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Zara case study questions and answers

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batman joker essay The Batman Versus The Joker. If you wanted to initiate change in society what would you do? Would you create a symbol that encourages people to zara case and answers, not be afraid of criminals and stand up to short of virginia, them, in zara questions order to bring change? Or would you cause chaos and make people fear for their lives? Either way, both ways get you to short essays, think. Bruce Wayne decided that by creating a symbol, he could be considered incorruptible and everlasting and able to and answers, encourage people not to be scared of criminals. In a way, the Joker is a symbol too, although the purpose of the Joker's symbol is completely different than what Batman's symbol is.

The Joker's symbol represents chaos. Write Cover Letter! He is the agent of chaos, as he puts it. As for bringing change, Batman tries to use a more standard way of zara and answers being able to change Gotham that is more society-based. The reason Bruce Wayne became Batman is so that the people never have to endure the pain that he had to go through. His parents died at the hands of criminals and Bruce doesn't wish that upon anyone ever.

He wants to avenge his parents through Batman. Faces Coursework! Bruce wants to encourage the study people of Gotham to stand up to the criminals and show them that they cannot be taken down. The public will cast Batman away as soon as he is no longer needed, which can be a good thing and a bad thing. The Joker doesn't have a plan for short essays of virginia woolf, change. He describes himself as this: I am a dog chasing cars.

I wouldn't know what to do with one if I caught it. You know…I just do things. He wants to bring in a little anarchy rather than make it more society based like Batman. If you upset the established order then everything becomes chaos, which is what his purpose is in order to institute change. Both of these guys do things that society looks down upon. Both of these guys are considered 'freaks' to society.

Batman and the Joker are the zara questions exact same in every way except for their ways of bringing about change. They both have a taste for the theatrical, meaning they have something they can dress up in. Abortion! So, why do you look at Batman as the good guy? Is it just because you think Batman has a 'better' way of how he wants to change things? Is it because it's more 'society-based'? What about the Joker? The Joker wants to change the status quo of society too. Just because his way is different, and is based on anarchy, you think its bad? People need dramatic examples to shake them out of apathy.

Bruce Wayne said this himself! I would consider the Joker as a dramatic example. Zara Study! I also agree with Bruce that people do need dramatic examples in order to open their eyes, and make them realize what the writing services for dissertation heck is case questions going on paper in their lives. Case Questions! The Joker is the guy who is write cover letter chef doing this. He is the one blowing up buildings, killing people and zara and answers, breaking the law to open up people's eyes and it works to an extent. He also tries to should be legal outline, destroy the White Knight of Gotham to demolish people's spirit of zara study questions having a society who is on top of crime, a society in abortion essay outline which Batman is trying to create. He said, Madness is study like gravity, all you need is custom services for dissertation a little push when he was describing why Harvey Dent was the way he was now. Zara Study Questions And Answers! In the faces gcse coursework end, the study questions Joker wins. He destroys the very spirit of the city, but Batman and should, the authorities cover it up by blaming it on Batman himself. He would be considered this Dark Knight. This is something that I do not agree with.

He is hiding the zara questions truth from the letter chef society and what really happened. I don't care if this will destroy everything he has tried to produce for the city, it is wrong. I don't consider Batman a hero, whatsoever. I would consider him more of a 'guardian' as Commissioner Gordon calls him at the end of the movie. As for Bruce, Batman is case questions truly who lives inside of Bruce deep down.

Bruce will always need Batman because he is a part of him. He has trained his mind, body and cornell kerr, spirit to the maximum point possible, where he is unstoppable. He was Bruce Wayne when he did that and study, afterwards he created the symbol for Batman. He wanted to overcome his fears. He needed to become more than just a man in the mind of his opponents through theatricality and deception. Compassion is what separates people from criminals. As for the Joker, he doesn't want to kill Batman because they are the same in a lot of ways. He says, This is what happens when an unstoppable force meets an immovable object.

The both of them won't kill each other because one is against killing his enemies, and the other one thinks the guy is too much fun to kill. Research Paper On Education And Technology! He says, I think you and I are destined to case questions and answers, do this forever but Batman just tells him he'll be in a padded cell forever. Honors Cornell! The Joker doesn't care because he already succeeded to what he wanted to do. Case Study And Answers! He sent out the message to Gotham that he wanted to send out; the authorities in the end have just hid it. The Joker, in my opinion, is one intelligent guy.

Everyone considers him insane or crazy, but I don't. Sanity is chef only a personal perception. He can be perceived as mad because he has nothing to lose and isn't afraid of dying. He laughs in and answers the face of danger. Some people might find him a little insane when he says, Do you want to know why I use a knife? Guns are too quick. Cover Letter Executive Chef! You can't savour all the zara study questions and answers little emotions. In someone's last moments before death, the people show you they really are just before you kill them, which I guess is true. I suppose people could believe that he's insane when he says that, but I still don't think that he is. Another perception people have is essays of virginia that the Joker a monster, but he really isn't, once again. He mentions that he just ahead of everyone in society.

If I was to agree with anything that he says he has to be when he says, The only zara study questions and answers sensible way to live in this world is without rules. People think that rules will save them in the end, but really, they are preventing them from doing what they would like to do. The Joker thinks that all of people's morals, and codes are a bad joke and are dropped at the first sign of trouble. He believes that people are only letter executive as good as the zara case study questions world allows them to be and when the chips are down the 'civilized people' will just eat each other. This society is screwed up. There is no doubt in my mind. What I can agree on is that Batman and The Joker are exactly alike in everyway, except for the way they want to bring about change.

I believe that Batman isn't the write executive 'good' guy either. Everyone just considers him the 'good' guy because he wants to change the city in a society-based way and everyone considers the Joker bad because he kills people, blows up stuff and zara study questions, wants to stir up the pot a bit. Personally, I think that the Joker's way of doing things will bring more change than what Batman's methods would do. Sure, he isn't following the rules, but that makes the message so much more powerful and essays woolf, you will remember it more because it's different. In order to initiate change you must believe in something and you must fight for it with everything that you have. You must find a good reason for zara case questions, the change to happen and present it with passion. People wouldn't listen to you if you weren't confident about the change you want. You must find people who agree with you, such as Commissioner Gordon for Batman, and the Joker's hit men for gcse, himself. They will bring in their own perspective of the situation as well and zara case study and answers, may have even thought of something you haven't.

Not only that, but you have to do what you say you are going to do. For instance, if you say criminals are bad, but you are going around breaking the law just like them, people will not believe you. Or if you're the joker and you say I am going to honors thesis kerr, kill a whole bunch of people, and not do it. People will not take you seriously and zara study, will not be afraid of you. If you bring about change, you will be remembered for a long time, just like Batman and the Joker.

These two will be remembered and maybe one day, one of them will completely change the city with their own technique. On Education And Technology! You just never know.

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George Orwell: ‘Nineteen Eighty-Four’ Newspeak was the official language of Oceania and had been devised to meet the study questions and answers, ideological needs of Ingsoc, or English Socialism. In the on education and technology, year 1984 there was not as yet anyone who used Newspeak as his sole means of zara case questions and answers, communication, either in write cover letter executive speech or writing. The leading articles in the Times were written in it, but this was a tour de force which could only be carried out by a specialist. It was expected that Newspeak would have finally superseded Oldspeak (or Standard English, as we should call it) by case questions, about the services, year 2050. Meanwhile it gained ground steadily, all Party members tending to use Newspeak words and study and answers, grammatical constructions more and more in their everyday speech. Research And Technology? The version in use in zara case study and answers 1984, and embodied in the Ninth and Tenth Editions of the Newspeak Dictionary, was a provisional one, and contained many superfluous words and archaic formations which were due to be suppressed later. It is with the final, perfected version, as embodied in the Eleventh Edition of the Dictionary, that we are concerned here. The purpose of Newspeak was not only to provide a medium of expression for the world-view and and technology, mental habits proper to the devotees of Ingsoc, but to make all other modes of thought impossible. It was intended that when Newspeak had been adopted once and for all and zara questions, Oldspeak forgotten, a heretical thought — that is, a thought diverging from the principles of Ingsoc — should be literally unthinkable, at write executive least so far as thought is dependent on words. Zara Case Study Questions And Answers? Its vocabulary was so constructed as to give exact and often very subtle expression to essay outline every meaning that a Party member could properly wish to study and answers express, while excluding all other meanings and also the possibility of arriving at them by indirect methods.

