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book report wyle Wyle Laboratories, Inc., of Lexington Park, Maryland, protests the edward abbey eco defense essay, issuance of in essay a task order to Imagine One Technology Management, Ltd., of Colonial Beach, Virginia, under task order request for proposals (RFP) No. N00024-11-R-3521, issued by the Department of the Navy, Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, for program management and engineering services. Wyle argues that the essay, agency's evaluation of offerors' proposals and coursework subsequent source selection decision were improper. Essay! We deny the protest. Buisness Coursework! DOCUMENT FOR PUBLIC RELEASE. The decision issued on the date below was subject to a GAO Protective Order. This redacted version has been approved for edward abbey eco defense essay, public release. Essay! Matter of: Wyle Laboratories, Inc. Date: February 19, 2013. John A. Burkholder, Esq., and David J. Ginsberg, Esq., McKenna Long Aldridge LLP, for the protester.

Alex D. Tomaszczuk, Esq., Evan D. Wesser, Esq., and Clare M. Cavaliero, Esq., Pillsbury Winthrop Shaw Pittman LLP, for abbey essay, Imagine One Technology Management, Ltd., an intervenor. Theresa M. Francis, Esq., and Amy N. Hanson, Esq., Department of the Navy, for the agency. Louis A. Chiarella, Esq., and Sharon L. Larkin, Esq., Office of the General Counsel, GAO, participated in the preparation of the decision. 1. Protest of agency#146;s technical evaluation is denied where record shows evaluation was reasonable and consistent with the stated evaluation criteria. Buisness! 2. Eco Defense Essay! Protest challenging agency#146;s cost realism evaluation of awardee#146;s proposal is denied where the record demonstrates that agency#146;s conclusions were reasonable; the distinctive, mere fact that awardee#146;s proposed costs were lower than the protester#146;s and the government estimate does not make them unrealistic. 3. Protest that the agency treated offerors disparately regarding a subcontractor#146;s organizational conflict of interest is eco defense essay, denied where the record does not support the protester#146;s allegations. Distinctive! 4. Protest that agency improperly changed the abbey essay, stated basis for award from best value to low cost/technically acceptable is denied where the record reflects that the agency found protester#146;s slight technical advantage did not outweigh awardee#146;s significant cost advantage. Wyle Laboratories, Inc., of essay Lexington Park, Maryland, protests the issuance of edward eco defense a task order to Imagine One Technology Management, Ltd., of Colonial Beach, Virginia, under task order request for proposals (RFP) No. N00024-11-R-3521, issued by the Department of the Navy, Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, for program management and engineering services. In Essay! [1] Wyle argues that the agency#146;s evaluation of offerors#146; proposals and abbey essay subsequent source selection decision were improper. We deny the protest.

PMA-231 is the in essay, Navy program office responsible for the overall management of E-2 and C-2 weapons system acquisition. [2] It provides direction, control, and integration of program efforts involving the procurement and modification efforts of E-2/C-2 weapon systems for both the Navy and edward abbey foreign customers. RFP at buy an essay, 12. The RFP, issued on March 1, 2012, contemplated the issuance of a cost-plus-fixed-fee task order for a 1-year base period together with two 1-year options. The solicitation#146;s #147;performance-based statement of work#148; stated that the contractor was to provide various services in support of the production, upgrades, and deliveries of the E-2 and C-2 aircraft and weapon systems. Id. at 13.

The solicitation also stated that the contractor was to provide approximately 144 full time equivalents (FTE) in specified labor categories, at abbey, both Navy and contractor locations, to support the PMA-231 program office in social work case violence carrying out its mission. Id. at 44, 95. The RFP established three evaluation factors in edward essay descending order of importance: technical; past performance; and cost. [3] Id. at 112. The technical factor in turn consisted of three subfactors, also in descending order of importance: understanding of the work; workforce; and management plan. Id.

The solicitation informed offerors that the technical factor was more important than the past performance factor, and buisness coursework the noncost factors, when combined, were significantly more important than cost. Edward Abbey Eco Defense Essay! Id. Task order issuance was to be made to the offeror whose proposal represented the #147;best value#148; to the government, all factors considered. Id. at social work study domestic, 112, 117. Wyle and Imagine One submitted task order proposals by the April 2 closing date. An agency technical evaluation team (TET) evaluated offerors#146; proposals under the technical factor using an adjectival rating system that was set forth in the solicitation: outstanding; good; acceptable; marginal; and unacceptable. [4] A separate cost evaluation team (CET) evaluated (but did not score) the cost proposals. After performing its initial evaluation, the Navy decided to establish a competitive range consisting of the Wyle and Imagine One proposals. The agency then held one round of discussions, followed by the offerors submitting their final proposal revisions (FPR) by July 27. The final evaluation ratings and costs for the Wyle and Imagine One proposals were as follows: Understanding of the Work. Agency Report (AR), Tab 13, Task Order Recommendation Panel Report, at edward, 1. The Navy evaluators also documented the various findings they made in support of the ratings (and evaluated costs) assigned to offerors#146; proposals. AR, Tab 11, Final TET Report; Tab 12, Final CET Report for Imagine One; Tab 36, Final CET Report for Wyle.

A Navy task order review panel (TORP) reviewed the technical and cost evaluation findings and Argument/Persuasive recommended to the Navy source selection authority (SSA) that the abbey eco defense essay, task order be issued to Imagine One. Dissertation In! AR, Tab 13, TORP Report, at 1-11. On October 11, the SSA reviewed the abbey essay, evaluation findings and recommendations and concluded that the in essay, technical advantages possessed by Wyle under the workforce subfactor did not outweigh Imagine One#146;s significant cost advantage ($23,067,436, or 35%), and that Imagine One#146;s proposal therefore represented the best value to the government. AR, Tab 14, Source Selection Decision, at 4-7. After providing Wyle with a debriefing, this protest followed. Wyle#146;s protest raises numerous issues regarding the Navy#146;s evaluation of offerors#146; proposals. The protester alleges that the agency#146;s evaluation of Wyle#146;s technical proposal was improper. Edward Abbey! Wyle also contends that the Navy#146;s cost realism review of Essay Imagine One#146;s proposal was unreasonable. The protester also contends that the Navy treated offerors disparately regarding a subcontractor#146;s organizational conflict of interest (OCI). Lastly, Wyle alleges that the Navy#146;s source selection determination was improper. [5] We have fully considered all of Wyle#146;s arguments and find that they provide no basis to sustain the protest. Technical Evaluation of Wyle.

Wyle protests the edward abbey eco defense essay, Navy#146;s evaluation of its technical proposal. Specifically, the protester alleges that its proposal should have received an case domestic, outstanding rating rather than a good rating under the workforce and management plan subfactors, as well as an outstanding technical rating overall. [6] The RFP stated that, for abbey eco defense, the workforce subfactor, the agency would evaluate an offeror#146;s proposed personnel to determine their labor qualifications ( e.g. Social Study Domestic! , education, experience, security clearance levels), together with how well the team was suited to perform the required tasks. Essay! RFP at 113. With regard to the management plan subfactor, the solicitation stated that the Navy would evaluate the extent to voices, which the edward abbey, proposed processes and dissertation in procedures would ensure successful accomplishment of the required tasks. Id. Edward Abbey Eco Defense Essay! The RFP also included the technical evaluation rating scheme. Relevant to the protest here, a good rating was defined as, #147;[p]roposal meets requirements and indicates a thorough approach and understanding of the work. Proposal contains strengths which outweigh any weaknesses.

Risk of unsuccessful performance is low.#148; Id. at 115. By contrast, an outstanding rating was defined as, #147;[p]roposal meets requirements and indicates an exceptional approach and understanding of the work. Voices! Strengths far outweigh any weaknesses. Risk of unsuccessful performance is very low.#148; Id. In evaluating Wyle#146;s FPR under the workforce subfactor, the TET identified four strengths--the extensive experience of three different senior program analysts and the offeror#146;s overall experience with the edward abbey essay, E-2 program--and no weaknesses or deficiencies. AR, Tab 11, Final TET Report, at 21-22. Based on these findings, the agency evaluators concluded that Wyle#146;s proposal indicated a thorough approach and understanding of the work and that the risk of unsuccessful performance was low; thus, the coursework, proposal warranted a rating of good. Id. at 21. Likewise, under the edward eco defense, management plan subfactor, the TET found two strengths--an experienced program management support team and coherence the offeror#146;s commercial purchasing procedures--and no weaknesses or deficiencies in eco defense Wyle#146;s proposal, and the evaluators again concluded that a good rating was appropriate. [7] Id. at 23-24.

Based on all subfactor ratings, the TET rated Wyle#146;s technical proposal as good overall. Id. at 16. Wyle does not dispute the Navy#146;s evaluation findings regarding its proposal under the workforce and management plan subfactors; it does not argue that the agency should have identified additional aspects of its proposal as strengths. Rather, Wyle argues that its identified strengths demonstrated an exceptional approach and distinctive voices understanding of the work, and should have resulted in a higher, outstanding rating. Edward Eco Defense! Wyle also alleges that, consistent with the outstanding rating definition, its evaluated strengths far outweighed any weaknesses because no weaknesses were assessed to coherence, its proposal. Protest, Dec. 17, 2012, at abbey eco defense essay, 2-9. The agency argues that it reasonably assessed the quality of Wyle#146;s technical proposal, and that it assigned adjectival ratings consistent with the evaluators#146; findings and the RFP#146;s evaluation rating scheme. The task order competition here was conducted among ID/IQ contract holders pursuant to Argument/Persuasive Essay, Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Part 16.

The evaluation of proposals in eco defense a task order competition, including the Argument/Persuasive Essay, determination of the relative merits of proposals, is primarily a matter within the contracting agency#146;s discretion, since the agency is edward essay, responsible for defining its needs and the best method of accommodating them. Optimal Solutions Techs. , B-407467, B-407467.2, Jan. 4, 2013, 2013 CPD 20 at Argument/Persuasive Essay, 6. Our Office will review evaluation challenges to task order procurements to ensure that the competition was conducted in accordance with the solicitation and applicable procurement laws and regulations. Abbey! Logis-Tech, Inc. , B-407687, Jan. 24, 2013, 2013 CPD 41 at 5; Bay Area Travel, Inc. , et al. , B-400442 et al. , Nov. 5, 2008, 2009 CPD 65 at 9. A protester#146;s mere disagreement with the agency#146;s judgment is not sufficient to establish that an agency acted unreasonably. STG, Inc. , B-405101.3 et al. , Jan. 12, 2012, 2012 CPD 48 at 7. Coherence! From our review of the record, we find that the Navy#146;s evaluation of Wyle#146;s technical proposal was reasonable.

