in AS/HFA. We turn next to consider two different models which attempt to characterise the dimension(s) along which AS/HFA differs from normality.

1. The Folk Psychology-Folk Physics Model. The first model suggests that the Response two relevant dimensions along which to characterise individuals with AS/HFA might be 'folk psychology' and 'folk physics'. De Sport? Folk psychology involves understanding how people work. Folk physics involves understanding how inanimate things work. The model assumes that all individuals on the autistic continuum show degrees of folk psychology impairment, whilst their folk physics may be intact or even superior, relative to their mental age . This model is shown in Figure 1. insert Figure 1 here. There is plenty of evidence that people with autism spectrum conditions have degrees of difficulty in mind-reading, or folk psychology. There have been more than 30 experimental tests, the vast majority revealing profound impairments in the development of prothesiste, their folk psychological understanding. These are reviewed elsewhere but include deficits in: joint attention ; use of mental state terms in language ; production and comprehension of pretence ; understanding that seeing-leads-to-knowing ; distinguishing mental from physical entities ; making the appearance-reality distinction ; understanding false belief ; understanding beliefs about beliefs ; and understanding complex emotions . Some adults with AS/HFA only show their deficits on de sport, age-appropriate adult tests of folk psychology . This deficit in their folk psychology is thought to Discussion, underlie the essayeur de sport difficulties such children have in social and communicative development , and the development of imagination . Other evidence suggests that children with AS/HFA may not only essay be intact but also superior in their folk physics. De Voiture De Sport? First, clinical and parental descriptions of children with AS/HFA frequently refer to their fascination with machines [the paragon of non-intentional systems] . Discussion? Indeed, it is hard to find a clinical account of autism spectrum conditions that does not involve the child being obsessed by some machine or another.

Examples include extreme fascinations with electricity pylons, burglar alarms, vacuum cleaners, washing machines, video players, calculators, computers, trains, planes, and clocks. Sometimes the machine that is the object of the child's obsession is quite simple (e.g., the essayeur workings of drain-pipes, or the design of windows, etc.). A systematic survey of should essay, obsessions in such children has confirmed such clinical descriptions . Of course, a fascination with machines need not necessarily imply that the child understands the machine, but in fact most of these anecdotes also reveal that children with autism have a precocious understanding, too. The child (with enough language, such as is seen in essayeur de sport children with AS/HFA may be described as holding forth, like a little professor, on their favourite subject or area of expertise, often failing to detect that their listener may have long since become bored of hearing more on the subject. The apparently precocious mechanical understanding, whilst being relatively oblivious to their listener's level of of children, interest, suggests that their folk physics might be outstripping their folk psychology in development. The anecdotal evidence includes not just an obsession with machines, but with other kinds of physical systems. Examples include obsessions with the weather (meteorology), the formation of mountains (geography), motion of the planets (astronomy), and the classification of lizards (taxonomy). Leaving clinical/anecdotal evidence to one side, experimental studies converge on the same conclusion, that children with AS/HFA not only have an intact folk physics, they have accelerated or superior development in this domain (relative to their folk psychology and relative to their mental age, both verbal and nonverbal). First, using a picture sequencing paradigm, we found that children with autism performed significantly better than mental-age matched controls in essayeur de sport sequencing physical-causal stories . The children with autism also produced more physical-causal justifications in their verbal accounts of the picture sequences they made, compared to letter for freshers.doc, intentional accounts. This study however did not involve a chronological age (CA) matched control group, so the apparent superiority in folk physics in autism may simply have reflected their higher CA. Second, two studies have found that children with autism showed good understanding of a camera . In these studies, children with autism could accurately infer what would be depicted in a photograph, even though the photograph was at odds with the current visual scene.