This was done partly by the invention of new words, but chiefly by eliminating undesirable words and by stripping such words as remained of writing services, unorthodox meanings, and so far as possible of all secondary meanings whatever. To give a single example. The word free still existed in Newspeak, but it could only be used in such statements as ‘This dog is free from lice’ or ‘This field is zara free from weeds’. It could not be used in its old sense of hidden gcse, ‘politically free’ or ‘intellectually free’ since political and case, intellectual freedom no longer existed even as concepts, and were therefore of necessity nameless. Quite apart from the suppression of writing services, definitely heretical words, reduction of vocabulary was regarded as an end in itself, and no word that could be dispensed with was allowed to survive. Newspeak was designed not to study extend but to diminish the range of thought, and this purpose was indirectly assisted by letter chef, cutting the choice of words down to zara a minimum. Newspeak was founded on the English language as we now know it, though many Newspeak sentences, even when not containing newly-created words, would be barely intelligible to an English-speaker of our own day. Newspeak words were divided into three distinct classes, known as the A vocabulary, the B vocabulary (also called compound words), and woolf, the C vocabulary. Study? It will be simpler to discuss each class separately, but the grammatical peculiarities of the language can be dealt with in the section devoted to the A vocabulary, since the same rules held good for all three categories. The A vocabulary.

The A vocabulary consisted of the words needed for the business of letter executive chef, everyday life — for such things as eating, drinking, working, putting on zara case study questions one's clothes, going up and down stairs, riding in vehicles, gardening, cooking, and the like. It was composed almost entirely of words that we already possess words like hit , run , dog , tree , sugar , house , field — but in comparison with the present-day English vocabulary their number was extremely small, while their meanings were far more rigidly defined. All ambiguities and shades of meaning had been purged out of them. So far as it could be achieved, a Newspeak word of this class was simply a staccato sound expressing one clearly understood concept. Custom? It would have been quite impossible to use the A vocabulary for study, literary purposes or for research paper and technology, political or philosophical discussion. Case Study? It was intended only to express simple, purposive thoughts, usually involving concrete objects or physical actions. The grammar of Newspeak had two outstanding peculiarities. Kerr? The first of these was an almost complete interchangeability between different parts of speech. Any word in case the language (in principle this applied even to very abstract words such as if or when ) could be used either as verb, noun, adjective, or adverb.

Between the verb and the noun form, when they were of the same root, there was never any variation, this rule of gcse, itself involving the destruction of many archaic forms. The word thought , for example, did not exist in Newspeak. Its place was taken by think , which did duty for both noun and zara case and answers, verb. No etymological principle was followed here: in some cases it was the of virginia, original noun that was chosen for retention, in other cases the verb. Even where a noun and verb of zara study, kindred meaning were not etymologically connected, one or other of them was frequently suppressed. There was, for example, no such word as cut , its meaning being sufficiently covered by custom writing for dissertation, the noun-verb knife . Adjectives were formed by zara case, adding the suffix - ful to the noun-verb, and adverbs by adding - wise . Cornell Kerr? Thus for example, speedful meant ‘rapid’ and speedwise meant ‘quickly’. Certain of our present-day adjectives, such as good , strong , big , black , soft , were retained, but their total number was very small. There was little need for them, since almost any adjectival meaning could be arrived at by adding - ful to a noun-verb. None of the now-existing adverbs was retained, except for zara case questions, a very few already ending in - wise : the - wise termination was invariable.

The word well , for example, was replaced by hidden coursework, goodwise . In addition, any word — this again applied in zara study and answers principle to every word in the language — could be negatived by adding the affix un -, or could be strengthened by the affix plus -, or, for still greater emphasis, doubleplus -. Thus, for example, uncold meant ‘warm’, while pluscold and doublepluscold meant, respectively, ‘very cold’ and ‘superlatively cold’. It was also possible, as in present-day English, to modify the meaning of almost any word by prepositional affixes such as ante -, post -, up -, down -, etc. By such methods it was found possible to bring about an enormous diminution of vocabulary. Given, for instance, the word good , there was no need for such a word as bad , since the required meaning was equally well — indeed, better — expressed by ungood . All that was necessary, in custom writing for dissertation any case where two words formed a natural pair of opposites, was to decide which of them to suppress. Dark , for example, could be replaced by unlight , or light by undark , according to preference. The second distinguishing mark of Newspeak grammar was its regularity. Zara? Subject to a few exceptions which are mentioned below all inflexions followed the same rules. Thus, in all verbs the preterite and the past participle were the same and ended in - ed . The preterite of steal was stealed , the preterite of think was thinked , and so on throughout the language, all such forms as swam , gave , brought , spoke , taken , etc., being abolished. All plurals were made by adding - s or - es as the case might be.

The plurals of honors thesis kerr, man , ox , life , were mans , oxes , lifes . Comparison of adjectives was invariably made by adding - er , - est ( good , gooder , goodest ), irregular forms and the more , most formation being suppressed. The only zara case and answers classes of words that were still allowed to inflect irregularly were the pronouns, the relatives, the demonstrative adjectives, and hidden faces, the auxiliary verbs. All of these followed their ancient usage, except that whom had been scrapped as unnecessary, and the shall , should tenses had been dropped, all their uses being covered by will and would . There were also certain irregularities in word-formation arising out of the need for rapid and case and answers, easy speech. A word which was difficult to utter, or was liable to be incorrectly heard, was held to be ipso facto a bad word: occasionally therefore, for the sake of euphony, extra letters were inserted into a word or an archaic formation was retained. But this need made itself felt chiefly in custom writing for dissertation connexion with the B vocabulary. Why so great an importance was attached to ease of pronunciation will be made clear later in this essay. The B vocabulary. Study Questions? The B vocabulary consisted of words which had been deliberately constructed for political purposes: words, that is to say, which not only had in every case a political implication, but were intended to impose a desirable mental attitude upon be legal essay outline, the person using them. Zara Questions? Without a full understanding of the principles of Ingsoc it was difficult to of virginia use these words correctly.

In some cases they could be translated into Oldspeak, or even into words taken from the A vocabulary, but this usually demanded a long paraphrase and always involved the loss of certain overtones. The B words were a sort of verbal shorthand, often packing whole ranges of ideas into a few syllables, and at the same time more accurate and forcible than ordinary language. The B words were in all cases compound words (2) . They consisted of two or more words, or portions of words, welded together in an easily pronounceable form. The resulting amalgam was always a noun-verb, and study, inflected according to the ordinary rules. To take a single example: the word goodthink , meaning, very roughly, ‘orthodoxy’, or, if one chose to be legal essay regard it as a verb, ‘to think in an orthodox manner’. This inflected as follows: noun-verb, goodthink ; past tense and zara case study and answers, past participle, goodthinked ; present participle, goodthinking ; adjective, goodthinkful ; adverb, goodthinkwise ; verbal noun, goodthinker . The B words were not constructed on any etymological plan.

The words of which they were made up could be any parts of speech, and could be placed in honors thesis kerr any order and zara questions, mutilated in any way which made them easy to pronounce while indicating their derivation. Writing For Dissertation? In the zara case study, word crimethink (thoughtcrime), for instance, the think came second, whereas in thinkpol (Thought Police) it came first, and in the latter word police had lost its second syllable. Because of the great difficulty in securing euphony, irregular formations were commoner in the B vocabulary than in the A vocabulary. Cornell Kerr? For example, the adjective forms of questions and answers, Minitrue , Minipax , and Miniluv were, respectively, Minitruthful , Minipeaceful , and Minilovely , simply because - trueful , - paxful , and - loveful were sliightly awkward to pronounce. In principle, however, all B words could inflect, and all inflected in exactly the same way. Some of the B words had highly subtilized meanings, barely intelligible to anyone who had not mastered the cover executive, language as a whole. Consider, for example, such a typical sentence from a Times leading article as Oldthinkers unbellyfeel Ingsoc . The shortest rendering that one could make of this in Oldspeak would be: ‘Those whose ideas were formed before the Revolution cannot have a full emotional understanding of the principles of English Socialism.’ But this is not an adequate translation. To begin with, in order to grasp the full meaning of the Newspeak sentence quoted above, one would have to have a clear idea of what is meant by Ingsoc . And in addition, only a person thoroughly grounded in Ingsoc could appreciate the case questions and answers, full force of the word bellyfeel , which implied a blind, enthusiastic acceptance difficult to imagine today; or of the word oldthink , which was inextricably mixed up with the idea of wickedness and decadence. Faces Coursework? But the special function of certain Newspeak words, of case study and answers, which oldthink was one, was not so much to express meanings as to hidden gcse coursework destroy them.

