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Baylor Requirements for Admission. My Custom Essay? What are Baylor's admission requirements? While there are a lot of uc essay, pieces that go into a college application, you should focus on only a few critical things: In this guide we'll cover what you need to get into Baylor and build a strong application. Reviews? School location: Waco, TX. This school is also known as: Baylor University. If you want to get in, the first thing to essays, look at is the acceptance rate. This tells you how competitive the school is and reviews how serious their requirements are.
The acceptance rate at essays, Baylor is 44% . For every 100 applicants, 44 are admitted. My Custom? This means the school is moderately selective . The school expects you to meet their requirements for GPA and SAT/ACT scores, but they're more flexible than other schools. If you exceed their requirements, you have an excellent chance of getting in. But if you don't, you might be one of the unlucky minority that gets a rejection letter. Many schools specify a minimum GPA requirement, but this is privacy, often just the bare minimum to submit an application without immediately getting rejected. The GPA requirement that really matters is the GPA you need for a real chance of getting in. For this, we look at the school's average GPA for its current students. (Most schools use a weighted GPA out of 4.0, though some report an my custom, unweighted GPA. Essays Journal? This school did not officially report its average GPA, but we've estimated it here using data from over essay reviews, 1,000 schools.) With a GPA of vacation, 3.64, Baylor requires you to be above average in reviews your high school class. You'll need at least a mix of A's and B's, with more A's than B's.
You can compensate for a lower GPA with harder classes, like AP or IB classes. Essay Vacation? This will show that you're able to essay, handle more difficult academics than the average high school student. If you're currently a junior or senior, your GPA is hard to essays journal, change in essay time for college applications. If your GPA is at or below the school average of 3.64, you'll need a higher SAT or ACT score to celebrities essay, compensate . This will help you compete effectively against other applicants who have higher GPAs than you. Each school has different requirements for standardized testing. My Custom? Most schools require the SAT or ACT, and many also require SAT subject tests. Help? You must take either the my custom essay reviews, SAT or ACT to write cover executive, submit an application to Baylor. More importantly, you need to do well to have a strong application. Many schools say they have no SAT score cutoff, but the truth is that there is a hidden SAT requirement. My Custom Reviews? This is integrated marketing campaign case, based on the school's average score. The average SAT score composite at my custom essay, Baylor is a 1815 on the old 2400 SAT scale.
On the celebrities essay, new 1600 SAT , this corresponds to an average SAT score of 1290 . This score makes Baylor Moderately Competitive for SAT test scores. Baylor SAT Score Analysis (New 1600 SAT) The 25th percentile New SAT score is 1200, and the 75th percentile New SAT score is 1380. My Custom? In other words, a 1200 on the New SAT places you below average, while a 1380 will move you up to above average . Here's the breakdown of new SAT scores by section: Baylor SAT Score Analysis (Old 2400 SAT) The 25th percentile Old SAT score is 1670, and the 75th percentile SAT score is 1960. In other words, a 1670 on the Old SAT places you below average, while a 1960 puts you well above average . Essay? Here's the breakdown of essay reviews, old SAT scores by section: The Score Choice policy at your school is an letter executive chef, important part of your testing strategy. Baylor has the Score Choice policy of Highest Section. This is essay reviews, also known as superscoring. This means that you can choose which SAT tests you want to send to the school. Of all the essay vacation, scores they receive, your application readers will consider your highest section scores across all SAT test dates you submit . Click below to essay reviews, learn more about how superscoring critically affects your test strategy. For example, say you submit the following 3 test scores: Even though the highest total you scored on any one test date was 1300, Baylor will take your highest section score from campaign, all your test dates, then combine them to form your Superscore. You can raise your composite score from 1300 to 2100 in this example.
This is important for your testing strategy. Because you can choose which tests to send in, and Baylor forms your Superscore, you can take the SAT as many times as you want, then submit only the tests that give you the my custom essay reviews, highest Superscore. Your application readers will only see that one score. Therefore, if your SAT superscore is currently below a 1815, we strongly recommend that you consider prepping for art institute, the SAT and retaking it . Reviews? You have a very good chance of raising your score, which will significantly boost your chances of getting in. Even better, because of the Superscore, you can focus all your energy on on a a single section at a time. If your Reading score is my custom, lower than your other sections, prep only for the Reading section, then take the privacy essay, SAT. Then focus on my custom essay Math for the next test, and so on. This will surely give you the help, highest Superscore possible.
Download our free guide on the top 5 strategies you must be using to improve your score. This guide was written by Harvard graduates and SAT perfect scorers. If you apply the strategies in this guide, you'll study smarter and make huge score improvements. Just like for the SAT, Baylor likely doesn't have a hard ACT cutoff, but if you score too low, your application will get tossed in the trash. The average ACT score at my custom reviews, Baylor is 28. This score makes Baylor Moderately Competitive for ACT scores. Essays Journal? The 25th percentile ACT score is 25, and the 75th percentile ACT score is 30. My Custom Essay? Even though Baylor likely says they have no minimum ACT requirement, if you apply with a 25 or below, you'll have a very hard time getting in, unless you have something else very impressive in your application. There are so many applicants scoring 28 and above that a 25 will look academically weak.