This contrasted with their poor performance on False Belief tests. The pattern of results by de sport, the children with autism on these two tests was interpreted as showing that whilst their understanding of mental representations was impaired, their understanding of physical representations was not. This pattern has been found in other domains . But the False Photo Test is also evidence of their folk physics outstripping their folk psychology and being superior to mental age (MA) matched controls. Family studies add to this picture. Parents of children with AS also show mild but significant deficits on covering for job for freshers.doc, an adult folk psychology task, mirroring the de voiture de sport deficit in folk psychology seen in essay on sexualisation patients with AS/HFA . This is assumed to reflect genetic factors, since AS/HFA appear to have a strong heritable component . On the de sport basis of this model, one should also expect that parents of children with autism or AS to letter application, be over-represented in de sport occupations in which possession of superior folk physics is an advantage, whilst a deficit in folk psychology would not necessarily be a disadvantage. The paradigm occupation for such a cognitive profile is engineering. A recent study of 1000 families found that fathers and grandfathers (patri- and matrilineal) of children with autism or AS were more than twice as likely to work in the field of of children, engineering, compared to control groups . Indeed, 28.4% of children with autism or AS had at least one relative (father and/or grandfather) who was an engineer. Related evidence comes from a survey of students at Cambridge University, studying either sciences (physics, engineering, or maths) or humanities (English or French literature). When asked about family history of a range of psychiatric conditions (schizophrenia, anorexia, autism, Down Syndrome, language delay, or manic depression), the students in the science group showed a six-fold increase in the rate of essayeur de sport, autism in their families, and this was specific to autism . Finally, children with AS have been found to perform at a superior level on a test of folk physics , and some adults with AS have reached the highest levels in physics and prothesiste amputation, mathematics, despite their deficits in essayeur de voiture folk psychology . 2. The central coherence model.

The Folk Psychology-Folk Physics Model is not the only attempt to capture the relevant dimensions underlying the autistic spectrum. A second model suggests the gay marriage not be essay relevant dimension may be from essayeur de sport, weak to strong central coherence. Weak central coherence involves greater attention to local details relative to more global information (see Figure 2) . Central coherence is a slippery notion to define. The essence of it is the normal drive to integrate information into context, gist, gestalt, and essay, meaning. Frith argues that the autistic person's superior ability on the Embedded Figures Test and on an unsegmented version of the essayeur de sport Block Design subtest in the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and prothesiste amputation, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) arises because of de sport, a relative immunity to context effects in tuition fees autism . Happe also reports a failure, by people with autism, to use context in reading, such that homophones are mispronounced [e.g., There was a tear in essayeur de sport her eye might be misread so as sound like There was a tear in her dress] . A recent study has shown that children with autism are equally good at judging the identity of legalized essay, familiar faces in photographs, whether they are given the whole face or just part of the de voiture de sport face. Non-autistic controls show a global advantage on such a test, performing significantly better when given the whole face, not just the parts of the face . The central coherence account of gay marriage should not be legalized, autism is de sport, attractive in having the potential to on sexualisation, explain the essayeur nonholistic, piecemeal, perceptual style characteristic of prothesiste amputation, autism, and the unusual cognitive profile seen in this condition (including the de voiture de sport islets of Response, ability). Recently, work in visual search has shown that individuals with autism spectrum conditions may be superior in their ability to make fine discriminations of targets from de sport, distractors . Such work may help take forward the concept of weak central coherence. insert Figure 2 here. Note that these two models (Folk Psychology-Folk Physics; and Central Coherence) are not necessarily incompatible, since it is possible to imagine how weak central coherence could cause superior folk physics, as well as difficulties in folk psychology. Jarrold reports that in essay tuition normal individuals, folk psychology and central coherence are indeed inversely correlated . Whatever the essayeur de voiture de sport relevant model, the dimensional approach is childrens essay, useful in reminding us that AS/HFA may simply be part of quantitative variation and individual differences in cognitive profiles, or styles of information processing. This approach could be re-cast to avoid the implication that one style is better (stronger) or worse (weaker), or that one is intact and another deficient.

For example, the terms 'weak' and 'strong' central coherence are sometimes replaced by de sport, the more neutral terms, 'local' vs 'global' processing (referring to not be legalized, whether one spends more time processing at de sport, one level than another). See Figure 3. insert Figure 3 here. The advantage of for job application for freshers.doc, both of these models is that individuals with AS/HFA are understood in terms of an underlying dimension, and that this dimension blends seamlessly with normality, so that we are all situated somewhere on de sport, the same continuum. Most importantly, to reiterate, one's position on covering application for freshers.doc, the continuum is said to reflect a different cognitive style . Dimensional models also do not require a line to essayeur de voiture, be drawn between ability and disability. Finally, they avoid the notion that individuals with AS/HFA are in some sense qualitatively different from those without AS/HFA. Such a notion is covering application, increasingly hard to defend in essayeur de voiture de sport the light of intermediate cases. Childrens Essay Contest? These are easier to accommodate in terms of quantitative variation. Implications for understanding the de voiture apparent increase in prevalence of AS/HFA. There are some reports that AS/HFA is increasing in prevalence . It is unclear if this simply reflects better detection or if there is letter for job, a genuine increase.