These words, necessarily few in number, had had their meanings extended until they contained within themselves whole batteries of words which, as they were sufficiently covered by a single comprehensive term, could now be scrapped and forgotten. The greatest difficulty facing the compilers of the Newspeak Dictionary was not to invent new words, but, having invented them, to make sure what they meant: to zara case and answers make sure, that is to say, what ranges of words they cancelled by their existence. As we have already seen in the case of the word free , words which had once borne a heretical meaning were sometimes retained for the sake of paper, convenience, but only with the undesirable meanings purged out of them. Countless other words such as honour , justice , morality , internationalism , democracy , science , and religion had simply ceased to exist. Zara Study Questions And Answers? A few blanket words covered them, and, in covering them, abolished them. Custom Services For Dissertation? All words grouping themselves round the concepts of liberty and equality, for questions and answers, instance, were contained in abortion outline the single word crimethink , while all words grouping themselves round the concepts of objectivity and rationalism were contained in zara the single word oldthink . Greater precision would have been dangerous. Services? What was required in a Party member was an outlook similar to zara questions and answers that of the ancient Hebrew who knew, without knowing much else, that all nations other than his own worshipped ‘false gods’. He did not need to know that these gods were called Baal, Osiris, Moloch, Ashtaroth, and the like: probably the less he knew about them the better for his orthodoxy. He knew Jehovah and the commandments of Jehovah: he knew, therefore, that all gods with other names or other attributes were false gods.

In somewhat the same way, the party member knew what constituted right conduct, and in exceedingly vague, generalized terms he knew what kinds of writing services, departure from it were possible. His sexual life, for zara questions, example, was entirely regulated by essays, the two Newspeak words sexcrime (sexual immorality) and goodsex (chastity). Sexcrime covered all sexual misdeeds whatever. It covered fornication, adultery, homosexuality, and zara case study and answers, other perversions, and, in addition, normal intercourse practised for cover executive chef, its own sake. Case Study Questions? There was no need to enumerate them separately, since they were all equally culpable, and, in short principle, all punishable by death. And Answers? In the C vocabulary, which consisted of research paper and technology, scientific and technical words, it might be necessary to study questions give specialized names to certain sexual aberrations, but the ordinary citizen had no need of essays, them. He knew what was meant by goodsex — that is to say, normal intercourse between man and zara case, wife, for the sole purpose of begetting children, and without physical pleasure on the part of the woman: all else was sexcrime . In Newspeak it was seldom possible to follow a heretical thought further than the honors, perception that it was heretical: beyond that point the necessary words were nonexistent. No word in the B vocabulary was ideologically neutral. A great many were euphemisms. Study Questions? Such words, for instance, as joycamp (forced-labour camp) or Minipax (Ministry of Peace, i.e. Short Essays Woolf? Ministry of War) meant almost the zara case questions, exact opposite of what they appeared to mean.

Some words, on should be legal essay outline the other hand, displayed a frank and contemptuous understanding of the case study, real nature of Oceanic society. An example was prolefeed , meaning the rubbishy entertainment and spurious news which the Party handed out to the masses. Other words, again, were ambivalent, having the honors kerr, connotation ‘good’ when applied to the Party and ‘bad’ when applied to its enemies. But in addition there were great numbers of words which at first sight appeared to case questions and answers be mere abbreviations and which derived their ideological colour not from custom for dissertation, their meaning, but from their structure. So far as it could be contrived, everything that had or might have political significance of any kind was fitted into the B vocabulary. The name of every organization, or body of people, or doctrine, or country, or institution, or public building, was invariably cut down into zara study, the familiar shape; that is, a single easily pronounced word with the smallest number of writing, syllables that would preserve the original derivation. Zara? In the Ministry of write chef, Truth, for example, the Records Department, in which Winston Smith worked, was called Recdep , the Fiction Department was called Ficdep , the Teleprogrammes Department was called Teledep , and so on. This was not done solely with the object of saving time. Even in the early decades of the twentieth century, telescoped words and phrases had been one of the characteristic features of political language; and it had been noticed that the tendency to use abbreviations of this kind was most marked in questions and answers totalitarian countries and totalitarian organizations. Examples were such words as Nazi , Gestapo , Comintern , Inprecorr , Agitprop . In the beginning the practice had been adopted as it were instinctively, but in Newspeak it was used with a conscious purpose.

It was perceived that in thus abbreviating a name one narrowed and subtly altered its meaning, by cutting out most of the associations that would otherwise cling to it. The words Communist International , for instance, call up a composite picture of research on education, universal human brotherhood, red flags, barricades, Karl Marx, and the Paris Commune. The word Comintern , on zara case study and answers the other hand, suggests merely a tightly-knit organization and a well-defined body of doctrine. It refers to something almost as easily recognized, and as limited in purpose, as a chair or a table. Comintern is a word that can be uttered almost without taking thought, whereas Communist International is a phrase over which one is obliged to linger at cornell least momentarily. In the same way, the questions, associations called up by a word like Minitrue are fewer and more controllable than those called up by Ministry of Truth . This accounted not only for the habit of custom services for dissertation, abbreviating whenever possible, but also for the almost exaggerated care that was taken to zara case questions and answers make every word easily pronounceable. In Newspeak, euphony outweighed every consideration other than exactitude of meaning. Regularity of grammar was always sacrificed to it when it seemed necessary. And rightly so, since what was required, above all for political purposes, was short clipped words of unmistakable meaning which could be uttered rapidly and which roused the minimum of echoes in the speaker's mind.

The words of the B vocabulary even gained in force from the honors thesis cornell kerr, fact that nearly all of them were very much alike. Almost invariably these words — goodthink , Minipax , prolefeed , sexcrime , joycamp , Ingsoc , bellyfeel , thinkpol , and countless others — were words of two or three syllables, with the zara study questions and answers, stress distributed equally between the first syllable and the last. The use of of virginia, them encouraged a gabbling style of zara case and answers, speech, at abortion be legal essay outline once staccato and monotonous. And this was exactly what was aimed at. The intention was to make speech, and especially speech on any subject not ideologically neutral, as nearly as possible independent of consciousness. For the zara questions and answers, purposes of everyday life it was no doubt necessary, or sometimes necessary, to reflect before speaking, but a Party member called upon to make a political or ethical judgement should be able to spray forth the correct opinions as automatically as a machine gun spraying forth bullets. His training fitted him to do this, the language gave him an almost foolproof instrument, and the texture of the words, with their harsh sound and a certain wilful ugliness which was in accord with the spirit of custom writing for dissertation, Ingsoc, assisted the zara case study questions, process still further. So did the fact of having very few words to choose from. Relative to coursework our own, the Newspeak vocabulary was tiny, and new ways of reducing it were constantly being devised.

Newspeak, indeed, differed from zara case questions and answers, most all other languages in that its vocabulary grew smaller instead of larger every year. Each reduction was a gain, since the smaller the area of choice, the for dissertation, smaller the temptation to take thought. Ultimately it was hoped to zara case study questions and answers make articulate speech issue from the and technology, larynx without involving the study questions and answers, higher brain centres at all. Abortion Be Legal Outline? This aim was frankly admitted in the Newspeak word duckspeak , meaning ‘to quack like a duck’. Like various other words in the B vocabulary, duckspeak was ambivalent in zara questions meaning.

Provided that the opinions which were quacked out were orthodox ones, it implied nothing but praise, and when the write letter chef, Times referred to zara case questions and answers one of the orators of the Party as a doubleplusgood duckspeaker it was paying a warm and valued compliment. The C vocabulary. The C vocabulary was supplementary to the others and consisted entirely of scientific and technical terms. Hidden Coursework? These resembled the scientific terms in use today, and were constructed from the same roots, but the usual care was taken to define them rigidly and strip them of study and answers, undesirable meanings. They followed the same grammatical rules as the words in the other two vocabularies. Very few of the short essays of virginia woolf, C words had any currency either in everyday speech or in political speech. Any scientific worker or technician could find all the words he needed in the list devoted to his own speciality, but he seldom had more than a smattering of the words occurring in the other lists. Only a very few words were common to all lists, and there was no vocabulary expressing the function of Science as a habit of mind, or a method of thought, irrespective of its particular branches. There was, indeed, no word for ‘Science’, any meaning that it could possibly bear being already sufficiently covered by study, the word Ingsoc . From the foregoing account it will be seen that in faces gcse coursework Newspeak the expression of case, unorthodox opinions, above a very low level, was well-nigh impossible. Services? It was of course possible to utter heresies of a very crude kind, a species of blasphemy. It would have been possible, for zara case study questions and answers, example, to write cover chef say Big Brother is ungood . Zara Case Study Questions And Answers? But this statement, which to an orthodox ear merely conveyed a self-evident absurdity, could not have been sustained by short essays woolf, reasoned argument, because the necessary words were not available.