As noted above, Wyle does not dispute any of the TET#146;s findings ( i.e. , strengths, weaknesses, deficiencies) regarding its proposal under the workforce and management plan subfactors. Based on eco defense, these undisputed findings, the Navy evaluators reasonably concluded on each occasion that Wyle#146;s proposal indicated a thorough approach and understanding of the social study violence, work, that the eco defense, risk of unsuccessful performance was low, and coherence in essay that a rating of good was warranted. We find this to abbey eco defense essay, be consistent with the evaluation rating scheme set forth in the RFP. There is also no legal requirement, as Wyle suggests, that an agency must award the highest possible rating, or the maximum point score, under an evaluation factor simply because the proposal contains strengths and/or is not evaluated as having any weaknesses. See , e.g. , Applied Tech. Sys., Inc. , B-404267, B-404267.2, Jan. 25, 2011, 2011 CPD 36 at 9; Archer Western Contractors, Ltd. , B-403227, B-403227.2, Oct. 1, 2010, 2010 CPD 262 at dissertation in, 5. Moreover, the record demonstrates that the Navy#146;s evaluation of Wyle#146;s proposal regarding what constituted an outstanding proposal was not disparate, but consistent with its treatment of abbey eco defense Imagine One#146;s proposal. Quite simply, Wyle#146;s belief that the few identified strengths associated with its proposal warranted an Essay, outstanding rating amounts to mere disagreement with the edward eco defense essay, agency#146;s evaluation of proposals, which does not provide a basis on which to sustain the protest.

Cost Realism Evaluation of Imagine One. Buisness! Wyle protests that the Navy failed to perform a reasonable cost realism evaluation of Imagine One#146;s proposal. Specifically, the protester argues that the agency failed to reasonably evaluate the cost realism of Imagine One#146;s direct labor rates. Wyle argues that a proper cost realism evaluation would have resulted in greater upward adjustments to Imagine One#146;s proposed costs, thereby decreasing the evaluated cost difference between the offerors#146; proposals. The RFP set forth, as part of the cost proposal instructions, the edward eco defense, labor categories and labor amounts that offerors were to use when preparing their proposals ( e.g. , Program Manager, 960 hours). RFP at 95-97. Offerors were then to submit their direct labor rates, indirect rates ( i.e. , overhead, fringe benefits, general and administrative (GA)), and fee based on social work study domestic violence, the RFP#146;s specified labor categories and amounts. Edward Essay! Id. at 92. Offerors were also required to submit sufficient information to adequately support their proposed direct and indirect costs.

Id. Similarly, the coursework, RFP established that, as part of the cost evaluation factor, the Navy would assess the edward abbey eco defense essay, realism of each offeror#146;s proposal. Id. at 113. Further, #147;[u]nrealistically low costs or inconsistencies between the technical and cost proposals may be assessed as proposal risk and voices could be considered weaknesses under the technical factor. Id. Imagine One#146;s cost proposal utilized the labor categories and edward abbey eco defense essay amounts set forth in the solicitation. AR, Tab 35, Imagine One Cost Proposal, Narrative, at 2-4. When proposing current employees, Imagine One and social work case domestic violence its subcontractors submitted payroll verification demonstrating current hourly labor rates. Id. ; Payroll Verification, at 9-66. Further, when proposing prospective hires, Imagine One based its labor rates on national and local salary survey data, comparisons to current employees, and edward abbey input from its human resources department. Id. , Narrative, at 21.

Imagine One also submitted, in coursework support of its proposed indirect rates, the offeror#146;s historic provisional and actual rates, as well as rates audited by the Defense Contract Audit Agency. Id. , Narrative, at 8. The CET, as part of eco defense essay its evaluation of Imagine One#146;s proposal, found that the offeror had provided certified payroll verification in support of the coherence, proposed labor rate for each current employee. AR, Tab 12, CET Report, at edward eco defense, 4-22. The CET concluded in most instances that Imagine One#146;s proposed labor rates for current employees were supported and realistic. Coursework! Id. at 4-6. In some instances, however, the CET concluded that, although Imagine One#146;s proposed labor rates were based on current salaries, the rates appeared extremely low as compared to prevailing rates. Id. at 7-22. The CET was concerned that, while the proposed individuals met RFP requirements, based on current market conditions, Imagine One would not be able to fill the positions at the proposed rates if the individuals left or were unable to work on essay, the contract. Id. at coherence, 7. The CET then made direct labor rate adjustments based on prevailing rates. Id. at 7-22.

Similarly, with regard to Imagine One#146;s prospective employees, the CET found most of the offeror#146;s proposed rates to be realistic, and made adjustments based on prevailing rates in those few instances where the labor rates were found to be unrealistic. Id. at 12-15. The CET found the indirect rates of Imagine One and its subcontractors to be realistic in light of abbey eco defense essay supporting information and made no adjustments. [8] Id. at 22-32. Coursework! Finally, the CET computed a total evaluated cost for Imagine One#146;s proposal based on edward abbey essay, the various adjustments made. When an agency evaluates a proposal for the award of a cost-reimbursement contract, an in essay, offeror#146;s proposed estimated costs are not dispositive because, regardless of the costs proposed, the government is bound to pay the contractor its actual and allowable costs. American Tech. Servs., Inc. , B-407168, B-407168.2, Nov.

21, 2012, 2012 CPD 344 at 5; DPK Consulting , B-404042, B-404042.2, Dec. 29, 2010, 2011 CPD 12 at 11; FAR 15.404-1(d). Consequently, the agency must perform a cost realism analysis to determine the extent to which an offeror's proposed costs are realistic for the work to be performed. [9] An agency is not required to edward eco defense essay, conduct an essay, in-depth cost analysis, or to verify each and every item in assessing cost realism; rather, the evaluation requires the exercise of informed judgment by the contracting agency. See Cascade Gen., Inc. , B-283872, Jan. 18, 2000, 2000 CPD 14 at 8. Eco Defense! Further, an coherence, agency#146;s cost realism analysis need not achieve scientific certainty; rather, the methodology employed must be reasonably adequate and provide some measure of confidence that the proposed costs are reasonable and realistic in view of other cost information reasonably available to eco defense essay, the agency as of the time of its evaluation.

See SGT, Inc. , B-294722.4, July 28, 2005, 2005 CPD 151 at buisness, 7. We review an agency#146;s judgment in this area to see that the agency#146;s cost realism evaluation was reasonably based and not arbitrary. Hanford Envtl. Health Found. Edward Eco Defense Essay! , B-292858.2, B-292858.5, Apr. 7, 2004, 2004 CPD 164 at 8. Buy An! Wyle does not dispute that Imagine One used the labor categories and labor amounts required by the RFP, nor does Wyle dispute the Navy#146;s evaluation of Imagine One#146;s (and its subcontractors#146;) indirect rates, nor does Wyle dispute that Imagine One and its team members provided certified payroll records for each of the current employees proposed. Essay! Further, Wyle has not alleged or demonstrated that Imagine One#146;s proposed labor rates were below the prevailing market rates for the various categories and qualifications. Rather, the protester argues that Imagine One#146;s direct costs are unrealistic because they are significantly lower than both the IGCE and, more importantly, the costs proposed by Wyle, the 37-year incumbent contractor currently providing support to the E-2/C-2 program.

Protest, Dec. 17, 2012, at 10-13. The agency argues that its cost realism evaluation was reasonable and that Imagine One#146;s direct labor rates were generally realistic in light of the offeror#146;s own circumstances. Buy An Informative Essay! Based on our review of the record, we find that the Navy#146;s cost realism evaluation of Imagine One#146;s proposal was reasonable. The record demonstrates that the Navy analyzed both the direct and indirect rates that Imagine One proposed as well as the sufficiency of the supporting information. As detailed above, Imagine One (and its subcontractors) provided certified payroll verification for edward abbey eco defense, each current employee proposed. The Navy generally determined that such certified payroll records established that Imagine One#146;s proposed labor rates were realistic. However, where a sizeable disparity existed between prevailing rates and proposed rates (even those supported by coherence in essay, payroll records), the agency made adjustments based on its concern that Imagine One would not be able to attract and retain qualified replacement individuals (if necessary) at the proposed rates.

The Navy also assessed the realism of Imagine One#146;s proposed labor rates for prospective employees, and made adjustments in each instance where the labor rates were found to be unrealistically low. Given the soundness and abbey reasonableness of the buy an informative essay, agency#146;s cost realism evaluation, we reject Wyle#146;s contention that Imagine One#146;s costs were unrealistic simply because the firm#146;s proposed costs were lower than the edward, IGCE and Wyle#146;s proposed costs. [10] Disparate Treatment Regarding OCI. Wyle protests that the Navy treated offerors disparately regarding a subcontractor#146;s OCI. Specifically, the protester argues the Navy permitted Imagine One to propose J.F. Taylor, Inc., as a subcontractor here, but the Navy had previously informed Wyle that J.F. Taylor had an Argument/Persuasive, impermissible OCI which precluded J.F. Taylor#146;s participation. As detailed below, the record does not show that the Navy treated the Wyle and Imagine One disparately.

The relevant facts are as follows: In 2010, in response to other task order solicitations, Wyle proposed J.F. Taylor as one of its subcontractors. Edward Abbey! During the evaluation of those proposals, the Navy raised an OCI concern: one of J.F. Taylor#146;s proposed employees, who had been performing technical and advisory assistance services for Argument/Persuasive, the Navy, had been privy to the IGCE and other solicitation documents and had likely played a significant role in edward abbey eco defense essay the creation of the IGCE. Buisness Coursework! AR, Tab 16, Navy Letter to Wyle, Sept. 23, 2010. The contracting officer subsequently determined that J.F. Taylor#146;s participation was prohibited by the OCI clause in the task order under which the employee had performed (which had a 3-year #147;cooling off#148; period). AR, Tab 19, Navy Letter to Wyle, Oct. Essay! 26, 2010. In response, Wyle elected to replace all J.F.

Taylor personnel with Wyle personnel in its proposals. AR, Tab 20, Wyle Letter to Navy, Nov. 16, 2010. In September 2011, prior to the issuance of the solicitation here, J.F. Taylor inquired of the contracting officer whether it would be able to participate in the subject procurement; it was J.F. Taylor#146;s understanding that the OCI involving its employee affected only its ability to participate in the earlier solicitations. AR, Tab 21, J.F.

Taylor Letter to Navy, Sept. 20, 2011. Buy An Essay! The ensuing exchange led the contracting officer to conclude that the abbey, previous OCI determination did not preclude J.F. Taylor#146;s participation as either a prime or subcontractor in the upcoming subject procurement, although an distinctive voices, OCI mitigation plan would be required. AR, Tab 24, Navy Memorandum Regarding J.F. Taylor OCI Determination, Feb. 13, 2012. Edward! The contracting officer then informed J.F. Taylor of the same.

AR, Tab 25, Navy Letter to buisness, J.F. Taylor, Feb. 13, 2012. Edward! The RFP here was issued on March 1, 2012, and Imagine One proposed J.F. Taylor as one of Essay its subcontractors. Edward Abbey Essay! J.F.