If you're taking the ACT as opposed to the SAT, you have a huge advantage in how you send scores, and this dramatically affects your testing strategy. Here it is: when you send ACT scores to colleges, you have absolute control over celebrities essay, which tests you send. You could take 10 tests, and only send your highest one. Essay Reviews? This is unlike the SAT, where many schools require you to send all your tests ever taken. Uc Essay Application? This means that you have more chances than you think to improve your ACT score. To try to aim for my custom essay, the school's ACT requirement of 28 and above, you should try to take the ACT as many times as you can. Criticism? When you have the my custom reviews, final score that you're happy with, you can then send only that score to all your schools. By and large, most colleges do not superscore the ACT. (Superscore means that the school takes your best section scores from all the criticism journal, test dates you submit, and my custom then combines them into the best possible composite score). Thus, most schools will just take your highest ACT score from a single sitting. Celebrities? However, from reviews, our research, Baylor is understood to superscore the ACT . We couldn't confirm it directly from the executive, school's admissions website, but multiple sources confirm that the school does superscore the ACT.
We recommend you call their admissions office directly for more information. Superscoring is powerful to your testing strategy, and you need to my custom essay, make sure you plan your testing accordingly. Of all the scores that Baylor receives, your application readers will consider your highest section scores across all ACT test dates you submit . Click below to learn more about how superscoring critically affects your test strategy. Essay On A? For example, say you submit the following 4 test scores: Even though the my custom, highest ACT composite you scored on any one test date was 20, Baylor will take your highest section score from all your test dates, then combine them to application, form your Superscore. You can raise your composite score from 20 to 32 in this example. This is important for your testing strategy.
Because you can choose which tests to send in, and Baylor forms your Superscore, you can take the essay reviews, ACT as many times as you want, then submit only the tests that give you the highest Superscore. Your application readers will only see that one score. Therefore, if your ACT score is currently below a 28, we strongly recommend that you consider prepping for the ACT and retaking it . You have a very good chance of raising your score, which will significantly boost your chances of essay, getting in. Even better, because of the Superscore, you can focus all your energy on a single section at a time. If your Reading score is lower than your other sections, prep only for my custom essay, the Reading section, then take the ACT.
Then focus on Math for the next test, and so on. This will surely give you the highest Superscore possible. Download our free guide on the top 5 strategies you must be using to improve your score. This guide was written by Harvard graduates and ACT perfect scorers. Art Institute? If you apply the strategies in reviews this guide, you'll study smarter and make huge score improvements. SAT/ACT Writing Section Requirements.
Both the SAT and integrated campaign case study ACT have a Writing section that includes an essay reviews, essay. Baylor requires you to take the criticism journal, SAT/ACT Writing section . Essay? They'll use this as another factor in their admissions consideration. Schools vary in their SAT subject test requirements. Typically, selective schools tend to require them, while most schools in the country do not. We did not find information that Baylor requires SAT subject tests, and so most likely it does not . Essay? At least 6 months before applying, you should still doublecheck just to make sure, so you have enough time to essay, take the test. Because this school is letter chef, moderately selective, strong academic performance will almost guarantee you admission . Scoring a 1960 SAT or a 30 ACT or above will nearly guarantee you admission. Because the school admits 44% of all applicants, being far above average raises the admission rate for you to essay, nearly 100%. If you can achieve a high SAT/ACT score, the rest of your application essentially doesn't matter. You still need to meet the integrated study, rest of the application requirements, and your GPA shouldn't be too far off from the school average of reviews, 3.64.
But you won't need dazzling extracurriculars and breathtaking letters of recommendation to get in. You can get in journal based on the merits of your score alone. But if your score is a 1670 SAT or a 25 ACT and below, you have a good chance of being one of the unlucky few to be rejected. Here's our custom admissions calculator. Plug in your numbers to see what your chances of my custom essay reviews, getting in are. How would your chances improve with a better score?
Try to take your current SAT score and add 160 points (or take your ACT score and add 4 points) to the calculator above. See how much your chances improve? At PrepScholar, we've created the leading online SAT/ACT prep program. We guarantee an improvement of 160 SAT points or 4 ACT points on your score, or your money back. Here's a summary of why we're so much more effective than other prep programs: PrepScholar customizes your prep to your strengths and weaknesses . Vacation? You don't waste time working on my custom essay reviews areas you already know, so you get more results in less time. We guide you through your program step-by-step so that you're never confused about on a vacation, what you should be studying.
Focus all your time learning, not worrying about essay reviews, what to learn. Cover? Our team is my custom reviews, made of national SAT/ACT experts . PrepScholar's founders are Harvard graduates and SAT perfect scorers. You'll be studying using the strategies that actually worked for cover executive, them. We've gotten tremendous results with thousands of essay, students across the country. Art Institute Help? Read about our score results and reviews from our happy customers. There's a lot more to PrepScholar that makes it the best SAT/ACT prep program. Click to learn more about our program, or sign up for our 5-day free trial to check out essay PrepScholar for yourself: Every school requires an uc essay, application with the bare essentials - high school transcript and GPA, application form, and other core information. Many schools, as explained above, also require SAT and essay ACT scores, as well as letters of recommendation, application essays, and interviews. Uc Essay Application? We'll cover the reviews, exact requirements of Baylor here.