Ideas inimical to Ingsoc could only be entertained in a vague wordless form, and could only be named in very broad terms which lumped together and zara case questions, condemned whole groups of heresies without defining them in of virginia woolf doing so. One could, in case questions fact, only should abortion be legal outline use Newspeak for unorthodox purposes by illegitimately translating some of the words back into case study, Oldspeak. Short Essays Of Virginia? For example, All mans are equal was a possible Newspeak sentence, but only in the same sense in which All men are redhaired is a possible Oldspeak sentence. Zara And Answers? It did not contain a grammatical error, but it expressed a palpable untruth — i.e. Cover Executive? that all men are of zara study and answers, equal size, weight, or strength. The concept of political equality no longer existed, and this secondary meaning had accordingly been purged out of the research paper on education, word equal . In 1984, when Oldspeak was still the normal means of communication, the zara case questions, danger theoretically existed that in coursework using Newspeak words one might remember their original meanings. In practice it was not difficult for any person well grounded in doublethink to avoid doing this, but within a couple of generations even the possibility of such a lapse would have vaished.

A person growing up with Newspeak as his sole language would no more know that equal had once had the secondary meaning of ‘politically equal’, or that free had once meant ‘intellectually free’, than for instance, a person who had never heard of zara study questions, chess would be aware of the custom services, secondary meanings attaching to queen and case study questions and answers, rook . There would be many crimes and errors which it would be beyond his power to custom commit, simply because they were nameless and questions and answers, therefore unimaginable. And it was to short essays of virginia be foreseen that with the passage of time the distinguishing characteristics of Newspeak would become more and more pronounced — its words growing fewer and fewer, their meanings more and zara and answers, more rigid, and the chance of write letter, putting them to zara case and answers improper uses always diminishing. When Oldspeak had been once and for all superseded, the last link with the past would have been severed. History had already been rewritten, but fragments of the literature of the past survived here and there, imperfectly censored, and so long as one retained one's knowledge of Oldspeak it was possible to read them. In the future such fragments, even if they chanced to survive, would be unintelligible and untranslatable. It was impossible to translate any passage of Oldspeak into Newspeak unless it either referred to research paper and technology some technical process or some very simple everyday action, or was already orthodox ( goodthinkful would be the Newspeak expression) in tendency. In practice this meant that no book written before approximately 1960 could be translated as a whole. Pre-revolutionary literature could only be subjected to ideological translation — that is, alteration in sense as well as language.

Take for example the well-known passage from the Declaration of zara study questions and answers, Independence: We hold these truths to writing services be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among men, deriving their powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of Government becomes destructive of those ends, it is the case study and answers, right of the People to alter or abolish it, and to institute new Government. It would have been quite impossible to render this into Newspeak while keeping to the sense of the original. The nearest one could come to doing so would be to swallow the whole passage up in the single word crimethink . A full translation could only be an ideological translation, whereby Jefferson's words would be changed into a panegyric on absolute government.

A good deal of the literature of the past was, indeed, already being transformed in this way. Considerations of prestige made it desirable to preserve the should abortion be legal essay, memory of certain historical figures, while at the same time bringing their achievements into line with the philosophy of Ingsoc. Various writers, such as Shakespeare, Milton, Swift, Byron, Dickens, and some others were therefore in case and answers process of translation: when the task had been completed, their original writings, with all else that survived of the literature of the past, would be destroyed. These translations were a slow and essay outline, difficult business, and it was not expected that they would be finished before the first or second decade of the zara case study questions, twenty-first century. There were also large quantities of merely utilitarian literature — indispensable technical manuals, and the like — that had to be treated in paper on education the same way. It was chiefly in order to allow time for the preliminary work of translation that the final adoption of Newspeak had been fixed for so late a date as 2050. GEORGE ORWELL: ‘NINETEEN EIGHTY-FOUR’; A NOVEL.

First published by Secker and Warburg, London in 1949.

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The rise in global atmospheric CO 2 , surface temperature, and sea level from emissions traced to major carbon producers. Researchers have quantified the case questions contributions of industrialized and developing nations’ historical emissions to global surface temperature rise. Recent findings that nearly two-thirds of essay total industrial CO 2 and case study CH 4 emissions can be traced to 90 major industrial carbon producers have drawn attention to their potential climate responsibilities. Short Essays Of Virginia Woolf. Here, we use a simple climate model to quantify the contribution of historical (1880–2010) and study questions recent (1980–2010) emissions traced to research, these producers to case questions, the historical rise in global atmospheric CO 2 , surface temperature, and sea level. Emissions traced to these 90 carbon producers contributed ?57% of the observed rise in writing for dissertation, atmospheric CO 2 , ?42–50% of the rise in global mean surface temperature (GMST), and ?26–32% of global sea level (GSL) rise over the historical period and ?43% (atmospheric CO 2 ), ?29–35% (GMST), and ?11–14% (GSL) since 1980 (based on best-estimate parameters and accounting for uncertainty arising from the lack of data on aerosol forcings traced to producers). Emissions traced to seven investor-owned and seven majority state-owned carbon producers were consistently among the top 20 largest individual company contributors to each global impact across both time periods. This study lays the groundwork for tracing emissions sourced from study questions and answers, industrial carbon producers to specific climate impacts and furthers scientific and policy consideration of honors kerr their historical responsibilities for questions and answers, climate change. A Springboard Commentary to this paper is available at doi: 10.1007/s10584-017-2042-9 . Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s10584-017-1978-0 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. The question of hidden responsibility for zara case study, climate change is central to public and policy discourse over actions to curb greenhouse gas emissions and limit adverse impacts.

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) established the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities” among nations, signaling the recognition that nations that had produced the larger share of historical emissions bore a greater responsibility for avoiding “dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate” (UNFCCC 1992 ; UNFCCC 1998 ). Reflecting this principle, the Paris Agreement establishes common commitments, for example to global net-zero greenhouse gas emissions in the second half of essays of virginia woolf this century, while allowing flexibility in mitigation efforts to accommodate different national capacities and circumstances (United Nations 2015 ). Considerable research has been devoted to assessing how national contributions to greenhouse gas emissions and study questions climate change might be quantified according to differing allocation schemes of cornell responsibility and case study questions combinations of anthropogenic climate forcers (UNFCCC 1997 ; Prather et al. 2009 ; Hohne et al. Essays Woolf. 2011 ; Wei et al. 2012 ; den Elzen et al. 2013 ; Matthews et al. 2014 ; Ward and Mahowald 2014 ). Key factors affecting the relative contribution of zara study nations to thesis cornell kerr, emissions and global mean surface temperature (GMST) increase include the emissions dates, and whether land-use change and forestry, non-CO 2 gases, and aerosols are included or excluded (Prather et al. 2009 ; Hohne et al. 2011 ; den Elzen et al.

2013 ; Matthews et al. 2014 ). Outside of the domain of the UNFCCC, broader societal discussions have begun to case and answers, consider the climate responsibilities of non-state actors. These include individual high emitters regardless of custom writing services for dissertation nationality (Chakravarty et al. 2009 ) and zara case study and answers high-emitting industries regardless of where they are incorporated (Allen and Lord 2004 ). They also include the writing services major multinational fossil energy companies at the base of the carbon supply chain, who to date have no responsibility from marketed products under existing policy regimes, but whose prospective responsibilities are receiving growing attention in scholarly, policy, institutional investment, legal, and public spheres (Leone 2012 ; Lubber 2012 ; Frumhoff et al. Zara Case Questions. 2015 ; van Renssen 2016 ). Attention to the responsibilities of services fossil fuel producers is supported by recent research by Heede ( 2014 ), who found that nearly two-thirds of all industrial carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and zara study questions methane (CH 4 ) emissions can be traced to the products of a small number of gcse major industrial carbon producers; 83 producers of coal, oil, natural gas, and 7 cement manufacturers. While recent investigations have addressed the question of how national responsibilities might be shared between producers and case consumers of paper on education and technology carbon-intensive products (Davis and Caldeira 2010 ; Peters et al. 2011 ), leading to the notion of trade-adjusted territorial emissions (Lenzen et al. 2007 ; Davis et al. 2011 ), that rationale does not apply to the responsibility for climate change attributed to the product-related emissions of these multinational companies.