Taylor included an OCI mitigation plan with its subcontractor proposal; the Navy reviewed the plan and concluded that Imagine One#146;s proposed use of J.F. Taylor did not result in an impermissible OCI. AR, Tab 28, Navy Memorandum Regarding J.F. Taylor OCI Determination, July 11, 2012. Wyle does not dispute the Navy#146;s determination that neither Imagine One, nor its proposed subcontractor J.F. Taylor, has an impermissible OCI in Argument/Persuasive the procurement here. Rather, the protester argues that Navy treated offerors disparately: Wyle operated under the assumption that it could not propose J.F. Taylor as a teammate under the subject solicitation, while in abbey essay fact the Navy allowed Imagine One to propose J.F. Taylor as a subcontractor. Protest, Dec. 17, 2012, at 16.

The Navy argues that it treated both firms equally, and that its determination that J.F. Voices Essay! Taylor was precluded from competing on previous occasions has no relevance to the present procurement. We find no merit in Wyle#146;s assertion of disparate treatment. In 2010, the Navy determined that J.F. Taylor#146;s OCI prohibited its participation in other procurements, regardless of who proposed the company. In 2012, the Navy determined that J.F. Taylor#146;s previous OCI did not preclude its participation in the subject procurement, regardless of who proposed the company. The fact that Wyle mistakenly assumed that it could not propose J.F. Taylor as a teammate under the subject solicitation does not constitute disparate treatment on the part of the edward abbey eco defense essay, agency. [11] Lastly, Wyle protests the coherence, Navy#146;s source selection determination. Specifically, in addition to challenging the underlying evaluation of eco defense essay proposals, the protester argues that the agency improperly converted the basis for issuing the task order here from best value to lowest-cost, technically acceptable.

Protest, Dec. 17, 2012, at social work domestic violence, 17. Source selection decisions must be documented, and include the rationale for any business judgments and cost/technical tradeoffs made or relied upon by the SSA. General Dynamics Info. Abbey! Tech., Inc. , B-406059.2, Mar. 30, 2012, 2012 CPD 138 at 4; see FAR 15.308. However, there is no need for extensive documentation of every consideration factored into a tradeoff decision.

See Terex Gov#146;t Programs , B-404946.3, Sept. Informative Essay! 7, 2011, 2011 CPD 176 at 3. Rather, the documentation need only be sufficient to establish that the agency was aware of the relative merits and costs of the competing proposals and that the source selection was reasonably based. Id. As the edward, record demonstrates here, the buy an informative essay, SSA received an abbey eco defense, extensive preaward briefing describing the respective strengths and dissertation in weaknesses of both offerors. AR, Tab 13, TORP Report, at 1-11. In comparing the proposals, the SSA#146;s award determination summarized these strengths and weaknesses. In considering the features of the technical proposals, the abbey eco defense, SSA stated that she found the proposals to be relatively equal except for the workforce subfactor, where Wyle#146;s proposal w as superior to that of Imagine One#146;s proposal. Id. at 4. The SSA concluded, however, that the slight technical advantage of Wyle#146;s proposal did not outweigh the significant cost advantage of Imagine One#146;s proposal. Id. at 5-7. From the discussion in source selection decision, it is clear the SSA made a qualitative assessment of the technical proposals as part of her award determination. There is no basis to conclude that this determination was inconsistent with the solicitation#146;s best value methodology.

The protest is denied. [1] Although the solicitation here was captioned as an RFP, the Navy was in fact seeking task order proposals from business concerns holding SeaPort-e indefinite-delivery/indefinite-quantity (ID/IQ) contracts in coherence in essay the Navy#146;s Zone 2, National Capital region. RFP at 2. Edward Abbey Eco Defense! We adopt the Navy's terminology throughout the buy an, decision. [2] The E-2 Hawkeye is the Navy#146;s carrier-based tactical battle management airborne early warning and command and control aircraft. Abbey Eco Defense Essay! The C-2 Greyhound provides logistics support to dissertation in, the Navy#146;s Carrier Strike Groups by transporting high-priority cargo, mail, and passengers between carriers and shore bases. [3] The RFP referred to edward essay, this factor as #147;cost/price,#148; although the Navy acknowledges that no part of the task order being awarded was fixed-price in nature. For ease of reference we will refer to it simply as the #147;cost#148; evaluation factor throughout our decision. [4] A separate adjectival rating system was employed for coherence in essay, offerors#146; past performance proposals: substantial confidence; satisfactory confidence; limited confidence; no confidence; and for offerors without a record of relevant past performance, unknown confidence/neutral. [5] Wyle also protested that the Navy#146;s evaluation of Imagine One#146;s past performance was unreasonable. Protest, Nov.

13, 2012, at 11-12. Wyle subsequently withdrew this protest ground. Protest, Dec. 17, 2012, at 1-2. [6] Wyle also protested that the Navy used an unstated evaluation criterion as part of its technical evaluation by considering cost savings. Abbey! Protest, Dec.

17, 2012, at 3-4. In support thereof, Wyle cites to informative, the language in the SSA#146;s tradeoff analysis that the abbey eco defense essay, cost savings associated with various Wyle technical strengths were not quantifiable. Essay! See AR, Tab 14, Source Selection Decision, at 4. Edward Abbey Essay! We find this issue to be untimely insofar as it was raised more than 10 days after Wyle knew or should have known of the basis of protest from documents provided by essay, the Navy in advance of the filing of edward eco defense essay its agency report. 4 C.F.R. 21.2(a)(2) (2012). Buisness! Moreover, we find no merit in Wyle#146;s assertion as it was in the SSA#146;s cost/tradeoff analysis and not the agency#146;s technical evaluation report where cost savings was mentioned. [7] By comparison, Imagine One#146;s rating of good under the management plan subfactor was based on three strengths and no weaknesses or deficiencies, while Wyle#146;s rating of outstanding under the edward abbey essay, understanding of the work subfactor was based on seventeen strengths and no weaknesses or deficiencies. AR, Tab 11, Final TET Report, at Essay, 16-20; Tab 13, TORP Report, at 4. Essay! [8] The CET also considered that Imagine One#146;s direct and indirect costs were significantly below the independent government cost estimate (IGCE)--which was based primarily on the costs of the incumbent contract with Wyle--but found them nonetheless realistic. Case Domestic! Id. at 33-41; AR, Tab 2, Declaration of Navy Contracting Officer#146;s Representative, Dec.

6, 2012. [9] The end product of a cost realism analysis is the total estimated cost that the edward, agency realistically expects to pay for the offeror#146;s proposed effort, as it is the estimated cost and not the offeror's proposed cost that must be the basis of the agency#146;s source selection determination. Magellan Health Servs. , B-298912, Jan. 5, 2007, 2007 CPD 81 at 13 n.13. [10] We also find no merit in Wyle#146;s related assertion that the adjustments to Imagine One#146;s cost proposal should have resulted in Essay the Navy downgrading the awardee#146;s technical evaluation. Edward Abbey Essay! As set forth above, the solicitation stated that unrealistically low costs, or inconsistencies between the technical and cost proposals, could be considered a weakness under the in essay, technical factor. Abbey Essay! RFP at work case domestic violence, 113. Here the protester has not alleged any inconsistencies between Imagine One#146;s technical and cost proposals, and the $3.6 million (about 6%) adjustment to abbey eco defense essay, Imagine One#146;s proposal was solely the social case study violence, result of abbey essay changes to coherence in essay, direct labor rates (not labor amounts). Given the edward abbey eco defense essay, size and type of the adjustments to Imagine One#146;s cost proposal, we find reasonable the Navy#146;s decision not to downgrade Imagine One#146;s technical proposal. [11] Wyle essentially argues the Navy was required to disclose to it that J.F. Taylor was not precluded from buisness, participating in the procurement here. We are unaware of any legal duty that required the Navy to disclose to offerors, or to Wyle specifically, J.F. Taylor#146;s eligibility to abbey eco defense, compete for this procurement.

Wyle#146;s reliance on J.F. Taylor as a subcontractor on a prior, unrelated procurement did not create a duty on the Navy to disclose the firm#146;s eligibility to compete here. We deny the request. We dismiss the protest. We deny the protest. We deny the protest. We sustain the dissertation in, protest. Edward Abbey Essay! We deny the protest.

We grant the request. We deny the protest. We dismiss the protests as untimely. We deny the request for reconsideration. Looking for more? Browse all our products here.

GAO's Office of General Counsel issues legal decisions, opinions, and reports on dissertation in, bid protests, appropriations law, and other issues of federal law.

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*Consumer Comment : I believe the lady. *Author of eco defense essay original report : NOT MADE ABOUT OUR DAUGHTER NOT WINNING. *Consumer Comment : False Accusation. This is the best way to manage and coursework, repair your business reputation. Hiding negative complaints is only a Band-Aid. Consumers want to see how a business took care of business. All business will get complaints. Eco Defense. How those businesses take care of those complaints is what separates good businesses from the rest.

Consumers love to do business with someone that can admit mistakes and state how they made improvements. Corporate Advocacy Business Remediation and Customer Satisfaction Program. Show customers why they should trust your business over your competitors. Are you an owner, employee or ex-employee with either negative or positive information about the company or individual, or can you provide insider information on this company? Are you also a victim of the same company or individual? Want Justice? File a Rip-off Report, help other consumers to be educated and don't let them get away with it! A business' first. line of defense.

willing to make a. Does your business have a bad reputation? Fix it the right way. Set the record straight: My wife entered our seven year old daughter into the National American Miss (NAMISS) contest. When we were informed that our daughter was a finalist, my wife was told she needed to pay $240 to continue in the contest. After she paid this amount, she told me they wanted another $240.00 to buisness coursework continue in the competition in addition to paying for abbey, a four day stay (accomodations and meals) at a Hilton Hotel where the next level of competition would take place.

When I researched NAM online, I read reports like: NAMISS is social domestic violence, a scam, it is a for profit business that earns millions annually. It is unethical, profit oriented, and preys on the parents of children who believe they are entering a legitimate contest. Based on the fact that there were 63 finalists from edward abbey, Southern California alone, it is clear that the aim for NAMISS to make money. When this became evident, we contacted NAMISS and said that our daughter would not be competing and dissertation in, we wanted our $240.00 back. We were told they have a no refund policy but would give us a $220.00 credit if our daughter wanted to participate the abbey eco defense essay, following year. Unless parents are willing to invest thousands of dollars in this competition, they should avoid it like the plague. This report was posted on voices essay, Ripoff Report on abbey eco defense, 10/04/2013 09:19 AM and is a permanent record located here: http://www.ripoffreport.com/reports/national-american-miss/elmer-new-jersey-08318/national-american-miss-avoid-national-american-miss-like-the-plague-elmer-new-jersey-1089430. Social Case Study Violence. The posting time indicated is Arizona local time. Arizona does not observe daylight savings so the abbey eco defense, post time may be Mountain or Pacific depending on the time of year.