Application Requirements Overview. Celebrities Essay? Common Application Accepted Universal Application Not accepted Electronic Application Available Essay or Personal Statement Required for some freshmen Letters of Recommendation 2 Interview Not required Application Fee No fee required Fee Waiver Available? Available Other Notes. SAT or ACT Required SAT or ACT Writing Required SAT Subject Tests Scores Due in Office February 1. Subject Required Years English 4 Math 4 Science 4 Foreign Language 2 Social Studies 2 History 1 Electives. Offered? Deadline Notification Regular Admission Yes February 1 April 10 Early Action Yes November 1 January 15 Early Decision No. We did more detailed research into this school's admissions process and found the essay reviews, following information: Recommended optional items include a resume, letters of recommendation, and short answer responses you can submit through your goBAYLOR account after you have submitted your application.
In other words, resume, letters of recommendation and short answer responses aren't required for admission, but can strengthen your application. If you're interested in Baylor, you'll probably be interested in these schools as well. We've divided them into 3 categories depending on how hard they are to get into, relative to Baylor. These schools are more selective and have higher scores than Baylor. If you improve your SAT score, you'll be competitive for these schools. Same Level: Equally Hard to Get Into.
If you're competitive for Baylor, these schools will offer you a similar chance of admission. Safety Schools: Easier to Get Into. If you're currently competitive for Baylor, you should have no problem getting into art institute these schools. If Baylor is currently out of your reach, you might already be competitive for these schools. Our experts have written hundreds of useful articles on improving your SAT score and essay getting into college. You'll definitely find something useful here. Subscribe to our newsletter to get FREE strategies and guides sent to your email. Learn how to ace the SAT with exclusive tips and insights that we share with our private newsletter subscribers. You should definitely follow us on social media . Celebrities? You'll get updates on our latest articles right on my custom essay reviews your feed. Follow us on all 3 of privacy celebrities essay, our social networks: Series: How to my custom reviews, Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Get the latest articles and test prep tips!
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an article review By Vern L. Bengtson , University of my custom reviews, Southern California, and Shelley M. MacDermid , Purdue University. Write Letter Executive? Here are nine things you should consider as you examine the manuscript and write your review: Look for the intellectual plot-line of the article. You can do this from first skimming through the manuscript and my custom essay reviews, then giving it a once-over read. As you do this, ask the application five major questions that are central to the research review process: What do the researchers want to find out? Why is that important to investigate or understand? How are the researchers investigating this? Are their research methods appropriate and adequate to the task? What do they claim to have found out?
Are the findings clearly stated? How does this advance knowledge in the field? How well do the researchers place their findings within the context of ongoing scholarly inquiry about this topic? Look at the organization of the article . Can you find answers to essay reviews, the above questions quickly and easily? Can you trace the logic of investigation consistently from the opening paragraphs to the conclusion? Then go back to essay on a, the opening paragraphs of the article . Are the research questions specifically stated?
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Is the writing correct? Too may promising scientists have only a rudimentary grasp of grammar and punctuation that result in meandering commas, clauses in complex sentences that are struggling to find their verbs, and integrated marketing study, adjectives or even nouns that remain quite ambiguous about their antecedents in the sentence. These are not merely technical issues of grammar to be somehow dealt with by a copy-editor down the line. Rather they involve the successful communication of essay reviews, a set of ideas to an audience; and this is the criticism journal basis of scholarship today. My Custom Essay Reviews? Your evaluation to cover letter executive, the editor: Should this paper be (a) rejected for this journal? (b) or does it show sufficient promise for my custom essay reviews revision, in ways that you have clearly demonstrated in your review, to encourage the art institute essay authors to invest weeks and months in revision for this journal? Your bottom-line advice to essay reviews, the editor is crucial.
Make a decision; state it clearly (in your confidential remarks to uc essay application, the editor on the page provided). Remember that only a few of the essay reviews articles submitted to a journal will result in vacation, publication. Rates vary from essay 5% to art institute essay help, 25% of initial submissions (for JMF it has averaged 15% over the past few years). Some reasons to reject a manuscript: (a) The research questions have already been addressed in my custom, prior studies; (b) the data have been collected in vacation, such a way as to preclude useful investigation; (c) the manuscript is not ready for publication--incomplete, improper format, or error-ridden. Most rejected articles do find a home in reviews, other journals. Essay? Don't tease authors with hopes for publication in this Journal if you feel it is not likely. A good review is supportive, constructive, thoughtful, and fair. My Custom Reviews? It identifies both strengths and weaknesses, and offers concrete suggestions for improvements. It acknowledges the reviewer's biases where appropriate, and write cover letter executive, justifies the reviewer's conclusions.
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dave ross essays Investigations into The Antiquity of my custom essay reviews, The Cross in Cygnus. Copyright 2000 by the author. (NOTE: The full text of this essay, complete with footnotes and illustrations, was published in Culture and Cosmos http://www.cultureandcosmos.org, v. 4, no.2 (Autumn/Winter 2000). My thanks to the editor, Mr. Nicholas Campion, for his kind permission to reproduce the text of the article here. -dr) The Age of Exploration did indeed give rise to essay vacation a great deal of innovation and my custom experimentation in celebrities essay celestial cartography. New constellations had to be devised to make sense out of the relative chaos explorers encountered on such distant waters.
This was also that age of religious fervor stirred by the Reformation and Counter-Reformation in my custom essay Europe. It should not be surprising then that a brief “biblicizing” movement arose among cartographers of the early 17th century and it ‘s among these that we readily find explicit depictions of the Cross in Cygnus.* For Julius Schiller, whose Coelum Stellarum Christianum of 1628 offered a thoroughly Christianized portrait of the heavens, the stars of the Swan became “St. Helena with The Cross”, referring to the Emperor Constantine’s mother and essays her legendary discovery of the wood of the my custom reviews, “True Cross”. The figure of the Cross in Schiller’s maps is just where we would expect to find it. Write Letter Executive! And, as I have already indicated, the era he invokes by my custom reviews, associating it with Helena may prove to art institute help be an important clue for our investigation.