Here, we extend Heede’s ( 2014 ) research to case study, analyze the honors contribution of emissions traced to these major carbon producers to the rise in atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 and CH 4 , GMST, and global sea level (GSL). A benefit of the simple climate model approach is the ability to explore the emissions traced to major carbon producers in a way that is consistent with major climate- and impact-relevant Earth processes. Since annual carbon emissions partition between the main carbon reservoirs—ocean, terrestrial, and zara and answers atmosphere—a climate model can assess the fraction of CO 2 remaining in the atmosphere while keeping track of the CH 4 lifetime in thesis cornell kerr, the atmosphere and the resulting change in GMST. Zara Case Study Questions And Answers. Study of Earth processes over millennia demonstrates that both the land ice volume and ocean volume respond to global mean surface temperature (IPCC 2013 ). Once we have changes in GMST, we use the model to calculate changes in GSL (Kopp et al. 2016 ).

Two time periods were investigated for removing annual emissions traced to major carbon producers. The first, 1880–2010, represents the historical period with sufficient data available. The second, 1980–2010, follows the publication of the U.S. National Research Council report on honors thesis cornell, carbon dioxide and zara climate and short woolf represents the period of growing awareness in the scientific, fossil energy industry, and policy communities of climate change risks associated with anthropogenic carbon emissions (NRC 1979 ; Frumhoff et al. 2015 ; Banerjee 2015 ). 2.1 Emissions traced to major industrial carbon producers. Heede ( 2014 ) traces the annual CO 2 and CH 4 emissions (subtracting lubricants, petrochemicals, road oil, and other non-energy, non-combustion uses) between 1854 and 2010 to the 83 industrial producers of oil, natural gas, coal, and 7 cement manufacturers with annual production exceeding 8 MtC/year in 2006. Zara Case And Answers. Of these 90 major carbon producers, 50 are investor-owned, 31 majority state-owned, and nine are current or former centrally planned state industries. Thesis Cornell Kerr. The activities of any carbon producer acquired over the course of the historical period are added to those of the acquiring corporation.

Most of the 90 major carbon producers are still extant with a few exceptions (e.g., government-run industries in the former Soviet Union). Heede ( 2014 ) assumes that carbon was released to the atmosphere the same year of zara study and answers reported activity (i.e., fossil fuel extracted and paper marketed for combustion and case questions and answers manufactured clinker, a component of cement) (Gibbs et al. 2000 ; Energy Information Administration 2004 ). His conclusion that 63% of hidden total industrial gigatonne CO 2 -equivalent (GtCO 2 e) carbon emissions can be traced to combustion of their products and direct company operational emissions used a hundred year global warming potential (GWP) of 21 for CH 4 emissions (Eggleston et al. 2006 ). Questions And Answers. While cumulative carbon emissions is cover letter a reasonable proxy for total impact of CO 2 emissions on GMST (Allen et al. 2009 ; Matthews et al. 2009 ; IPCC 2013 ), the correspondence is and answers not exact on shorter timescales (Ricke and Caldeira 2014 ) and does not apply for CH 4 (under any value of custom for dissertation GWP). Zara Study Questions. Hence, we extend the honors cornell calculations in Heede ( 2014 ) using a simple climate model. We use a global energy-balance coupled climate-carbon-cycle model (Millar et al. 2016 ) to case questions and answers, assess the paper on education and technology change in atmospheric CO 2 and CH 4 concentrations, radiative forcing, GMST, and GSL resulting from emissions traced to these 90 major carbon producers. CO 2 concentrations would be directly relevant to impacts such as ocean acidification, while GMST correlates closely with many terrestrial and and answers ocean impacts.

We use the short of virginia GMST to calculate GSL after Kopp et al. ( 2016 ). Climate models that rely on the underpinnings of reduced-complexity climate models and fully coupled earth-system models afford a number of advantages. Calibrated with historical observations and fully coupled global climate models, they can provide robust output to characterize global atmospheric CO 2 , CH 4 , radiative forcing, GMST (Allen et al. 2009 ; Meinshausen et al. 2011 ; Myhre et al. 2013a ), and GSL. This approach allows for natural and anthropogenic forcings to be included or excluded to test the relative contributions from anthropogenic emissions at policy-relevant levels of uncertainty. The model used here is questions and answers based on the impulse response function approach presented in the IPCC fifth assessment report (AR5) and earlier publications (Joos et al.

2013 ; Myhre et al. 2013a ) with parameters consistent with AR5 atmospheric residence times for CO 2 and CH 4 under present-day climatic conditions (see electronic supplementary material , ESM). The primary extension of the AR5 impulse-response model is the honors cornell kerr inclusion of questions a term scaling the time constants of the CO 2 impulse-response by a parameter that scales linearly with GMST anomaly and essays of virginia cumulative carbon uptake by case questions the land and ocean (Millar et al. 2016 ). Should Be Legal Essay Outline. The model was forced with natural and anthropogenic historical forcings, as detailed in ESM . In order to calculate contribution to GMST, the model also incorporates the Heede ( 2014 ) CH 4 data for emissions traced back to carbon producers ( ESM ). Study Questions And Answers. Excluding the six producers that only hidden faces gcse coursework manufacture cement, the average CH 4 contribution to total (CH 4 + CO 2 ) emissions traced to each carbon producer is ?8% ( n = 84). The changes in GMST were then used to calculate the rate of GSL rise using the comprehensive semi-empirical modeling of Kopp et al. ( 2016 ). These GSL equations represent the highest spatial and temporal resolution statistical regional sea level reconstructions over the past 3000 years.

Kopp et al. ( 2016 ) effectively extract the three components operating on varying timescales (1) GSL primarily from ocean thermal expansion and land ice volume changes, (2) regional shifts from slowly changing glacial isostatic adjustment, tectonics, and sediment shifts, and (3) temporally nonlinear changes such as ocean/atm dynamics. Sensitivity tests examined three sources of uncertainty: (1) climate sensitivity, (2) lack of available data on aerosol emissions from zara questions, fossil fuel combustion that could be directly traced back to essays of virginia woolf, individual carbon producers, and (3) removal order of case study carbon producers. Sensitivity tests evaluated the nonlinear feedback between thermal and carbon parameters using the low and honors high range of equilibrium climate sensitivity and zara transient climate response ( ESM Tables 1 and 2). For example, equilibrium climate sensitivity (GMST at faces gcse, equilibrium with a doubling of atmospheric CO 2 concentration) is and answers set to the low (1.5 °C) and high (4.5 °C) values of the AR5 high confidence range (IPCC 2013 ). The full range of possible values for hidden, climate sensitivity and other parameters was evaluated and presented in study questions, ESM . Here, we present highlight results from best estimate parameter simulations that reflect the historical observations. In a non-linear model, the order of removal of contributions to total emissions has a potential influence on percent contributions. The range of this influence was assessed; error bars for custom writing services, model results represent the influence of removing each carbon producer first or last for the described set of carbon, and thermal parameters and and answers forcing. Fossil fuel combustion releases aerosols (Shindell and Faluvegi 2010 ). Most aerosols scatter solar radiation, while some aerosols, such as black carbon, absorb it. The net result is that aerosols partially offset the historical greenhouse gas forcing of GMST increase (Myhre et al. 2013b ). Fossil fuel aerosol emissions data are available at the national and global scale (Meinshausen et al.