Ripoff Report has an social work case study domestic exclusive license to this report. Edward Abbey Eco Defense. It may not be copied without the written permission of work domestic violence Ripoff Report. Abbey. READ: Foreign websites steal our content. If you would like to voices essay see more Rip-off Reports on this company/individual, search here: In order to assure the best results in your search:

Keep the edward eco defense essay, name short simple, and try different variations of the name. Do not include .com, S, Inc., Corp, or LLC at the end of the Company name. Use only the first/main part of a name to get best results. Only search one name at a time if Company has many AKA's. Are you an informative essay owner, employee or ex-employee with either negative or positive information about the company or individual, or can you provide insider information on this company? Are you also a victim of the same company or individual? Want Justice? File a Rip-off Report, help other consumers to be educated and don't let them get away with it! Got Reports filed against you? Resolve the eco defense, issues and rebuild trust through our Corporate Advocacy Program.

Corporate Advocacy Program: The best way to manage and repair your business reputation. Buisness Coursework. Hiding negative complaints is only a Band-Aid. Consumers want to essay see how businesses take care of informative essay business. All businesses will get complaints. Edward Essay. How those businesses take care of those complaints is what separates good businesses from the rest.

No! Better yet! Arbitrate to set the dissertation in, record straight! NAMiss is edward abbey eco defense essay, a Fabulous Program . SUBMITTED: Tuesday, August 16, 2016. POSTED: Tuesday, August 16, 2016. In February of dissertation in 2016 when my 6 yr. old grand daugther was recommended to NAMiss, I was hesitant.I searched the internet, feeling this was a scam. After reading many pages, I thought, what the heck, we will go to the orientation and see what it is all about. My husband and eco defense, I took our grand daughter to the orientation. The staff was wonderful. They were very open about dissertation in all the cost for edward, the pageant and explained how we could manage sponership. While there, Olivia had 3 interviews.

We left with a better feeling about the coherence, program. The next day we received a phone call to edward abbey eco defense essay inform us that Olivia had been chosen as a state finalist. We were all quite please and yes a bit nerveous too. Hearing so much bad stuff and not knowing anyone personally who had been there before can make one skepital. NAMiss kept us well informed with mail, phone calls and the the next time we went in distinctive voices essay, April for the work shop. Edward Essay. THis is Argument/Persuasive Essay, when you have to edward pay the 1st half of pageant fees. Now it takes a diligent parent ( grand parent) and in essay, someone who is not shy to ask for eco defense essay, sponsership money, which is what I did. By this time I had more than half of what I needed. Coherence. When we paid the $240.00 I did get a receipt and edward abbey, signed a paper that said it was non-refundable . (which I have read in places people saying that were offered no receipt and were not told the funds were not refundable). Olivia and her Poppop and coherence in essay, I worked hard and eco defense, had bake sales and raised enough money it cover all expenses, including her formal gown, 2 different slips for her gown, the alteration of the essay, gown, interview dress, 3 new pair of shoes, assessories, Poppop's tie to match Oliva's dress and most of our hotel stay.

Olivia did not win princess of her division, but we came away happy. She won 3rd place on Top Model Search, 1st Runner up in Miss Pereonality, she was names as Miss Photogenic in the Princess division. It was a great experience for this little outgoing 6 year olf girl. She made many friends, she had a great time, she come away with new knowledge. Her Popop and I came away knowing new, wonderful parents and edward eco defense essay, children and a wonderful program for any young girls. So if you are one of those parents who gets a letter from NAMiss, please do not hesitate.

You will not regret it and neither will your little girl. Distinctive. It is well worth the money to see the smile on eco defense, that little girl's face, and buy an, who knows, maybe one day she will me Miss America. Are you an owner, employee or ex-employee with either negative or positive information about the company or individual, or can you provide insider information on this company? NAM for kids who want to excel in life skills. SUBMITTED: Tuesday, July 21, 2015. POSTED: Tuesday, July 21, 2015. Let me be upfront. I have no relationship with NAM but only have met the owners and the nice folks that work with NAM. As a rebuttal to the review indicating that NAM is a profit oriented company. I too own a large company and anyone with the ability to build a company deserves to make a profit. Of course NAM grosses millions but it costs millions to operate the company.

If you think NAM should operate as as governmental entity you would have poor results. Compare NAM with any other pageant as we have and you will change your mind. In fact, if you don't want to abbey eco defense invest in your child then don't blame NAM. It is the lowest cost life skill course in the market place. My daughter and wife worked weeks and hours to prepare for a Florida pageant and the hard work paid off And won a Florida Miss. We participated in buy an informative essay, the National pageant and my daughter won a few events but not the edward, National Competing and losing teaches a child to buisness work harder and that they are not losers but lost a competition. My wife as a Royalty Mom, worked hard at the recent Orlando July 2015 pageant and said she loved every minute of it. In fact, my daughter had to abbey essay help the other girls before they competed and she too honored.

Behind the distinctive voices, scenes there's so much that goes on and she said that the amount of eco defense care and love in in essay, NAM toward the girls is remarkable. As a father, I am so pleased to abbey see a company with great value and integrity. The experience for our daughter and all the in essay, other to compete with hundreds of remarkable young ladies while exercising their life skills is abbey, worth more ththe cost. Getting up in front of hundreds of strangers introducing oneself and having to voices interview in front of abbey eco defense essay 8 judges takes pure confidence. NAM teaches these young ladies real life experiences which is worth way more than what anyone has to invest. We met parents that did not have the money but saved so theor daughters could compete each year. In fact they take their vacation this time each year. Study Domestic. To them it's the life skills and said their kids learn more at NAM than they learn all year long.

How can you put a value on your kids future. Give your daughter the best. Invest in her future. Be open minded. Abbey. Trust NAM. They are the distinctive voices, best.

And as a Father I am so pleased in the transformation in my daughter. Once you start networking with other parents at the events you will never kniw the abbey eco defense, value of what NAM will do for dissertation in, your child. If you don't get involved with her 100% before the pageant don't go. Kids need parents guidance and abbey eco defense essay, not coaches that you hire. You will bond with your kid. Are you an owner, employee or ex-employee with either negative or positive information about the company or individual, or can you provide insider information on this company?

SUBMITTED: Monday, July 20, 2015. POSTED: Monday, July 20, 2015. I just finished the pageant this weekend and my daughter participated ---all I have to say is she had NO CHANCE because there were 102 finalists (obviousl they have no limit) and we dont have thousands to dissertation in spend on various competetitions- it is clear that if you have money to invest, you win! the edward, concept is good for the girls to have an experience but realy comes down to distinctive essay deep the parent's pockets are. Edward Essay. Its mostly about money. Are you an owner, employee or ex-employee with either negative or positive information about the company or individual, or can you provide insider information on this company? I believe the lady. SUBMITTED: Monday, March 16, 2015.

POSTED: Monday, March 16, 2015. We were at a store and coursework, amodeling agency saw us and said the SAME exact thing, free shoot, free blah blah blah, only 500 bucks for the modeling classes held at the hotel, the free shoot and such were on a saturday, in edward abbey eco defense, texas we have 3 days to cancel an order on coherence, our card. the only way that the company would do so is through fax machine m-f Sat, Sunday Monday, weekends count in this cancel rule in texas. Edward Abbey Essay. after you come off of the high that your kid could be a star you realize, HUHnow that i have come to mt senses what a joke. aww crap its tuesday, they wont refund my money :/ BOO barbrazone, in dissertation in, Califonia. Are you an owner, employee or ex-employee with either negative or positive information about the company or individual, or can you provide insider information on this company? SUBMITTED: Thursday, May 22, 2014. POSTED: Thursday, May 22, 2014. this is our 2nd yr attending Nam, and its anything but a scam.. my grandaughter 9 has gotten so much self confidence and self esteem. made many friends and took away so much. being just myself and NO help from family or friends, the team at NAM offered us a partial sponsor-ship and eco defense, with out that help i would'nt have made it. Coursework. So i am very grateful to them, and through out the pageant they were very helpful..Now back for our 2nd yr off the bat we were offered a 200 dollar discount for edward essay, returning. All girls returning get a discount. plus a single parent discount. so this time i had to pay very little. plus we came away with 5 trophey's last yr. and social case, hope to get more this yr. So i am very sorry u had a bad time, but had u stuck around u would have seen that NAM is AWESOME.. All the edward abbey, team is awesome , including ms Dawn Lee(lady in charge of advertising contest).

Sincerely Rebecca Reyna. Are you an buisness coursework owner, employee or ex-employee with either negative or positive information about the company or individual, or can you provide insider information on this company? #6 Author of abbey eco defense essay original report. NOT MADE ABOUT OUR DAUGHTER NOT WINNING. SUBMITTED: Friday, May 09, 2014. POSTED: Friday, May 09, 2014. Someone wrote and said we filed our report because we were mad that our daughter did not win. Essay. If the edward eco defense essay, writer read our report, he or she would know that we asked for a refund for social work case violence, a competition in which our daughter never participated. What we asked for was that NAMISS be upfront with parents at the very beginning about all the costs involved.

Is it too much to inform parents, If your child is chosen as a finalist, in addition to edward eco defense essay paying $480 to enter this round of the competition, you will also have to pay for accomodations and food at a hotel where the social study domestic violence, pageant will be held over a three day period? Why anyone would question the need for transparency in these matters is beyond our comprehension. Are you an owner, employee or ex-employee with either negative or positive information about the company or individual, or can you provide insider information on this company? SUBMITTED: Saturday, May 24, 2014. POSTED: Saturday, May 24, 2014. Going to tell you why your rip off is full of you-know-what. My daughter participated in this program, and edward abbey essay, it was a great experience. As far as you getting ripped off of your money, that is completely your fault. At the Argument/Persuasive Essay, first meeting you attend, they tell you, out loud, spoken, not written in small print, that the edward abbey eco defense, cost of initial pagent entry is $480.00. Essay. You are advised to not just pay out of eco defense pocket, but to help your child go around your community and get business sponsors.

That $240 was your first payment, and you payed that willingly. Work Case. If they don't give refunds, it was your fault for not checking on that anyway. With donations from local businesses and friends and family, we were able to pay for the entire thing without touching our own wallets. All of this information was given to you when you signed up. My daughter went out, earned the money, which was a life experience in itself.

They are not exploiting children. They have a no make up rule for edward essay, contestants under the age of social study domestic 12. There is not judging on beauty. Edward Abbey Eco Defense Essay. My daughter, while she did not win, still came out proud and confident in herself. Any rip offs you experienced here were solely your fault. This program was amazing and distinctive voices essay, we would do it all over again if given the opportunity. Next time, actually listen, read, and know what you are getting into edward abbey essay before you throw a hissy fit about what YOU signed up for. Are you an owner, employee or ex-employee with either negative or positive information about the company or individual, or can you provide insider information on this company? SUBMITTED: Wednesday, May 07, 2014. POSTED: Wednesday, May 07, 2014. I work in the Chicago School System.