However, if there is a genuine increase, this presents something of a paradox for the disability view: disabilities with a genetic basis which affect social skill and thus potentially reduce mating opportunities should be subject to negative selective pressures. De Voiture? Such disabilities should therefore be expected to reduce in prevalence with time. In order to be on the increase, such genes would have to be being positively selected. Prothesiste? Increased prevalence presents no difficulties for the difference view however, since a cognitive style can at different times or under different conditions confer advantages to the individual. For example, the computer revolution in the 20th Century has created unprecedented opportunities for employment and economic prosperity for individuals with superior folk physics.

This may have had positive effects on the reproductive fitness of such individuals, leading to an increase in essayeur de voiture the genes for AS/HFA in the gene pool. Such a speculation is tuition, testable: for example, one would predict higher rates of AS/HFA in the children of de sport, couples living in environments which function as a niche for individuals with superior folk-physics abilities (e.g.'Silicon Valley', MIT, Caltech) compared to letter for job application for freshers.doc, environments where no such niche exists. Our recent survey of scientists in Cambridge University showing increased familiality of autism spectrum conditions is a first such clue that such effects may be operating . In a world where individuals are all expected to be social, people with AS/HFA are seen as disabled. Essayeur De Sport? The implication is that if environmental expectations change, or in a different environment, they may not necessarily be seen as disabled. As we have known in essay relation to other conditions, concepts of disability and handicap are relative to particular environments, both cultural and biological . Essayeur De Sport? It may be time to extend this way of thinking to the field of AS/HFA. Covering For Job Application For Freshers.doc? We could imagine, for example, people with AS/HFA might not necessarily be disabled in de sport an environment in which they can exert greater control of events.

The social world is very hard to control, whilst the technological world of machines is in principle highly controllable. Essay? Equally, people with AS/HFA might not necessarily be disabled in an environment in which an exact mind, attracted to detecting small details, is an advantage. In the social world there is essayeur de voiture, no great benefit to such a precise eye for prothesiste amputation, detail, but in the world of maths, computing, cataloguing, music, linguistics, craft, engineering or science, such an eye for essayeur de sport, detail can lead to success rather than disability. In the world of business, for example, a mathematical bent for estimating risk and profit, together with a relative lack of concern for the emotional states of one's employees or rivals, can mean unbounded opportunities. It is hoped that this article, at the dawn of the new millennium, will open the contest debate towards identifying if there are any arguments for necessarily viewing AS/HFA as disabilities. In this article, none are found to apply persuasively to AS/HFA, even if they may apply to the 'lower-functioning' cases. In contrast, the arguments in favour of viewing AS/HFA as a 'difference' are more compatible with the 'continuum' notion, and may be morally more defensible. De Sport? The sole reason for retaining the term disability in relation to AS/HFA may be to ensure access to provision; it may be the legal system that needs revision, so that a child whose autistic 'difference' leads them to have special needs, will still receive special support. Figure 1: This first model shows the relationship between Folk Physics (or understanding how things work) and Folk Psychology (or understanding how people work).

For shorthand, folk psychology is referred to as 'empathy', and folk physics is Response, referred to as 'scientist'. Note that this is not the same as the ordinary usage of the word 'scientist', as folk physics includes everyday understanding of objects that is not necessarily the essayeur result of formal teaching. Covering Letter For Job? Individuals with AS/HFA are conceptualized as comprising types A-J. Figure 2: This second model suggests individuals show strong to weak central coherence. Individuals with AS/HFA may be at essayeur de sport, the extreme left of gay marriage should legalized, this distribution . Figure 3: This third model redescribes the second model in less value-laden terminology.

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