2011 ); however, we are not aware of be legal essay data tracing aerosols directly to specific carbon producers. To examine this source of zara uncertainty, we investigated four categories of climate simulations: (1) full historical forcing (i.e. all natural and anthropogenic forcing), (2) full historical forcing minus the research and technology CO 2 and CH 4 contributions of case study questions major carbon producers, (3) full historical forcing minus all historical fossil fuel aerosols, and of virginia woolf (4) full historical forcing minus all historical fossil fuel aerosols minus the CO 2 and CH 4 contributions of zara case study major carbon producers. The results of these simulations with the full range of of virginia woolf sensitivity tests are in the ESM . 3 Global influence of zara questions and answers emissions traced to major carbon producers. Atmospheric CO 2 (ppm), atmospheric methane CH 4 (ppb), radiative forcing (W/m 2 ), global mean surface temperature (°C), and global sea level (cm) change after removing annual emissions traced to 90 major industrial carbon producers starting in 1880 ( a , c , e , g , i ) or 1980 ( b , d , f , h , j ). Model simulations were implemented with the best estimate parameters and write cover letter chef full historical forcing. Consult ESM for zara case questions, results of sensitivity tests for each carbon producer. For each forcing case, the contribution of major carbon producer-traced emissions to atmospheric CO 2 is nearly evenly divided between the investor-owned companies, majority state-owned companies, and current or former centrally planned state industries ( ESM ). Along with atmospheric CO 2 , atmospheric CH 4 changes were determined and incorporated into model calculations for radiative forcing, GMST, and research paper and technology GSL (Fig.

1 and ESM ). Contribution of historical period, 1880–2010 ( a , c , e ), and recent 1980–2010 ( b , d , f ) emissions traced to top 20 investor-owned and majority state-owned industrial carbon producers to atmospheric CO 2 , GMST, and and answers GSL rise from 1880 to 2010. Bar values are the be legal essay median best estimate full historical forcing model simulations with the error bars showing the first and 90th removal order of each carbon producer ( ESM ) 3.2 Global mean surface temperature. The IPCC AR5 reports a GMST increase from 1880 to 2012 of 0.85 (±0.2) °C (IPCC 2013 ). The model simulation for best estimate parameters with full historical forcing yields a GMST increase of ?0.8 °C from 1880 to 2010 ( ESM ). The historical radiative forcing and GMST trend ( ESM ) demonstrate the competing influence of carbon emissions and intermittent volcanic eruptions (Robock 2000 ) or varying levels of historical fossil fuel aerosols (Shindell and zara case study and answers Faluvegi 2010 ). Modeled trends with full forcing best estimate parameters ( ESM ) align with historical observations (Karl et al. 2015 ). As expected, removing the contribution of abortion outline all historical fossil fuel aerosols for best estimate parameters yields a greater GMST modeled increase (?0.97 °C) over this period. Removing the annual emissions traced to zara study and answers, 90 major carbon producers from the best estimate full historical forcing case shows that the combustion of their products from 1880 to essay, 2010 led to a 0.4 (±0.01) °C increase in GMST, 50 (±1.1)% of the total increased temperature over zara this period ( ESM ). About two-thirds of this is due to major carbon-producer traced emissions of recent origin. Combustion of their products between 1980 and 2010 led to a 0.28 (±0.01) °C increase, 35.1 (±0.7)% of total GMST increase between 1880 and 2010.

Removing all fossil fuel aerosols decreases the proportional contribution of fossil fuel emissions traced to major carbon producers to 41.6 (±0.9)% of GMST increase over the total historical period, 27.9 (±0.6)% due to carbon producer-traced emissions between 1980 and 2010 alone. Emissions traced to writing, the top 20 investor and majority state-owned companies from 1880 to 2010 contributed ?24.4 (±0.5)% of study questions increase in GMST over the historical period, using best estimate parameters and full historical forcing (Fig. 2 c). From 1880 to 2010, emissions traced to the two largest investor-owned (Chevron and ExxonMobil) plus the two largest state-owned (Saudi Aramco and Gazprom) contributed nearly 10% to be legal essay, the historical rise in GMST. And Answers. Combustion of products from the top 20 companies from 1980 to 2010 contributed 16.6 (±0.3)% of the hidden coursework historical rise in GMST (Fig. 2 d). Kopp et al. ( 2016 ) report a twentieth century GSL of 12–15 cm. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency report data for global average sea level change between 1880 and 2010 of 21.9–23.7 cm (US EPA).

The model simulation for best estimate parameters with full historical forcing yields a GSL over case study and answers 1880 to 2010 of ?18 cm ( ESM ). Removing the annual emissions traced to essays woolf, 90 major carbon producers from the best estimate full historical forcing case shows that the combustion of their products from case study, 1880 to 2010 led to a 5.7 (±0.1) cm increase in letter executive chef, GSL, 32.1 (±0.4)% of the total anthropogenic contribution to increased GSL over this period ( ESM ). Less than half (?42%) of this is due to major carbon producer-traced emissions of recent origin. Case Study Questions. Combustion of their products between 1980 and 2010 led to a 2.38 (±0.03) cm increase, 13.5 (±0.2)% of total GSL increase between 1880 and essays woolf 2010. Removing all fossil fuel aerosols decreases the proportional contribution of fossil fuel emissions traced to major carbon producers to 26.0 (±0.4)% of GSL increase over case study questions the total historical period, 10.9 (±0.2)% due to carbon producer-traced emissions between 1980 and 2010 alone. The contributions of 1880–2010 emissions traced to the top 20 investor and thesis majority state-owned companies to the increase in study questions, GSL (Fig.

2 and ESM ) contributed ?13–16% of increase in GSL over write cover executive chef the historical period. The lower bound used the best estimate parameters and full historical forcing minus all historical fossil fuel aerosols. The upper bound included all historical fossil fuel aerosol emissions with best estimate parameters. Combustion of products from the top 20 companies from 1980 to 2010 contributed ?5–6% of the 1880–2010 historical rise in study, GSL. Notably, emissions traced to honors thesis cornell kerr, 14 carbon producers were consistently among the top 20 largest individual company contributors to each global impact across both time periods (Fig.

2 ). Case Study. These include seven investor-owned companies (Chevron, ExxonMobil, BP, Royal Dutch Shell, ConocoPhillips, Peabody Energy, and Total) and seven majority state-owned companies (Saudi Aramco, Gazprom, National Iranian Oil Company, Pemex, Petroleos de Venezuela, Coal India, and Kuwait Petroleum). Paper And Technology. The rank order of their contributions varies slightly across impacts and time periods as a function of the relative timing of emissions (Heede 2014 in the ESM model). Policymakers, investors, and the public may assign responsibility in various ways for study questions, greenhouse gas emissions and should outline subsequent changes in climate and associated impacts. Assigning responsibility for climate change is a societal judgment, one that can be informed by but not determined through scientific analysis. The UNFCCC process, focused on zara case study, the allocation of climate responsibilities among emitting nations, is hidden faces gcse coursework a well-established approach to questions and answers, addressing this challenging problem. But, society can attribute climate responsibilities in other ways as well, including to individuals and should be legal major emitting industries. Shareholder resolutions and calls for institutional divestment from the primary producers of coal, oil, and natural gas are now contributing to growing public, investor, and scholarly discourse on the particular climate responsibilities of major investor-owned producers of fossil fuels (Lubber 2012 ; Oreskes 2013 ; Rockefeller Brothers Fund 2014 ). This is a reflection, in part, of growing attention to the actions that companies took and could have taken in zara, light of the scientific evidence of climate change (Frumhoff et al. 2015 ). The tools of short attribution science are being applied to zara study, characterize specific damages resulting from anthropogenic climate change (Mitchell et al.

2016 ). Policymakers in several jurisdictions are now considering whether fossil fuel producers might bear some responsibility for such climate damages potentially traceable to emissions from their products (van Renssen 2016 ). The present analysis provides a first step to inform such considerations by cover executive chef characterizing several global consequences linked to these emissions. One source of uncertainty in characterizing the contribution of emissions to global climate change is the zara case study equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) and transient climate response (TCR) to an increase in atmospheric CO 2 (IPCC 2013 ). Essays Of Virginia Woolf. Parameters were tested through their published range of values. The best-estimate parameters with full historical forcing yield results that most closely aligned with historical observations over recent decades. A secondary source of case uncertainty is the short-term effects of custom writing services fossil fuel aerosols.

Typically, nations set the policies regarding aerosol emissions from fossil fuel combustion; hence the aerosols linked to a given product could vary under different regulations governing combustion. If policymakers decide to factor in aerosols traced back to carbon producers when considering their climate responsibilities, steps could then be taken to require reporting of production, processing, and case questions and answers combustion region to better estimate resulting aerosol emissions. Policy in this area should be cognizant, however, of the danger of providing corporations with an incentive to emit aerosols to offset the climate responsibilities implied by their products or “private geoengineering.” Over the long term, the legacy of paper on education and technology long-lived heat-trapping emissions outlive the study temporary offset from the associated short-lived aerosols from fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, and other anthropogenic sources (Shindell and Faluvegi 2010 ; Solomon et al. 2010 ). With respect to the question of climate responsibility, a third source of uncertainty is the essays policy relevance of different time periods of historical carbon emissions. Researchers exploring the study and answers allocation of responsibilities among nations for paper, greenhouse gas emissions typically consider cumulative emissions over the historical period since 1880, when GMST data are sufficiently abundant and study questions biases in the early records are understood and can be corrected (Matthews et al. 2014 ; Karl et al.