I was speaking with a student who was rather excited by the prospect of distinctive being involved with this group. She went to the open call I guess and was informed that she was in. I was happy for her. Eco Defense Essay. She informed me that she needed sponcers and did not know how to social case study go about it. I told her I would help her.

She gave me a brochoure detailing sponcership. It is indeed geared toward businessness. Edward Essay. It clearly states on the broshure that NAM IS BBB ACCREDITED. So I went to the BBB , just to find out that they have a F rating and dissertation in, are NOT Accredited. So why would this professional brochure have this on there? I did not know how much the sponcership was until I researched the net. I have printed all out for essay, the student. Along with complaints from around the net, as well as postive comments. I would have still sponsored her, however this false info on their hand out has me very concered, for distinctive essay, it is indeed a lie, and that is edward abbey essay, good enoug me to essay NOT place any of my hard earned money into the hands of false and mis leading pratices.

Are you an owner, employee or ex-employee with either negative or positive information about the abbey essay, company or individual, or can you provide insider information on this company? SUBMITTED: Sunday, March 23, 2014. POSTED: Sunday, March 23, 2014. National American Miss is dissertation in, not a scam. Eco Defense Essay. NAMiss is work study domestic, a peageant, a scholarship pageant. The company is a business, therefore they require money to run. They also give every competitor a trophy and edward eco defense, give away hundreds of prizes. This is essay, expensive. I competed last year and did very well. I had sponsors pay for my $480 (which is higly suggested by the company rather than just paying it.) The pageant only costed my, personally, 500 or so dollars which includes: hotel, food, dress, interview outfit, shoes, etc.

So, it is expensive becuase it is abbey eco defense, a business. You would not complain about Tory Burch's prices making them a rip-off. Are you an voices owner, employee or ex-employee with either negative or positive information about the company or individual, or can you provide insider information on abbey eco defense essay, this company? SUBMITTED: Tuesday, January 07, 2014. POSTED: Tuesday, January 07, 2014. It would appear that the complaint comes from a parent who is mad because their child didn't win.

First of all, the complaint wasn't filed during the time period between open calls and state level pageant. The complaint was filed after state level pageant took place and in essay, about a month before nationals. Second, the price given is an edward eco defense incorrect price. The true cost for National America Miss is as follows: open calls-FREE, state level: $495 any other costs are your choice to informative essay make (such as hotel stay, wardrobe costs, and any optionals that the child chooses to do NAM is edward eco defense, very upfront about all of this, they also inform you that the $495 entry fee is for the main pageant which includes intreview, personal introduction, formal wear. Optionals are judged by buy an a completely different panel of edward abbey essay judges than the main competition.), and national level: $795 any other costs are again your choice to make. Open calls are just that, there is work case study domestic violence, no competition and they only try to see if the girls are truly interested and give very detailed explanations and other information to the parents.

Third, yes the payments for the entry fee can be made over a period of time. Maybe you and your wife didn't pay attention when the went over edward abbey eco defense, this information and therefor should only blame yourselves for not paying attention to details. Fourth, once again if you or your wife would have paid attention then you would know that most girls go out and get sponsorships to cover their entry fees. Sponsorships are fairly easy to get because it is a tax write off as advertisement for businesses. Fifth, it is very clearly stated in the paperwork that is buy an, handed out at every level in the NAM pageant that there are no refunds! NAM is a great opportinuty for girls to abbey eco defense gain life skills that they will use in the world! They focus on public speaking, interview skills, and coursework, teach the girls the eco defense essay, values of coherence helping each other. They also require each girl in every age group to edward abbey do volunteer work and maintain good grades. My daugther had never participated in a pageant before joining NAM in social case study violence, 2013. We do not have lots of money.

I watched my teenage daughter blossom during this experience and grow into a caring young lady. We were blessed to experience both state and national levels during 2013. She is already preparing for 2014 state level, and loving every minute. The state and essay, national staff for work domestic, NAM are very caring people and help in any way possible. Are you an owner, employee or ex-employee with either negative or positive information about the company or individual, or can you provide insider information on this company? Are you an owner, employee or ex-employee with either negative or positive information about the company or individual, or can you provide insider information on this company? Are you also a victim of the same company or individual?

Want Justice? File a Rip-off Report, help other consumers to be educated and don't let them get away with it! Got Reports filed against you? Resolve the issues and rebuild trust through our Corporate Advocacy Program. Corporate Advocacy Program: The best way to manage and repair your business reputation. Hiding negative complaints is abbey essay, only a Band-Aid. Consumers want to see how businesses take care of business. Essay. All businesses will get complaints. How those businesses take care of edward eco defense essay those complaints is voices, what separates good businesses from the rest.

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rubrics homework Rubric: A scoring scale used to assess student performance along a task-specific set of criteria. Authentic assessments typically are criterion-referenced measures. Edward Abbey? That is, a student's aptitude on a task is determined by matching the student's performance against a set of criteria to determine the coherence degree to which the student's performance meets the criteria for the task. To measure student performance against a pre-determined set of criteria, a rubric, or scoring scale, is typically created which contains the essential criteria for the task and appropriate levels of performance for edward abbey eco defense essay, each criterion. For example, the following rubric (scoring scale) covers the research portion of a project: As in the above example, a rubric is comprised of two components: criteria and levels of performance . Each rubric has at social work case study domestic least two criteria and at least two levels of performance.

The criteria, characteristics of good performance on a task, are listed in the left-hand column in abbey essay the rubric above (number of sources, historical accuracy, organization and bibliography). Actually, as is coherence common in rubrics, the author has used shorthand for each criterion to make it fit easily into the table. The full criteria are statements of performance such as include a sufficient number of sources and essay project contains few historical inaccuracies. For each criterion, the evaluator applying the rubric can determine to what degree the student has met the criterion, i.e., the level of performance. Buy An Essay? In the above rubric, there are three levels of performance for each criterion. For example, the project can contain lots of historical inaccuracies, few inaccuracies or no inaccuracies. Finally, the rubric above contains a mechanism for assigning a score to each project. (Assessments and their accompanying rubrics can be used for purposes other than evaluation and, thus, do not have to have points or grades attached to them.) In the second-to-left column a weight is assigned each criterion. Students can receive 1, 2 or 3 points for number of sources. Edward Eco Defense? But historical accuracy, more important in this teacher's mind, is weighted three times (x3) as heavily. So, students can receive 3, 6 or 9 points (i.e., 1, 2 or 3 times 3) for the level of accuracy in informative their projects.

The above rubric includes another common, but not a necessary, component of rubrics -- descriptors . Edward? Descriptors spell out what is expected of students at each level of performance for each criterion. In the above example, lots of historical inaccuracies, can tell with difficulty where information came from and all relevant information is included are descriptors. A descriptor tells students more precisely what performance looks like at each level and how their work may be distinguished from the work of others for coherence in essay, each criterion. Similarly, the descriptors help the teacher more precisely and consistently distinguish between student work. Many rubrics do not contain descriptors, just the criteria and labels for the different levels of performance. For example, imagine we strip the edward abbey eco defense essay rubric above of its descriptors and put in labels for each level instead.

Here is how it would look: It is not easy to write good descriptors for each level and each criterion. Social Case Study? So, when you first construct and use a rubric you might not include descriptors. That is okay. You might just include the criteria and edward some type of labels for the levels of performance as in the table above. Once you have used the rubric and distinctive essay identified student work that fits into each level it will become easier to articulate what you mean by good or excellent. Thus, you might add or expand upon essay, descriptors the next time you use the rubric. Why Include Levels of Performance? As mentioned in Step 3, it is very useful for the students and the teacher if the criteria are identified and communicated prior to completion of the task. Distinctive Voices Essay? Students know what is expected of eco defense them and teachers know what to look for in student performance.

Similarly, students better understand what good (or bad) performance on a task looks like if levels of performance are identified, particularly if descriptors for each level are included. More consistent and objective assessment. In addition to better communicating teacher expectations, levels of performance permit the teacher to more consistently and social work domestic violence objectively distinguish between good and bad performance, or between superior, mediocre and poor performance, when evaluating student work. Furthermore, identifying specific levels of abbey eco defense student performance allows the dissertation in teacher to eco defense, provide more detailed feedback to students. Distinctive? The teacher and the students can more clearly recognize areas that need improvement. Analytic Versus Holistic Rubrics.

For a particular task you assign students, do you want to be able to essay, assess how well the students perform on each criterion, or do you want to get a more global picture of the students' performance on the entire task? The answer to distinctive, that question is likely to edward abbey eco defense essay, determine the type of rubric you choose to create or use: Analytic or holistic. Most rubrics, like the Research rubric above, are analytic rubrics. An analytic rubric articulates levels of performance for in essay, each criterion so the teacher can assess student performance on edward essay, each criterion. Using the distinctive Research rubric, a teacher could assess whether a student has done a poor, good or excellent job of abbey essay organization and distinguish that from how well the student did on historical accuracy. In contrast, a holistic rubric does not list separate levels of informative essay performance for each criterion. Instead, a holistic rubric assigns a level of performance by assessing performance across multiple criteria as a whole. For example, the analytic research rubric above can be turned into a holistic rubric: 3 - Excellent Researcher. included 10-12 sources no apparent historical inaccuracies can easily tell which sources information was drawn from all relevant information is included.

2 - Good Researcher. included 5-9 sources few historical inaccuracies can tell with difficulty where information came from bibliography contains most relevant information. 1 - Poor Researcher. included 1-4 sources lots of edward eco defense historical inaccuracies cannot tell from which source information came bibliography contains very little information. In the analytic version of coherence in essay this rubric, 1, 2 or 3 points is eco defense essay awarded for dissertation in, the number of sources the student included. In contrast, number of sources is edward eco defense considered along with historical accuracy and the other criteria in the use of a holistic rubric to arrive at a more global (or holistic) impression of the student work.

Another example of a holistic rubric is the Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric ( in PDF ) developed by buisness coursework Facione Facione. When to choose an edward abbey essay analytic rubric. Analytic rubrics are more common because teachers typically want to buy an informative, assess each criterion separately, particularly for assignments that involve a larger number of criteria. It becomes more and more difficult to edward eco defense essay, assign a level of coursework performance in a holistic rubric as the edward essay number of criteria increases. For example, what level would you assign a student on the holistic research rubric above if the student included 12 sources, had lots of inaccuracies, did not make it clear from which source information came, and whose bibliography contained most relevant information? As student performance increasingly varies across criteria it becomes more difficult to assign an appropriate holistic category to the performance. Work? Additionally, an analytic rubric better handles weighting of criteria. How would you treat historical accuracy as more important a criterion in the holistic rubric? It is not easy. But the analytic rubric handles it well by using a simple multiplier for each criterion. When to choose a holistic rubric.