Another interesting example from this period is Wilhelm Schickard’s Astroscopium of my custom reviews, 1623. This Lutheran pastor turned Hebrew scholar, mathematician, cartographer, printer, engineer and astronomer is best remembered in write letter executive chef the annals of computing for my custom essay the calculating engine he invented for his more famous friend, Johannes Kepler, to aid in the laborious task of computing ephemerides. His Astroscopium featured an innovative conic projection and was among the first modern style star maps to plot the essay, constellations as they naturally appear in the sky. Reversed depictions were a convention passed down by early globe makers that was slavishly retained by cartographers of his day, including Schiller. Schickard was content to portray the otherwise pagan but familiar classical constellations. However, he assigned each an imaginative biblical reference corresponding in some way or other to its figure. Cygnus the Swan is overlaid with his Crux Christi, making explicit the dual recognition these stars have come to inspire.*
The works of both of these biblicizers were influenced by the great Johannes Bayer’s Uranometria of my custom, 1603. In the notes accompanying his map of the constellation Cygnus he comments how the recognition of a Cross there had long been known among the common folk.* Even so, my admittedly limited survey to date has searched back nearly a full millennium before encountering any similar reference to it. Such references must exist somewhere in write cover letter chef the literatures of these earlier eras. That they seem to be so difficult to uncover may not be an my custom entirely unexpected result, however. The Renaissance was marked by an obvious appreciation for integrated marketing study the classical traditions of my custom reviews, Greece and Rome. In astronomy this grew out help of the recovery of those traditions that took place during the later part of the Middle Ages as a result of European contact with the essay reviews, Arabic world.* From the “House of Wisdom” founded by Caliph al-Ma’mun in the 9th century came translations of write executive, Greek philosophy and science that would eventually revive the intellectual life of the West. For the purposes of essay reviews, astronomy, not to mention astrology, the most influential texts of all proved to be Ptolemy’s Syntaxis , better known by its Arabic title, the Almagest . So, whatever constellations or asterisms may have been part of the common knowledge of the day, those described and discussed, in the literature most accessible to us today, were those of the classical tradition. However, as we press further back in time we do encounter clues to distinctly Christian ways of envisioning the heaven of essay help, stars above. Searching through the pages of R. H. Allen’s aging but still useful collection of starlore, a Cross reference is found under the constellation Delphinus, of all places.* The comment comes from the great Muslim historian and scientist of the 11th century, Abu Raihan Al-Biruni.
In his book The Chronology of Ancient Nations the section on the calendar of the Syrians contains a listing for Ayyar (May) 7th and a Feast of the Apparition of the Cross in Heaven. Although Al-Biruni opens his comments with a discussion of the Cross vision of Constantine the Great, and then summarizes the legend of Helena’s discovery of the my custom essay, relic of the True Cross, the vision commemorated on that day among Orthodox Christians is that of St. Cyril of Jerusalem, an integrated marketing study event dated some several decades after the time of Constantine.* According to Cyril’s account the cross was seen “above holy Golgotha stretching out as far as the holy Mount of Olives.” Al-Biruni states, “Other Christians, who are not learned people, speak of the cross in the constellation of the Dolphin, which the Arabs call Ka`ud (riding camel). They say that at that time this cross in the Dolphin appeared opposite that place where Messiah had been crucified.”* In any case, the tantalizing reference leaves us wondering what these 11th century Syrian Christians may have made of nearby Cygnus, having found a cross in little Delphinus. A contemporary student of medieval European astronomy, Stephen McCluskey offers what appears to be the earliest clear reference to the Cross we have been pursuing.
In the pages of his Astronomies and Cultures in Early Medieval Europe he gives a summary of his earlier work in the journal ISIS regarding the late 6th century monastic writings of Gregory of Tours.* Gregory inherited rules for ordering monastery life which included the admonition found in John Cassian’s De institutis coenobiorum , written sometime after 420 AD, which urged that the night offices of essay reviews, prayer should be kept by carefully observing the stars rather than being left up to the sleepy whim of whomever had been assigned the write cover chef, task of waking his brothers.* Just how the stars were to be used in keeping time wasn’t described there, but Gregory’s work De cursu stellarum ( On The Course of The Stars ), written shortly after his consecration as bishop in 573, gives thorough instructions for reviews how this should be done; by careful observations of the rise and progress through the sky of select stars and constellations. De cursu stellarum was an exercise in practical astronomy that McCluskey has studied as an important means by which vestiges of the classical astronomy of the Greeks and Romans was preserved during the Dark Ages. Gregory exemplifies a Christian culture that had rejected the pagan mythologies that lay behind the traditional constellations and dismissed the superstitions of the astrologers. His constellations are mostly Christianized depictions. A handful of essays criticism, surviving manuscripts of De cursu feature illustrations intended to help the monks learn to recognize the patterns discussed in the text. It is here that we find the earliest clear reference to “The Greater Cross” among the stars of Cygnus flanked by an “Alfa” or “Lesser Cross” in Delphinus and essay an “Omega” in Lyra.* A Cross flanked by the Alpha and Omega was a familiar theme in the Christian art of the Middle Ages, as McCluskey reminds us. Such familiarity would well serve the kind of essays criticism journal, instruction undertaken in Gregory’s manual.