2015 ). The attribution of climate responsibility among non-state actors such as investor-owned fossil fuel companies might also take account of the timing by abortion be legal essay which companies should have reasonably been expected to respond to evidence of the climate risks of their products by, for example, investing in low-carbon energy technologies, supporting climate policies and legislation, or communicating these risks with consumers and shareholders (Frumhoff et al. Case Study. 2015 ). Strikingly, more than half of all emissions traced to carbon producers over the 1880–2010 period were produced since 1986, the period in which the climate risks of abortion fossil fuel combustion were well established. Consistent with this, our results show that bounding consideration of cumulative emissions to recent decades (1980–2010) only modestly reduces the global climate impact of major carbon producer-traced emissions with regard to global mean surface temperature. Global sea level rise response to climate forcing operates on slower times scales, so emissions from 1980 to 2010 have less of a relative contribution for GSL compared with GMST. Further research might inform assessments of responsibility for the costs of adaptation for study, future climate change by considering the legacy consequences of historical emissions on global climate.

The warming effect of CO 2 emissions is largely realized within a decade after release but persists for write cover executive, centuries to case, millennia. Other impact-relevant effects, such as sea level rise, will not be fully manifested for a century or longer after emissions (Joos et al. 2013 ; Ricke and Caldeira 2014 ; Strauss et al. 2015). In short, calculating only the historical contribution underestimates the total contribution (i.e. historical plus the legacy going forward plus any additional warming associated with the near-immediate removal of the woolf partial offset by aerosols). As a first approximation, one can estimate the impact of historical emissions traced to major carbon producers on near-term future sea-level rise by assuming that no major volcanic eruptions occur and recent historical emissions drive constant rates of sea-level rise for several decades (Joos et al.

2013 ). Projecting the best estimate full forcing reference case for and answers, the average annual rate of custom sea level rise over 2000–2010 of ?0.43 cm/year would mean another ?17 cm above 2010 level by 2040. Case Questions. Without the hidden gcse coursework 90 carbon producers, sea level would rise ?5.7 cm above 2010 level by zara study questions and answers 2040. Our study demonstrates that the proportional increase in essay, atmospheric carbon dioxide, GMST, and GSL—key indicators of zara case human impact on the global environment—from emissions traced to major carbon producers is quantifiable and substantial. The analyses presented here could be extended to short essays, examine the contribution of emissions traced to zara case study, major carbon producers to other impacts, such as historical increases in ocean acidification (Ekstrom et al. 2015 ) or the letter chef mortality impacts from extreme heat and other extreme events (Otto et al.

2012 ; Mote et al. 2015 ; Mera et al. 2015 ; Mitchell et al. 2016 ). Size of contribution, such as calculated in this study, is one factor to consider in assessing responsibility for climate change consequences associated with atmospheric CO 2 and CH 4 , radiative forcing, GMST, and GSL.

Other factors include consideration of differences among carbon producers in how they responded to the scientific evidence of the climate risks of their products (Frumhoff et al. 2015 ). These factors coupled with ethical, legal, and historical considerations may further inform discussions about carbon producer responsibilities to contribute to limiting climate change through investment in mitigation, support for adaptation, and compensation for climate damages. Richard Millar contributed to study and answers, the nonlinear equation development. We thank Steven J. Davis, Aaron Huertas, Michael MacCracken, H. Damon Matthews, David E. Short Of Virginia. Rupp, Drew Shindell, Henry Shue, Seth Shulman, Ja-Rei Wang, and anonymous reviewers for constructive comments. Compliance with ethical standards. Support for this study was provided by zara case the Energy Foundation, Fresh Sound Foundation, Grantham Foundation for the Protection of the Environment, Mertz Gilmore Foundation, V. Kann Rasmussen Foundation, Rockefeller Brothers Fund, and write letter executive Wallace Global Fund.

B.E. wrote the paper, co-designed the research, conducted model simulations, and generated figures and tables. J.B. changed the model to incorporate the nonlinear response equation and case questions and answers the semi-empirical global sea-level rise equations. M.W.D. Research Paper. extended the model to incorporate the annual emissions traced to major industrial carbon producers and questions updated model functionality. R.H. provided the CO 2 and CH 4 data for emissions traced to major carbon producers and improved the manuscript. RJ.M. modified the short woolf carbon producers data format for initial incorporation into the original model. M.R.A. developed the original model and co-designed the research and current model. P.C.F. co-designed the study and study co-wrote paper.

The authors declare that they have no specific conflict of interest. Open Access This article is should abortion essay outline distributed under the zara case study and answers terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. B. Ekwurzel 1 Email authorView author's OrcID profile J. Boneham 2 M. W. Dalton 2 3 R. Heede 4 R. Research Paper On Education And Technology. J. Mera 1 5 M. R. Allen 2 P. And Answers. C. Frumhoff 6 1. Union of Concerned Scientists Washington USA 2. University of research and technology Oxford Oxford UK 3. London UK 4. Climate Accountability Institute Snowmass USA 5. North Carolina State University Raleigh USA 6. Zara Case Study Questions. Union of Concerned Scientists Cambridge USA. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG.

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) Case Study. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease state characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. This newest definition COPD , provided by the Global Initiative for zara questions Chrnonic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD), is a broad description that better explains this disorder and its signs and symptoms (GOLD, World Health Organization [WHO] National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute [NHLBI], 2004). Although previous definitions have include emphysema and chronic bronchitis under the short essays of virginia umbrella classification of COPD , this was often confusing because most patient with COPD present with over lapping signs and symptoms of these two distinct disease processes. COPD may include diseases that cause airflow obstruction (e.g., Emphysema, chronic bronchitis) or any combination of case study these disorders. Other diseases as cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, and research paper and technology, asthma that were previously classified as types of case chronic obstructive lung disease are now classified as chronic pulmonary disorders. However, asthma is should be legal essay outline now considered as a separate disorder and is classified as an abnormal airway condition characterized primarily by reversible inflammation. COPD can co-exist with asthma. Study And Answers! Both of these diseases have the same major symptoms; however, symptoms are generally more variable in asthma than in COPD . Currently, COPD is the letter chef fourth leading cause of mortality and the 12 th leading cause of disability.

However, by the year 2020 it is estimated that COPD will be the third leading cause of zara case study death and the firth leading cause of disability (Sin, McAlister, Man. Et al., 2003). Should Be Legal Outline! People with COPD commonly become symptomatic during the middle adult years, and the incidence of the disease increases with age. The respiratory system consists of all the questions organs involved in breathing. These include the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs. The respiratory system does two very important things: it brings oxygen into our bodies, which we need for our cells to live and write letter executive chef, function properly; and it helps us get rid of and answers carbon dioxide, which is a waste product of cellular function. The nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea and bronchi all work like a system of pipes through which the air is funneled down into faces gcse our lungs.

There, in very small air sacs called alveoli, oxygen is brought into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide is zara case study questions and answers pushed from the blood out into the air. When something goes wrong with part of the respiratory system, such as an infection like pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, it makes it harder for us to get the oxygen we need and to get rid of the waste product carbon dioxide. Common respiratory symptoms include breathlessness, cough, and hidden gcse, chest pain. When you breathe in, air enters your body through your nose or mouth. Case Study And Answers! From there, it travels down your throat through the larynx (or voicebox) and into the trachea (or windpipe) before entering your lungs. All these structures act to funnel fresh air down from the outside world into your body.

The upper airway is important because it must always stay open for you to be able to breathe. It also helps to moisten and warm the air before it reaches your lungs. The lungs are paired, cone-shaped organs which take up most of the space in our chests, along with the heart. Their role is to take oxygen into the body, which we need for our cells to live and function properly, and to help us get rid of carbon dioxide, which is a waste product. We each have two lungs, a left lung and a right lung. These are divided up into ‘lobes’, or big sections of honors kerr tissue separated by ‘fissures’ or dividers. The right lung has three lobes but the left lung has only two, because the heart takes up some of the case questions and answers space in the left side of our chest. The lungs can also be divided up into letter chef even smaller portions, called ‘bronchopulmonary segments’.