So, when might you use a holistic rubric? Holistic rubrics tend to abbey eco defense essay, be used when a quick or gross judgment needs to be made. Buisness? If the assessment is a minor one, such as a brief homework assignment, it may be sufficient to apply a holistic judgment (e.g., check, check-plus, or no-check) to quickly review student work. But holistic rubrics can also be employed for more substantial assignments. On some tasks it is not easy to evaluate performance on one criterion independently of performance on a different criterion. For example, many writing rubrics (see example) are holistic because it is not always easy to disentangle clarity from organization or content from presentation. So, some educators believe a holistic or global assessment of student performance better captures student ability on certain tasks. (Alternatively, if two criteria are nearly inseparable, the combination of the two can be treated as a single criterion in an analytic rubric.) How Many Levels of Performance Should I Include in my Rubric?

There is no specific number of levels a rubric should or should not possess. It will vary depending on the task and your needs. A rubric can have as few as two levels of performance (e.g., a checklist) or as many as . well, as many as you decide is abbey appropriate. Informative Essay? (Some do not consider a checklist a rubric because it only has two levels -- a criterion was met or it wasn't. But because a checklist does contain criteria and at least two levels of eco defense performance, I include it under the category of rubrics.) Also, it is essay not true that there must be an edward abbey eco defense even number or an odd number of levels. Again, that will depend on the situation.

To further consider how many levels of performance should be included in a rubric, I will separately address analytic and holistic rubrics. Generally, it is coursework better to essay, start with a smaller number of levels of performance for a criterion and then expand if necessary. Making distinctions in student performance across two or three broad categories is difficult enough. As the number of levels increases, and those judgments become finer and finer, the likelihood of error increases. Thus, start small. For example, in an oral presentation rubric, amount of eye contact might be an important criterion. Performance on that criterion could be judged along three levels of performance: never, sometimes, always. Although these three levels may not capture all the variation in buisness student performance on the criterion, it may be sufficient discrimination for your purposes. Or, at edward abbey eco defense the least, it is buisness a place to essay, start. Upon applying the distinctive voices essay three levels of performance, you might discover that you can effectively group your students' performance in these three categories. Furthermore, you might discover that the labels of never, sometimes and eco defense always sufficiently communicates to your students the degree to which they can improve on making eye contact.

On the dissertation in other hand, after applying the rubric you might discover that you cannot effectively discriminate among student performance with just three levels of performance. Perhaps, in your view, many students fall in edward between never and sometimes, or between sometimes and always, and neither label accurately captures their performance. So, at this point, you may decide to expand the number of levels of performance to include never, rarely , sometimes, usually and always. There is no right answer as to how many levels of performance there should be for buisness, a criterion in an analytic rubric; that will depend on edward abbey, the nature of the task assigned, the criteria being evaluated, the coherence students involved and your purposes and abbey eco defense preferences. For example, another teacher might decide to leave off the always level in the above rubric because usually is as much as normally can be expected or even wanted in some instances.

Thus, the makes eye contact portion of the rubric for buisness coursework, that teacher might be. So, I recommend that you begin with a small number of edward eco defense levels of performance for each criterion, apply the rubric one or more times, and then re-examine the Argument/Persuasive number of levels that best serve your needs. I believe starting small and expanding if necessary is preferable to starting with a larger number of levels and eco defense shrinking the number because rubrics with fewer levels of performance are normally. easier and quicker to social work study domestic violence, administer easier to explain to edward eco defense essay, students (and others) easier to expand than larger rubrics are to shrink. The fact that rubrics can be modified and can reasonably vary from teacher to teacher again illustrates that rubrics are flexible tools to be shaped to your purposes. To read more about the decisions involved in developing a rubric, see the buisness coursework chapter entitled, Step 4: Create the Rubric. Much of the advice offered above for analytic rubrics applies to holistic rubrics as well. Abbey Eco Defense? Start with a small number of coursework categories, particularly since holistic rubrics often are used for quick judgments on smaller tasks such as homework assignments. For example, you might limit your broad judgments to. Of course, to aid students in understanding what you mean by satisfactory or unsatisfactory you would want to edward abbey, include descriptors explaining what satisfactory performance on the task looks like. Even with more elaborate holistic rubrics for more complex tasks I recommend that you begin with a small number of levels of performance.

Once you have applied the rubric you can better judge if you need to buy an, expand the levels to more effectively capture and communicate variation in student performance. To read more about the decisions involved in edward abbey eco defense essay developing rubrics, see.

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a lab report example The Optimal Foraging Theory: Abstract . The theory of optimal foraging and its relation to central foraging was examined by edward essay using the beaver as a model. Beaver food choice was examined by noting the in essay, species of woody vegetation, status (chewed vs. Edward Abbey Eco Defense! not-chewed), distance from the water, and circumference of trees near a beaver pond in North Carolina. Beavers avoided certain species of trees and preferred trees that were close to the water. No preference for tree circumference was noted. These data suggest that beaver food choice concurs with the optimal foraging theory. In this lab, we explore the theory of optimal foraging and the theory of central place foraging using beavers as the model animal. Foraging refers to the mammalian behavior associated with searching for food. The optimal foraging theory assumes that animals feed in a way that maximizes their net rate of energy intake per unit time (Pyke et al. 1977).

An animal may either maximize its daily energy intake (energy maximizer) or minimize the time spent feeding (time minimizer) in order to meet minimum requirements. Herbivores commonly behave as energy maximizers (Belovsky 1986) and accomplish this maximizing behavior by choosing food that is Argument/Persuasive Essay, of high quality and has low-search and low-handling time (Pyke et al. Abbey Essay! 1977). The central place theory is used to describe animals that collect food and store it in a fixed location in their home range, the central place (Jenkins 1980). Coursework! The factors associated with the abbey essay, optimal foraging theory also apply to informative essay the central place theory.

The central place theory predicts that retrieval costs increase linearly with distance of the resource from the central place (Rockwood and Hubbell 1987). Central place feeders are very selective when choosing food that is far from the central place since they have to abbey eco defense spend time and energy hauling it back to the storage site (Schoener 1979). The main objective of voices essay this lab was to determine beaver ( Castor canadensis ) food selection based on eco defense tree species, size, and distance. Since beavers are energy maximizers (Jenkins 1980, Belovsky 1984) and Argument/Persuasive central place feeders (McGinley and Whitam 1985), they make an eco defense, excellent test animal for the optimal foraging theory. Beavers eat several kinds of herbaceous plants as well as the leaves, twigs, and bark of most species of buy an informative essay woody plants that grow near water (Jenkins and Busher 1979). By examining the trees that are chewed or not-chewed in the beavers' home range, an accurate assessment of edward abbey essay food preferences among tree species may be gained (Jenkins 1975). The purpose of this lab was to learn about the optimal foraging theory. We wanted to know if beavers put the optimal foraging theory into action when selecting food. We hypothesized that the beavers in this study will choose trees that are small in circumference and closest to the water.

Since the energy yield of tree species may vary significantly, we also hypothesized that beavers will show a preference for some species of buisness trees over others regardless of circumference size or distance from the central area. Edward Abbey Eco Defense! The optimal foraging theory and central place theory lead us to predict that beavers, like most herbivores, will maximize their net rate of dissertation in energy intake per unit time. In order to maximize energy, beavers will choose trees that are closest to their central place (the water) and require the least retrieval cost. Since beavers are trying to edward abbey eco defense maximize energy, we hypothesized that they will tend to buy an essay select some species of abbey essay trees over others on social case violence the basis of nutritional value. This study was conducted at Yates Mill Pond, a research area owned by the North Carolina State University, on October 25 th , 1996. Our research area was located along the edge of the pond and was approximately 100 m in length and 28 m in width. There was no beaver activity observed beyond this width. The circumference, the species, status (chewed or not- chewed), and distance from the water were recorded for each tree in the study area. Due to the large number of trees sampled, the work was evenly divided among four groups of students working in abbey eco defense quadrants. Each group contributed to the overall data collected. Distinctive! We conducted a chi-squared test to edward abbey analyze the data with respect to beaver selection of certain tree species.

We conducted t-tests to determine (1) if avoided trees were significantly farther from the water than selected trees, and (2) if chewed trees were significantly larger or smaller than not chewed trees. Mean tree distance from the water and mean tree circumference were also recorded. Overall, beavers showed a preference for in essay, certain species of trees, and their preference was based on distance from the central place. Measurements taken at the study site show that beavers avoided oaks and musclewood (Fig. 1) and edward eco defense essay show a significant food preference (x 2 =447.26, d.f.=9, P.05). Distinctive Essay! No avoidance or particular preference was observed for the other tree species.

The mean distance of 8.42 m away from the water for not-chewed trees was significantly greater than the mean distance of 6.13 m for chewed trees (t=3.49, d.f.=268, P.05) (Fig. Edward! 2). The tree species that were avoided were not significantly farther from the water (t=.4277, d.f.=268, P.05) than selected trees. Coursework! For the abbey eco defense, selected tree species, no significant difference in circumference was found between trees that were not chewed (mean=16.03 cm) and chewed (mean=12.80 cm) (t=1.52, d.f.=268, P.05) (Fig. 3).

Although beavers are described as generalized herbivores, the finding in this study related to species selection suggests that beavers are selective in their food choice. This finding agrees with our hypothesis that beavers are likely to show a preference for certain tree species. Although beaver selection of certain species of trees may be related to the nutritional value, additional information is needed to determine why beavers select some tree species over buisness coursework others. Other studies suggested that beavers avoid trees that have chemical defenses that make the tree unpalatable to beavers (Muller-Schawarze et al. 1994). Edward Abbey! These studies also suggested that beavers prefer trees with soft wood, which could possibly explain the observed avoidance of musclewood and oak in our study. The result that chewed trees were closer to the water accounts for the time and energy spent gathering and hauling. This is in accordance with the optimal foraging theory and agrees with our hypothesis that beavers will choose trees that are close to the water. As distance from the water increases, a tree's net energy yield decreases because food that is buisness coursework, farther away is more likely to increase search and retrieval time. This finding is similar to Belovskys finding of an inverse relationship between distance from the water and edward eco defense percentage of plants cut.

The lack of any observed difference in mean circumference between chewed and not chewed trees does not agree with our hypothesis that beavers will prefer smaller trees to larger ones. Dissertation In! Our hypothesis was based on edward abbey eco defense essay the idea that branches from smaller trees will require less energy to cut and haul than those from larger trees. Our finding is in accordance with other studies (Schoener 1979), which have suggested that the distinctive voices essay, value of all trees should decrease with distance from the water but that beavers would benefit from choosing large branches from large trees at all distances. This would explain why there was no significant difference in circumference between chewed and not-chewed trees. This lab gave us the opportunity to observe how a specific mammal selects foods that maximize energy gains in accordance with the optimal foraging theory. Edward Eco Defense! Although beavers adhere to the optimal foraging theory, without additional information on relative nutritional value of tree species and informative the time and energy costs of cutting certain tree species, no optimal diet predictions may be made. Other information is also needed about abbey predatory risk and its role in coursework food selection.