Thus, the enigmatic reference of Al-Biruni concerning a cross in Delphinus finds a kind of corroboration among Gregory’s constellations. My Custom Essay Reviews! Certain Christians as early as the art institute essay, 6th century did indeed see a cross there and also recognized a “greater” one nearby. The Great and Lesser Crosses described in Gregory of Tours’ De cursu stellarum . Time: 11 pm local time on 10/27/592 from central France. (All charts were prepared using Voyager II, Carina Software, 1992-1993.) The impulse to my custom reviews redraw the heavens as witnessed with the essay, biblicizers of the 17th century is frequently described as originating with the writings of my custom essay, Bede the Venerable in the 9th century,* but the example of essays criticism journal, Gregory’s manual is an obviously older antecedent. In fact, an essay by Jean Danielou, “The Twelve Apostles and the Zodiac,”* reveals how Jews, Christians and Gnostics all had been busy claiming and transforming celestial imagery for my custom essay reviews a very long time indeed, at least since the second century in the case of Christians. Schiller may have been the first to actually draw a zodiac made up of twelve disciples or apostles but the idea may go back as far as Genesis ch. Art Institute Essay Help! 49 which, some interpreters allow, reveals zodiacal imagery in its descriptions of the twelve tribes.* Hugo Rahner’s Greek Myth and Christian Mystery outlines the many ways early Christians sought to transform and appropriate cosmic symbols such as the Sun and moon in support of the Gospel.* In the third century Hippolytus felt called to refute the evident excesses of the sect he calls the Astrotheosophists and their weakly Christian mythic allegories.* Yet, by the late fourth century Bishop Zeno of Verona would risk preaching a “divine horoscope” for the benefit of the newly baptized “children” under his care, for fear that their astrological curiosities might otherwise lead them astray.* However, the my custom essay reviews, closest we come to criticism journal something like the recognition we have been seeking, prior to the 6th century, seems to essay reviews be reflections on Plato’s discussion in the Timaeus of the world-soul made manifest by the intersection of the two great circles of the astronomers, the “heavenly chi” formed where the ecliptic and celestial equator invisibly meet. Rahner states that these otherwise invisible lines “become for the Christian eye a heavenly cross,” and criticism journal that through Justin and Irenaus’ seminal doctrine of recapitulation a long meditation on the cosmic symbolism of the my custom, cross entered Christian tradition. By the fourth century the converted astrologer Firmicus Maternus declares, “The sign of a wooden cross holds the machine of the firmament together, strengthens the essay, foundations of the my custom essay, earth, and leads those that cling to it towards life.”*
The invisible ‘Heavenly Chi’, traced by integrated marketing campaign case, the intersection of the celestial equator and the ecliptic, expressed for some early Christian writers part of the cosmic symbolism of the Cross. Precession had carried ‘the first point of Aries’, the Sun’s location at the vernal equinox, well into my custom essay Pisces by the time of Constantine. Time: the ‘Chi’ would be near the art institute essay, meridian for observers at Rome around 9:30 pm local time on 10/27/312. Still, not until the 6th century do we encounter the my custom essay reviews, earliest clear reference to the recognition. While this ought to art institute essay help satisfy our search, we have already encountered reasons to suspect that the recognition is actually older still. Gregory’s work surely represents elements of essay reviews, a received tradition. Integrated! Cassian’s rule about using the stars to keep the reviews, hours for prayer reflects the practice of the monasteries of Lower Egypt which he had visited late in privacy essay the 4th century. Reviews! His writings reveal no details about this but it seems reasonable to think that there may well be something like the material found in Gregory’s De cursu buried in some as yet untranslated, undiscovered, or perhaps lost Coptic manuscript, as McCluskey suggests. It seems easier to write letter executive imagine, for example, that an earlier tradition diffused westward to Gregory and eastward to Al-Biruni’s Syrians than that Gregory’s Latin manual could exercise an influence so far east into Byzantium.* However, Eusebius goes on to relate how this daytime vision was repeated in a dream or visitation at night.
Likewise, the writer known as the Christian Cicero, Lactantius, tells of Constantine’s dream on essay, the night before the battle, an account written just six years after the event.. He was advised “to mark the celestial sign of God on the shields of his soldiers.”* Does the night time setting for these dreams offer anything toward interpreting the vision? Some historians find here nothing more than a stereotypical late imperial setting for epiphanies of uc essay application, this sort. But, there have been those who have sought a more night inspired explanation. F. Heiland, on the staff of the Zeiss planetarium at Jena back in the late 40’s and 50’s, wrote a piece for that institution’s journal entitled “Die astronomische Deutung der Vision Kaiser Konstantins” (The Astronomical Interpretation of the Vision of The Emperor Constantine).* In it he observes that the Fall of the year 312 AD was indeed attended by a noteworthy spectacle: the syzygy or close alignment of my custom reviews, three bright planets in the evening sky above the southwest horizon. Mars, Saturn and marketing study Jupiter were positioned along a line within about 20 degrees of each other on reviews, the border of Capricornus and Sagittarius. Such an event would surely have drawn the attention of the astrologers and journal diviners attached to all Roman armies who would have worried at my custom essay what may well have been taken as an ill omen.
The contemporary histories, including some of uc essay, pagan origin, hint at reviews some such dark sign prior to the battle, one which Constantine defied in pressing his attack. Heiland’s solution was to art institute help suggest that Constantine overcame the psychological impact on his army of the pagan astrological omen by appropriating it to fashion a Christian token of victory. Left to right: The 'staurogram' combining the Greek letters Tau and Rho, the Chi-Rho monogram formed by the first two letters in Christ, and reviews the Iota-Chi monogram composed of the initials for write cover executive Jesus Christ. Both Lactantius and Eusebius describe that token as something more than a simple Latin cross; as a “staurogram” in the case of the former or the Chi-Rho “monogram” in that of the my custom reviews, latter. Following Lactantius’ description, Heiland pictured a new and obviously temporary asterism formed by combining the alignment of planets with surrounding stars. Prof. Celebrities! Michael DiMaio has more recently offered a modified version of Heiland’s proposal, noting that Venus also eventually joined the alignment on the ecliptic in my custom essay October of essay, 312. The cross member is thus lengthened and the upright with the my custom reviews, “Rho” becomes a rather enormous loop reaching all the way to essays bright Vega.* (See note #13 at: http://www.roman-emperors.org/conniei.htm) The alignment asterism of Heiland (heavier lines) and DiMaio, made by my custom, combining the alignment of planets with stars borrowed from several classical constellations.
Venus, in DiMaio’s arrangement, would have been very near to setting at the end of twilight on his proposed date of October 27th in 312 AD An eleven-day-old moon would be shining in the SE on the at date. Time: 6:30 pm at Rome. Personally, I judge that these proposals somewhat tax the uc essay, imagination. My Custom Essay! Can a precedent be cited for combining planets and on a vacation stars to form such an ephemeral asterism? Would borrowing stars from such a variety of already existing and familiar star patterns be very convincing for Constantine’s “astrologically challenged” generals?
Although I think DiMaio is correct to include Venus in the alignment, since the presence of the queen of heaven always adds drama to any evening sky, I note how very low to the horizon it is as twilight begins. By the essay, time it had grown dark enough for stars in Ophiuchus to write cover letter chef be discernible Venus would have all but set. And then there’s the presence of an 11 day old moon to deal with on the 27th. So, although I don’t find the “alignment asterism” very convincing I do think pointing out the alignment itself adds to our understanding of the atmosphere of essay, portent found in the histories, something largely neglected by modern scholarship. Could the Cross in Cygnus offer a simpler interpretation? Without entertaining any illusions about integrated marketing campaign study being able to essay reviews prove such a thing, let me briefly offer a way of crafting such an interpretation that seems to me to journal be at least as interesting and essay reviews as plausible as the “alignment asterism”. Describing the wide interest of early Christian writers in the symbolism of the Cross, Hugo Rahner put the matter this way. “The cross is everywhere- it is in the shape of the human form when we stretch out our hands in prayer, it is in the flight of birds, in the instruments of husbandry, it is in the form of the ship’s mast when it is crossed by a spar.”* Examples abound from the works of Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Minutius Felix and Methodius. The latter, writing in the early 3rd century, offers this observation, “For every creature, so to speak, has, for the sake of liberty, been marked with this sign; for birds which fly aloft, form the figure of the cross by the expansion of their wings. ”* Among those familiar with Aratus’ Phenomena Cygnus was known simply as the Bird, ‘o ornis. Given that Christian imagination had recognized the figure of the cross so widely and early on, if it really had failed to fin one in Cygnus before the privacy celebrities essay, 6th century we should wonder why not! Augury, divination based on bird signs, was regularly practiced on behalf of the reviews, Roman military, the idea being that winged creatures could convey messages from the lofty realm of the gods to application mortals keen to my custom essay reviews read them on the earth below. The army carried the essay, necessary complement of chickens wherever they marched.
Chief among birds was, of course, the bird of Zeus -the eagle, the my custom, aquila well known from so much Roman symbolism. By imperial times the aquila had long since become the principle standard carried by the legions and the worship of these standards was a regular part of army life. Setting up a shrine to the aquila in the Temple was among the sacrileges inflicted upon the Jews of Jerusalem by marketing, the Roman army as the city fell in 70 AD, according to the historian Josephus.* The cross used by Constantine on the shields of his soldiers, the new standard under which they marched, called the “labarum” by Eusebius, in effect replaced the eagle of Imperial Rome. So notes the nineteenth century historian Philip Schaff.* It suggests to me an interpretation of Constantine’s vision which imagines it as a sort of celestial augury.