Also, due to the large number of students taking samples in the field, there may have been errors which may have affected the accuracy and precision of our measurements. In order to corroborate our findings, we suggest that this study be repeated by others. The purpose of this lab was to learn about the edward abbey essay, optimal foraging theory by social case study violence measuring tree selection in beavers. We now know that the optimal foraging theory allows us to edward predict food-seeking behavior in beavers with respect to distance from their central place and, to a certain extent, to variations in buisness tree species. We also learned that foraging behaviors and food selection is not always straightforward.

For instance, beavers selected large branches at edward essay any distance from the water even though cutting large branches may increase energy requirements. Dissertation In! There seems to be a fine line between energy intake and energy expenditure in beavers that is not so easily predicted by any given theory. Belovsky, G.E. 1984. Summer diet optimization by beaver. The American Midland Naturalist. 111: 209-222. Belovsky, G.E.

1986. Eco Defense Essay! Optimal foraging and community structure: implications for a guild of generalist grassland herbivores. Oecologia. 70: 35-52. Jenkins, S.H. Buisness Coursework! 1975. Food selection by beavers: a multidimensional contingency table analysis. Oecologia.

21: 157-173. Jenkins, S.H. Essay! 1980. A size-distance relation in food selection by beavers. Ecology. 61: 740-746. Jenkins, S.H., and P.E. Busher. Buisness Coursework! 1979. Essay! Castor canadensis. Mammalian Species. 120: 1-8.

McGinly, M.A., and T.G. Whitham. 1985. Central place foraging by beavers ( Castor Canadensis ): a test of foraging predictions and the impact of selective feeding on the growth form of cottonwoods ( Populus fremontii ). Oecologia. 66: 558-562. Muller-Schwarze, B.A. Schulte, L. Sun, A. Muller-Schhwarze, and C. Muller-Schwarze.

1994. Red Maple ( Acer rubrum ) inhibits feeding behavior by beaver ( Castor canadensis ). Social Work Study Domestic! Journal of Chemical Ecology. 20: 2021-2033. Pyke, G.H., H.R. Pulliman, E.L. Charnov. 1977. Edward Abbey Essay! Optimal foraging. The Quarterly Review of coherence Biology.

52: 137-154. Rockwood, L.L., and S.P. Hubbell. 1987. Abbey Essay! Host-plant selection, diet diversity, and optimal foraging in a tropical leaf-cutting ant. Coursework! Oecologia. 74: 55-61. Schoener, T.W. 1979. Generality of the size-distance relation in models of optimal feeding.

The American Naturalist. Edward Abbey Essay! 114: 902-912. *Note: This document was modified from the work of Selena Bauer, Miriam Ferzli, and Vanessa Sorensen, NCSU. Buisness! Copyright NC State University 2004. Sponsored and funded by National Science Foundation.

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essay women's rights From Past to Present. A World Wide Movement. In spite of this recognition of the fundamental importance of edward eco defense, women achieving the vote, attention paid to the history of its long struggle has been marginalized. And, the reasons for the depth of coursework, its opposition ignored. Why, for example, did it take until May, 2005, for women in Kuwait to finally achieve their full voting rights in their national elections? It is commonly believed that female suffrage was desired and fought for only in England and the United States. Yet dynamic struggles for women#146;s basic democratic right appeared in many countries in the nineteenth and edward abbey twentieth centuries.

Though these movements differed in their reasons and tactics, the fight for female suffrage, along with other women#146;s rights concerns, cut across many national boundaries. By exploring the dissertation in, following topics, this essay attempts to help rectify the narrow and unexamined view of female suffrage. By the turn of the twentieth century women#146;s reform was truly an international movement, one in which ideas and edward abbey tactics used in one country served as models for use in another. The strength of the 19th/early 20th century struggle for women#146;s suffrage was its transnational nature. Argument/Persuasive Essay! Cooperation between women of various nations gave each the resources they needed to overcome their marginalisation in the politics of their own nations. In the edward abbey, later decades of the 19th century, the expansion of the case study, telegraph and growth of women#146;s press allowed the discussion about women's status and roles to be communicated from country to country. Improvements in transportation facilitated like-minded women and men to abbey eco defense attend international gathering where they met and organized. The momentum of women#146;s suffrage was bolstered by such international movements as: The International Woman Suffrage Association: The International Woman Suffrage Association, established between 1899 and 1902, held its first meeting in Berlin in Argument/Persuasive Essay, 1904. A series of Congresses followed, each with the aim of improving women#146;s rights, and edward abbey essay each providing a stimulus for similar transforming movements throughout the world.

At the buisness, Alliances#146; seventh meeting in Budapest in 1913, euphoria about success was in the air, causing American Carrie Chapman Catt to claim: #147;Our movement has reached the edward eco defense, last stage. Parliaments have stopped laughing at woman suffrage, and politicians have begun to dodge!#148; World-Wide Temperance Movement: Perhaps no other cause helped the women suffrage movement as much as temperance. The Women#146;s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was established in the United States in 1874 as a Protestant reform movement. In 1884, its powerful, influential leader, Frances Willard, formed the World#146;s Women#146;s Christian Temperance Union, which was spearheaded mostly by missionaries working in non-western and southern countries.

When Willard saw the buy an essay, link between women voting and temperance, and encouraged her membership to work for the vote, the WCTU leadership skills and organizational resources everywhere provided an edward abbey eco defense, enormous boast to sometimes flagging suffrage causes. International Socialism: In 1907 international socialism decided to support women#146;s suffrage. Socialists were bent on organizing working class women. Since bans against female party membership existed within most traditional political parties, Socialists, having to organize women separately from men, managed to coherence create successful female oriented movements in some countries. Most Socialists went beyond civic issues to link suffrage to a fundamental challenge to edward gender relations.

German Socialists, for example, demanded sexual emancipation and more control for women within their families as well as the vote. Socialist tactics also influenced militant suffragism after the 1890s. Most effective was a section within the British movement, the social study domestic, Women#146;s Social and Political Union (WSPU), which used aggressive tactics of abbey essay, political confrontation to bring attention to Argument/Persuasive the suffrage cause. Groups in other nations imitated the British, such as the suffragettes in Argentina and the United States. And, in 1912 in Nanking, the Chinese Woman Suffrage Alliance broke windows and stormed the parliament building demanding equality of the edward eco defense essay, sexes and women#146;s right to vote. The League of Nations and United Nations: The establishment of these international bodies significantly forwarded the goal of buisness coursework, universal female suffrage. In 1946 a Commission on Women was established, and the Convention of the Political Rights for edward Women was adopted in 1952.

Inter-regional and Pan-national Organizations: Region specific coalitions also strengthened individual movements. Although Latin American women participated in several inter-American and European conferences, they had more success when they formed supportive alliances within the Argument/Persuasive Essay, South American continent. The first South American International Feminine Congress took place in Buenos Aires in eco defense, 1910. And, although the 1928 founded Inter-American Commission of Women at first was driven by North American issues, it increasingly geared itself to the needs of Latin American women. Coherence! By the 1940s, the Commission had become an almost exclusively Latin American organization.

Pan-Pacific women#146;s networks also became effective advocates of women#146;s political equality, as did those within countries with great regional diversity. As an example, women in India by the end of the nineteenth century were forming their own organizations. The first all-India organization, the Women#146;s Indian Association was established in 1917, and by 1918 was holding gatherings all over India in support of women#146;s franchise. International Council of Women, Berlin, 1904. Women#146;s struggle for abbey eco defense essay suffrage was long and sometimes bitter. Buisness Coursework! In most cases women won the edward eco defense, right to vote in uneven stages. Full suffrage occurs when all groups of women are included in dissertation in, national voting and can run for any political office. In most cases women won the right to vote in uneven stages. New Zealand in 1893 was first. Liberalism was a strong force in this pioneering land which increasingly rejected what it viewed as archaic attitudes from the #147;Old World.#148; The support of abbey eco defense essay, social reform issues, including temperance, gave New Zealand suffragists the edge they needed.

The now famous #147;Women#146;s Suffrage Petition#148; is credited with being a major force for this success. Coherence! Signed by close to edward abbey one quarter of the female adult population, the buisness coursework, petition was the largest of its kind in New Zealand and other western countries. It is eco defense essay, comprised of 546 sheets of paper, all glued together to form one continuous roll 274 metres long, with the signatures of over 10,000 adult women. A few Maori women signed, but at this time they mainly were concerned with achieving political participation rights for the whole tribe. The New Zealand breakthrough sent ripples throughout the world. New Zealand women suffrage supporters were invited to voices many countries to visit, lecture, and even join in demonstrations. Contingent of New Zealanders. Supporting British Suffragists in a Parade. In Europe, Finland, Norway and Iceland were among the first to grant female suffrage. Most other western governments only extended suffrage to women during or just after WWI, even though women#146;s rights had been widely debated in their societies for many decades.

Even though suffrage movements in the United States were large and vigorous in abbey eco defense essay, the early twentieth century, it took women there seventy-two years from first claiming the franchise in 1848 to achieving it in 1920. It was an work study domestic, equally long process in Britain where women#146;s important work in WWI provided an opportunity for the government to act on suffrage without seeming to capitulate to the tactics of the more militant arm of England's #147;suffragette#148; movement. France was one of the last in Europe to enfranchise women, even though the demand for women#146;s rights was first voiced by Olympe de Gouge during the French Revolution, and it was in France that the most radical critique of women#146;s subordination was developed. French suffragists, however, throughout the early part of the 20th century faced opposition from edward, politicians, many of whom were Socialists who feared women would support Catholicism and right-wing political conservatism. French women won the coherence, vote as late as 1944. French women, nonetheless, fared better than the Swiss.

It took efforts of the Swiss Federation for Women#146;s Suffrage from 1909 to 1971 before women in Switzerland were allowed to vote in national elections, and not until 1989 could women in the Appenzell Interiour Rhodes canton vote in their local elections. In colonized countries, women demanded the right to edward abbey eco defense essay vote not just from dissertation in, stable republics, but from colonial powers. Anti-colonial nationalist movements in some cases encompassed women#146;s suffrage. For example, in India in 1919, poet and political activist Sarojini Naidu headed a small deputation of abbey, women to England to present the case for female suffrage before a select committee set up to create a proposal for constitution reforms aimed at the inclusion of some Indians in government. Although the British committee found the proposition preposterous, they allowed future Indian provincial legislatures to grant or refuse the franchise to women. Dissertation In! To the British surprise, many did, making it possible within a short span of time for women to be represented, however limited, on a par with men.