R. H. Allen’s Star Names offers this note under the section on Aquila, “Thompson thinks that the fable, in essay reviews Greek ornithology, of the eagle attacking the swan, but defeated by it, is symbolical of “Aquila, which rises in the East, immediately after Cygnus, but, setting in the West, goes down a little while before that more northern constellation.””* Lord D’Arcy Thompson, the English naturalist, collected all manner of classical information for his book, A Glossary of Greek Birds , often with an criticism journal eye toward aspects related to “the picture-book of the sky”, as he called it.* In my celestial augury the Eagle v. Swan combat suggests something like Aquila/Rome/Maxentius in conflict with Cygnus/Cross/Constantine. Perhaps this Cygnoid Cross, backed by the story of the emperor’s celestial epiphany, was employed to offer an my custom essay effective promise of essay on a vacation, victory over against my custom essay reviews the astrologers’ unnerving portent. The ‘celestial augury’ suggested by the way the marketing campaign case study, Imperial Aquila is said to have been replaced by the heavenly sign of reviews, God on the shields of Constantine’s army and by the myth of an Eagle/Swan combat. Although little commends it as more than an marketing campaign imaginative speculation, the legend of Constantine’s Vision may have contributed to the eventual recognition of a cross in my custom the stars of Cygnus. Time: 10:30 local time on 10/27/312 from Rome. What of the staurogram figure? To make Lactantius’ cross “with the top of its head bent round,”* add a loop to the traditional cross starting at uc essay application Deneb, passing through omicron Cygni 1 and reviews 2 and closing at gamma Cygni. No, these are not terribly bright stars and application yes, there are competing stars sprinkled nearby. As star gazers know so well, all that’s necessary is to recognize the pattern once to lock it into the imagination. At least it has the advantage of my custom essay reviews, simplicity. For those who may have access to art institute any of today’s computerized planetarium programs, just advance the time in half hour steps to watch the conflict unfold until Cygnus rests unassailed and essay reviews the victorious Cross stands upright on uc essay, the northwest horizon after around 10:30 pm in the late October skies of 312 AD.
The sources that survive from 4th century Rome, lamented by my custom essay, historians as a poorly documented era in any case, simply don’t allow for very much resembling the possibility of definitive proof for any of the essays, various interpretations proposed for Constantine’s vision. It has been interpreted as an outright miracle of faith, a political and religious fiction, a purely psychological experience, something to do with solar halos, something to essay reviews do with stars, or combinations thereof. Art Institute Help! Each has had proponents over the years. Although my fond speculation about essay reviews this “celestial augury” remains improbable, more certain by far is the fact that Constantine’s legend seems to have contributed, or else attracted, elements of astral imagery. Vacation! In interpreting the vision I tend to allow, with historians like Robin Fox, for a certain interplay of internal experience and external observation. Elusive as it is, imagination is key. As Fox puts it, “A man only sees in the sky what he is predisposed to notice or recall. Reviews! ”* What might Constantine have been predisposed to notice or recall? We cannot know fully, but perhaps there are clues. Christian advisors had at some point gained access to the emperor’s thoughts or else his conversion, whatever we make of it, would be completely unintelligible.
Yet, the world in which he lived, grew up, and criticism journal aspired to the purple was still mainly a pagan world. Serving under the Tetrarchy at the close of the 3rd century makes it hard to imagine that the cults had not contributed something to my custom his imagination, whether negative or positive. Mithraism, for example, and the cult of Sol Invictus were very much a part of the religious milieu of the army and the imperium. Modern researchers, notably David Ulansey and Roger Beck, have shown how thoroughly astral symbolism played a part in the Mithraic mysteries, although significant details are still being debated.* E. C. Krupp’s recent book, Skywatchers, Shamans and Kings: The Astronomy and Archaeology of Power , rehearses the cosmic imagery behind Rome’s empire; from Julius Ceasar’s apotheosis upon vacation the appearance a comet, to Augustus’ use of Capricorn, his birth sign, on his coins and banners, to the erection of the Solarium Augustii.* That Constantine may have had similar interests in my custom essay reviews employing celestial imagery is suggested several ways. From 315, three years after defeating Maxentius, rare silver medallions minted at Ticinum show Constantine’s portrait and his helmet with its high crest or crown of “feathers”.* Although I am not aware of any specific study of the iconography of these decorations, to my eye their round shape and rayed appearance give the impression of nothing so much as stars.
Set among them is one fashioned in the figure of the “Chi-Rho” of the labarum, one of its earliest known representations.* Do we have here something of a hint as to letter executive what he might have been predisposed to notice or recall? Or, was it mere rhetoric that inspired the emperor to lend these words, toward the end of my custom essay reviews, his life, to the inscription on the monument to St. Peter in Rome, “Because of art institute, your leadership the my custom essay, glorious universe has reached to the furthest stars. ”?* Finally, and perhaps most tellingly, what of the way Constantine’s memory is write letter, celebrated in the Eastern Church? Orthodox Christian monasteries celebrate the feast day of Saints Constantine and Helena, May 21st, with hymns that include the essay reviews, following lines for Matins, “Having stretched forth thy senses toward heaven and criticism acquired the beauty of the stars, thou wast taught by them the mysteries of the Lord of all; and the weapon of the Cross shone forth in their midst. Essay Reviews! ”* The connection of astral imagery with Constantine’s vision of the Cross is so clear in the hymn that we are left wondering what its source might be, since it seems to owe nothing to the histories usually relied upon for information about the emperor’s life and reign. The Slavonic text for the Orthodox Menaion goes back only essay as far as the 17th century, but it is obviously based on more ancient Byzantine tradition. There is a considerable body of hagiographic literature inspired by Constantine and, especially, the my custom essay, legend of Helena’s discovery of the Cross.* So far my search for such astral imagery there has been in vain. A possible but problematic source lies in the brief account of Constantine’s conversion attributed to the Arian historian Philostorgius.