Universal suffrage for all adults over 21 was not achieved, however, until it became part of India#146;s 1950 Constitution. Women in newly independent states in Africa typically won the vote around the year 1960. On winning national independence, most of the abbey eco defense, ex-colonized countries created constitutions which guaranteed the franchise to both men and coursework women. In other countries, like South Africa where only whites were allowed to vote for members of the central government, white women gained the right to vote for central government in 1930, while black and colored women voted for eco defense the first time in 1994. Today only a few countries do not extend suffrage to women, or extend only buy an essay limited suffrage. In Bhutan there is only one vote per family in eco defense essay, village-level elections. In Lebanon women have to have proof of education before they vote. In Oman, only 175 people chosen by the government, mostly male, vote, and Kuwait only in 2005 granted women the right to vote in the 2007 elections.

Some countries, like Saudi Arabia, which have denied the vote to men as well as women, recently opened the vote in provisional elections to men. Women in Bahrain Voting for the First Time. Reasons for granting female suffrage have varied. Coherence In Essay! Sometimes responses to political change, or to societal anxieties, forwarded the cause. In Sweden, for example, women#146;s suffrage seems to have been an attempt to edward eco defense ward off more radical changes. In Germany, the work study domestic violence, ending of imperial rule in 1918 opened the door for women to eco defense push for the vote. Argument/Persuasive Essay! In Canada, the federal government used female suffrage as a political tool, enfranchising army nurses and female relatives of abbey essay, soldiers serving overseas in order to secure an election victory.

A #147;nativist#148; argument also influenced the opinion of distinctive voices, some in Canada, and in abbey essay, other parts of the world with large non-Northern European immigrant ethnic and racial minorities. Buy An Essay! One pro-suffrage argument in Canada was that white British Canadian women deserved the vote because the edward eco defense essay, franchise had already been entrusted to in essay naturalized male immigrants from Central Europe. In the United States the eco defense essay, same argument was used, as was the fact that African American males had already won the vote before white women. The same reasoning was used by some white settlers in New Zealand, anxious about indigenous peoples#146; access to political rights when it was denied to white women. More common was the incorporation of female suffrage into general reform movements. The push for female political power sometimes occurred when it was clear that without political power little would change for women, even with the passage of substantive reforms.

Concepts of the inherent equality between men and women, however, were not the dominate reasons given for suffrage. Most believed that women, as women, had different and special contributions to make. In Essay! Being most concerned with the welfare of their families, women would best bring this special knowledge into the political arena. Abbey! A principle temperance argument was that women were more likely to Essay vote for prohibition as a way to safeguard the family. Economic reasons for female suffrage were utilized as well. One stressed that once women were full citizens they would be in edward abbey eco defense essay, a position to press for equal salaries. Also, women#146;s economic independence depended on their ability to have a say in laws regarding their right to work and improvement in their working conditions. In the colonized states, the colonizers used the #147;woman question#148; to justify their dominance, claiming that women in their subject nations were #147;backward#148; and in need of #147;uplifting.#148; Ignoring the demands of women in their own countries, they were sometimes more willing to push for women#146;s reforms abroad. Argument/Persuasive Essay! On the other hand, nationalistic movements in colonized and other non-western nations began to link attempts at modernization with an edward essay, improvement in the status of women. In many instances, liberal nationalists, many of them male, needed the coursework, active support of women to help fulfill their dream of an independent, modern state.

Kimura Komako in New York City studying. methods of American women suffragists. The question of why female suffrage was so difficult to achieve has been answered in different ways. #149; Suffrage Challenged the Existing Order: Custom and abbey essay laws in many countries had placed men as supreme in public sphere and within the family. Deep cultural beliefs in male/female differences in altitudes and abilities supported this situation, and giving the women the vote posed a direct threat to male powers and privileges. Coherence In Essay! Changes in women#146;s reforms, such as access to education or property rights, were justified because they were viewed as an improvement in women#146;s social position. Abbey Essay! Suffrage, on voices essay the other hand, challenged the existing order by abbey eco defense essay threatening the basis of dissertation in, women#146;s subordination in society. Granting suffrage was a revolutionary act.

Conservative Kuwait lawmakers recently blocked women#146;s vote by arguing that giving women would essentially double women#146;s power. Citing claims that Islam and Kuwaiti custom bar women from holding office, the abbey essay, head of the Parliament#146;s human rights committee in coursework, May, 2005, said that men #147;are technically the edward eco defense essay, head of the nation here.#148; #149; Many Women didn#146;t Want it. This rationale swayed many a male legislator. It is dissertation in, true that at times even well educated women in countries with high percentages of female illiteracy joined men who claimed that as long as the majority of abbey eco defense, women were still illiterate and ignorant, it would be dangerous to extend them the vote. The anti-suffrage groups in the U.S., for dissertation in example, were mainly led by women. New York City, 1920. #149; Fear of a Lose of Female rights. Eco Defense Essay! Some women and men worried that if the social case violence, concept of male #147;protection#148; of women were broken, women would be forced to compete with men in areas which they were not prepared to. Giving women political independence would even change male/female roles in edward abbey essay, the family structure, severely damaging it. #149; Women#146;s Essential Femininity would be Sacrificed.

Most women did not want to give up what they saw as essential characteristics of their female nature if voting meant that they would have to essay enter the rough and disorderly realm of politics. There were fears that when women entered the public arena their #147;natural#148; roles of eco defense, wife and mother would be undermined. In South America, feminists were most successful when they developed ideas for in essay improving women#146;s condition that did not challenge some basic social values. Suffrage became only one part of the process of social change which recognized the need first to edward address women#146;s problems associated with their health and work. Feminist and suffrage supporters in non-western regions tended to be accused of blindly imitating Western women, who were perceived as aggressive and shameless. Japanese women#146;s internationalism was attacked using this very argument. In the years leading up to in essay World War II, members of the abbey eco defense essay, Japanese Diet increasingly portrayed women#146;s suffrage as immoral and as running counter to Japanese customs. #149; National Needs Come First: In countries fighting for their independence from colonial rule there was pressure on women to wait their turn.

Even Gandhi, who had brought women into the public struggle for buisness self sufficiency from Great Britain, stated that although he wanted women to take their proper place by the side of men, the timing was wrong for a #147;votes for women#148; campaign; women instead should use their energies #147;helping their men against the common foe.#148; Women suffrage supporters, too, tended to be more nationalistic than feminist, arguing that votes for women were necessary so that they could imbue their children with ideas of nationalism. #149; Resistance of Liberal/Left Politicians: Some supporters of progressive legislation worried that acts by women#146;s militant suffrage would harm the #147;larger#148; cause of progressive politics. There further was concern that once given the vote, women might all vote for conservative parties. Women in edward eco defense essay, Mexico sadly missed the chance to gain suffrage in 1930s because of work domestic, these fears. In 1934, General Lázaro Cárdenas drafted a bill to implement female suffrage, which was passed by both the Senate and Chamber of abbey, Deputies, was ratified by the states, and only needed formal declaration to be made into law.

That declaration never came. The presence of a number of street demonstrations, a threatened hunger strikes by feminists, and dissertation in fears that women would be unduly influenced by the clerical vote, unnerved Cárdenas at the last moment. Since the suffrage campaign was not a mass movement, it was easy to let the needed declaration slip away. Mexican women did not receive federal vote until 1958. #149; Suffrage Granted and the Denied: Suffrage, or its promise, has been granted and then retracted at various times. During the liberalization phase of Japan#146;s Meiji government in the 1880s, it seemed that Japan#146;s #147;first feminists#148; were going to achieve their goal of political participation. But all was ended in 1889 with the passing of edward abbey eco defense, laws which not only denied women voting rights, but even the right to join political parties. In the buisness, 1920s, Japanese feminists campaigned again, but the growing imperialism of the Meiji state and rising tide of Japanese militarism in abbey eco defense, the early 1930s turned Japanese suffragists back. When the Japanese military took control of the country in the 1930s, all democratizing movements were suppressed. It took people like Ichikawa Fusae decades of arguing that women#146;s suffrage was a fundamental human right before it was enshrined in the new Japanese constitution of 1945. In 1956 in Egypt, thirty-three years after feminists had first demanded suffrage, the revolutionary government granted women the coherence in essay, right to vote.

But from the start, the abbey eco defense essay, state and official Islam obstructed women#146;s political rights by banning feminist organizations and suppressing the public expression of social work domestic, their views. Thus the same year that the state granted women the right to vote, women were suppressed as independent political actors. Similarly Iran, which had granted women suffrage in 1963 and edward abbey essay passed numerous women#146;s equal rights legislation in the 70s, repealed all these gains when the revolutionary government of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini came to power in 1979. Women were eliminated from all decision-making positions within the social work study domestic, government, dress requirements were enforced, and women#146;s organizations were declared corrupt and disbanded. The future looks brighter today. A growing urban, middle class is making some progress by situating women#146;s rights within the cultural framework of Iran, and edward abbey noting that in order to modernize, Iran must improve the status of women.

Irish Cartoon, 1913. Suffrage has not been an dissertation in, automatic stepping stone to full equality for women. One problem was that once suffrage was achieved, the edward eco defense, common ground among women fighting for it was lost. Social Study Domestic Violence! Fears that participation in politics was #147;unladylike#148; remained, as did the old resistance and essay hostile attitudes against it. This means that major changes in women#146;s political activities, other than exercising their right to vote, have been long in coming. Today, women are struggling to gain equal participation in political office alongside men. Of interest is the use in coursework, over 41 countries of parity quotas and quota laws to achieve political gender balance. Responding to edward eco defense strong pressure by women#146;s organizations, gender quotas have appeared in social violence, many new constitutions, like the edward eco defense, one of Rwanda, and recently in distinctive essay, the constitution of Iraq. This means that a certain number of parliamentary seats are reserved for women.

The seats are distributed among the political parties in proportion to the number of abbey eco defense essay, seats awarded in dissertation in, parliament. In South Africa, a municipal law stipulates that 50 percent of all candidates for the local office have to be women. India in 1992 enacted a 33 percent policy to reserve seats for women in Parliament and edward abbey essay throughout the State Government. The final effectiveness of this policy is unknown, but so far, as many as one million women have gotten an opportunity to enter institutions as members and office bearers; many more have participated in elections and as campaigners for state legislatures. Most dramatic has been the change in the landscape of dissertation in, local politics. Abbey Essay! In some cases, women for the first time have sat with village leaders, and coursework sometimes even had a turn heading village affairs. Demonstration for parity in the Lower House of Parliament.

Ellen Dubois, #147;Woman Suffrage: The View from the Pacific,#148; Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 69, No. 4, Marlene Le Gates, #147;Making Waves: A History of Feminism in Western Society,#148; Copp Clark, Ltd., 1996. Robin Morgan, editor, #147;Sisterhood is Global: The International Women#146;s Movement Anthology,#148; Anchor Press, Doubleday, 1984.

Karen Offen, #147;European Feminism: 1700-1950: A Political History,#148; Stanford University Press, 2000. #147;Suffrage Beyond: International Feminist Perspectives#148;ø, edited by Caroline Daley Melanie Nolan, New York University Press, 1994. A History of the Women's Rights Movement (Suggested by Barbara Kelley's Middle School Students) Lyn Reese is the author of all the information on this website.