His lost 5th century Ecclesiastical History , judged by historians to be rather unreliable as an essays criticism journal account of the origin and my custom essay spread of Arianism, comes to us as a 9th century epitome by Photius. It tells how “the sign of the cross was seen in the East, vast in extent and lit up with glorious light, and surrounded on marketing study, each side by stars like a rainbow, symbolizing the form of letters.”* The letters spell out the well known heaven sent message to Constantine, In hoc signo vinces , “By this sign you will conquer,” apparently in Latin instead of Greek. My Custom Reviews! But starry letters “on each side” of the Cross bears a striking similarity to what we find in uc essay application Gregory’s De cursu stellarum . My Custom Essay Reviews! That such a theologically tainted source would have contributed directly to the Orthodox liturgy is hard to imagine. But, Philostorgius’ account may still betray the essays, ultimate source of all this starry imagery. With the few lines quoted above regarding Constantine’s vision in mind, here is the account of Ignatius of Antioch concerning another celestial portent of interest to Christians. “How then were these mysteries revealed to the ages? A star shone in the sky, brighter than all other stars; its light was indescribable and its strangeness provoked wonder, and all the rest of the essay, stars with the Sun and moon made a choir around that star which outshone them all. ”* The celestial sign Ignatius describes here is, of course, the Star of Bethlehem recorded in the Gospel of uc essay, Matthew.
Philostorgius’ sign of the cross shining with a wonderful light and surrounded by a rainbow of stars, a choir that silently spells out its message not so much of praise but of my custom essay reviews, assurance, bears a certain resemblance to Ignatius’ commentary on the familiar nativity scene. Both may in fact have in mind the dreams of Joseph in Genesis ch. 37. Does the detail that the cross shines “in the East” suggest that Philostorgius had in mind the tradition of the Christmas Star? If the similarities between these passages are not simply coincidental, I would argue that they fit well with the recent interpretation offered by Richard Trexler regarding the role of the uc essay, Magi and essay reviews the star in Christian art from the Constantinian era.* Proposals tracing the evolution of the Chi-Rho of the marketing campaign, labarum from a pagan star have been largely dismissed by historians. However, if Trexler and those his account relies upon are correct perhaps an evolution from a Christian star should be considered. He notes, “In the few scenes of the Magi viewing the my custom reviews, star that may predate Constantine, the form of the Magi’s star is twofold. Far the integrated study, most common is a six-pointed star; in my custom essay reviews rare cases one encounters the superimposed Greek letters iota and chi (See Figure 3), the first letters in the Greek word for “Jesus” and “Christ.” After 312, however, both the star and the “iota-chi” encounter competition from criticism a superimposition of the letters chi and rho, the first two Greek letters of the my custom essay reviews, word “Christ.”” * An example that entails both monogram and staurogram as apparent stand-ins for the Bethlehem star can be found on the 5th century tomb of Flavius Julius Catervius in Tolentino, Italy.*
Mediated by uc essay application, this symbolic play of letters (recall both Gregory of my custom essay reviews, Tours and Philostorgius) Star and Cross, or at least Star and Labarum, came to be associated in Christian art and imagination. Both had been celestial signs. The first brings the Magi, since the time of Tertullian increasingly imagined as kings, to worship the Christ child. The second likewise brings Constantine to faith in Christ and to the throne of Rome. Unless some explicit source in Constantinian hagiography remains to be identified, perhaps we need search no further for the origin of the astral language of the feast day hymns than the role the Magi and their star played in early and later Christian imagination as presented in essay vacation Trexler’s account. The things Constantine, and reviews those after him, would have noticed and recalled were perhaps richly stellar after all. If we approach the question more generally in terms of privacy essay, origins we are forced to wonder about still earlier monastic traditions, now lost to the mists of time, and the ways Christian imagination was directed toward the reviews, heavens by the stories of the uc essay, Savior’s Star and the Emperor’s Vision. Constantine’s celestial sign, whether by day or night, fired the reviews, imaginations of others who were soon, not surprisingly, granted epiphanies of their own. After 312 showers of heavenly cross visions seem to rain down into Christian literature and art.
The emperor’s mother, Helena, sees a heavenly sign guiding her search for the True Cross in Jerusalem. Constantine’s sons have cross visions, and, of course, Cyril of Jerusalem.* The celestial sign that brought the Emperor to Christ reminded Christians of the one that first guided the Magi to the stable in Bethlehem. Cross and Star came to be seen in each other’s glorious light. Behind the essay on a, cruciform stars still found on our Christmas cards lies a long half forgotten history. Thus, regarding the question of the asterism’s origins perhaps the most certainty that can be gleaned is that if the essay, recognition of privacy, a Cross in my custom essay the stars of criticism journal, Cygnus had not already taken place by or in the early part of the 4th century it soon became all but inevitable for one to be found there after Constantine. * Footnotes and essay illustrations have been withheld. Please consult the article as printed in art institute essay help Culture and Cosmos, v. 4, no.2. My Custom! Online see http://www.cultureandcosmos.com or write to CC , PO Box 1071, Bristol BS99 1HE, UK. The author would like to acknowledge the integrated marketing campaign study, kind assistance of Prof. Timothy Hegedus (Waterloo Lutheran Seminary), art historian Dr.
Hanna. Witte-Orr, and my custom essay reviews Dr. R.H. Uc Essay! van Gent. Footnotes in the original article. indicate their specific contributions. Ilustrations presented in original article: The Cross of St.
Helena after Schiller Schickard’s Crux Christi Crux Major from De Cursu Stellarum The Ticinum medallion Constantine’s Vision from the 15th century Church of the Holy Cross of Agiasmati Right and Left end panels from the tomb of my custom, Catervius Galla Placida’s celestial cross St. Apollinare de Classe’s starry cross Copyright 2000 by the author.