These are pyramidal-shaped areas which are also separated from zara case study questions and answers each other by membranes. There are about 10 of them in research on education and technology, each lung. Zara Case Study! Each segment receives its own blood supply and air supply. COPD VERSUS HEALTHY LUNG. Air enters your lungs through a system of pipes called the executive chef bronchi. These pipes start from the bottom of the trachea as the left and right bronchi and branch many times throughout the lungs, until they eventually form little thin-walled air sacs or bubbles, known as the alveoli.

The alveoli are where the study important work of gas exchange takes place between the air and your blood. Covering each alveolus is a whole network of little blood vessel called capillaries, which are very small branches of the pulmonary arteries. It is honors thesis important that the air in the alveoli and zara case study, the blood in the capillaries are very close together, so that oxygen and carbon dioxide can move (or diffuse) between them. So, when you breathe in, air comes down the trachea and essays, through the bronchi into the alveoli. This fresh air has lots of oxygen in zara questions, it, and some of this oxygen will travel across the walls of the alveoli into your bloodstream. Traveling in the opposite direction is carbon dioxide, which crosses from the should be legal outline blood in the capillaries into the air in the alveoli and is then breathed out. In this way, you bring in to your body the oxygen that you need to live, and get rid of the waste product carbon dioxide. The lungs are very vascular organs, meaning they receive a very large blood supply. This is because the pulmonary arteries, which supply the zara study questions and answers lungs, come directly from the right side of short essays woolf your heart. They carry blood which is low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide into your lungs so that the carbon dioxide can be blown off, and more oxygen can be absorbed into the bloodstream.

The newly oxygen-rich blood then travels back through the zara and answers paired pulmonary veins into should abortion essay outline the left side of your heart. From there, it is pumped all around your body to supply oxygen to cells and zara case study, organs. The lungs are covered by smooth membranes that we call pleurae. The pleurae have two layers, a ‘visceral’ layer which sticks closely to the outside surface of your lungs, and be legal essay, a ‘parietal’ layer which lines the inside of zara questions your chest wall (ribcage). The pleurae are important because they help you breathe in and out smoothly, without any friction. They also make sure that when your ribcage expands on breathing in, your lungs expand as well to fill the extra space.

The Diaphragm and Intercostal Muscles. When you breathe in (inspiration), your muscles need to faces gcse, work to fill your lungs with air. Case! The diaphragm, a large, sheet-like muscle which stretches across your chest under the essays of virginia woolf ribcage, does much of case study questions this work. At rest, it is shaped like a dome curving up into your chest. When you breathe in, the diaphragm contracts and flattens out, expanding the space in your chest and drawing air into your lungs.

Other muscles, including the and technology muscles between your ribs (the intercostal muscles) also help by zara study and answers moving your ribcage in and out. Breathing out (expiration) does not normally require your muscles to work. Custom Writing Services For Dissertation! This is zara case study and answers because your lungs are very elastic, and when your muscles relax at the end of inspiration your lungs simply recoil back into their resting position, pushing the air out as they go. The Respiratory System and honors cornell, Ageing. The normal process of ageing is associated with a number of changes in both the structure and function of the and answers respiratory system. These include: Enlargement of the alveoli.

The air spaces get bigger and lose their elasticity, meaning that there is less area for gases to be exchanged across. This change is sometimes referred to as ‘senile emphysema’. Research Paper! The compliance (or springiness) of the chest wall decreases, so that it takes more effort to breathe in zara and answers, and out. The strength of the respiratory muscles (the diaphragm and should abortion be legal essay, intercostal muscles) decreases. This change is zara study questions and answers closely connected to the general health of the person. All of these changes mean that an older person might have more difficulty coping with increased stress on short essays woolf their respiratory system, such as with an infection like pneumonia, than a younger person would. Risk factors for COPD include environmental exposures and host factors. The most important risk factor for COPD is zara questions and answers cigarette smoking.

Other risk factors are pipe, cigar, and other types of tobacco smoking. In addition, passive smoking contributes to respiratory symptoms and COPD. Smoking depresses the activity of scavenger cells and writing, affects the respiratory tract’s ciliary cleansing mechanism, which keeps breathing passages free of inhaled irritants, bacteria, and other foreign matter. When smoking damages this cleansing mechanism, airflow is obstructed and air becomes trapped behind the obstruction. The alveoli greatly distend, diminished lung capacity. Smoking also irritates the goblet cells and mucus glands, causing an zara study questions and answers, increased accumulation of mucus, which in turn produces more irritation, infection, and damage to the lung. In addition, carbon monoxide (a by product of short essays woolf smoking) combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin. Hemoglobin that is bound by carboxyhemoglobin cannot carry oxygen efficiently.

A host risk factor for COPD is a deficiency of alpha antitrypsin, an enzyme inhibitor that protects the lung parenchyma from injury. This deficiency predisposes young people to rapid development of lobular emphysema, even if they do not smoke. Case Questions! Genetically susceptible people are sensitive to custom, environmental factors (eg. Smoking, air pollution, infectious agents, allergens) and eventually developed chronic obstructive symptoms. Carriers of this genetic defect must be identified so that they can modify environmental risk factors to delay or prevent overt symptoms of study questions and answers disease.

In COPD , the airflow limitation is both progressive and associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gases. Should Abortion Essay! The inflammatory response occurs throughout the airways, parenchyma, and zara case study, pulmonary vasculature. Because of the chronic inflammation and be legal essay, the body’s attempts to repair it, narrowing occurs in the small peripheral airways. Over time, this injury-and-repair process causes scar tissue formation and narrowing of the airway lumen. Airflow obstruction may also be caused by parenchymal destruction, as is seen with emphysema, a disease of the alveoli or gas exchange units. In addition to inflammation, processes related to imbalances of proteinases and zara case questions and answers, antiproteinases in the lung may be responsible for airflow limitation. When activated by chronic inflammation, proteiness and other substances may be released, damaging the parenchyma of the lung. Gcse! The parenchymal changes may occur as a consequence of inflammation or environmental or genetic factors (eg. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency). Early in the course of zara case COPD , the inflammatory response causes pulmonary vasculature changes that are characterized by thickening of the vessel wall. These changes may result from exposure to cigarette smoke, use of tobacco products, and the release of inflammatory medicators.

Lung damage and inflammation in the large airways results in chronic bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis is paper on education and technology defined in zara study questions and answers, clinical terms as a cough with sputum production on most days for 3 months of a year, for 2 consecutive years. In the airways of the lung, the hallmark of chronic bronchitris is an increased number (hyperplasia) and honors thesis cornell, increased size (hypertrophy) of the goblet cells and mucous glands of the airway. As a result, there is study and answers more mucus than usual in the airways, contributing to narrowing of the airways and causing a cough with sputum. Microscopically there is infiltration of the should abortion airway walls with inflammatory cells. Inflammation is followed by scarring and remodeling that thickens the zara study and answers walls and also results in narrowing of the airways. As chronic bronchitis progresses, there is on education and technology squamous metaplasia (an abnormal change in the tissue lining the inside of the airway) and fibrosis (further thickening and scarring of the airway wall).

The consequence of these changes is a limitation of airflow. Patients with advanced COPD that have primarily chronic bronchitis rather than emphysema were commonly referred to as “blue bloaters” because of the bluish color of the skin and lips (cyanosis) seen in questions, them. The hypoxia and fluid retention leads to hidden faces gcse, them being called “Blue Bloaters.” One of the most common symptoms of COPD is shortness of breath (dyspnea). Case Study Questions! People with COPD commonly describe this as: “My breathing requires effort”, “I feel out of breath”, or “I can not get enough air in”. People with COPD typically first notice dyspnea during vigorous exercise when the demands on the lungs are greatest.

Over the research paper on education years, dyspnea tends to get gradually worse so that it can occur during milder, everyday activities such as housework. In the zara and answers advanced stages of COPD , dyspnea can become so bad that it occurs during rest and is constantly present. Other symptoms of COPD are a persistent cough, sputum or mucus production, wheezing, chest tightness, and tiredness. People with advanced (very severe) COPD sometimes develop respiratory failure. When this happens, cyanosis, a bluish discoloration of the lips caused by a lack of oxygen in the blood, can occur. An excess of carbon dioxide in the blood can cause headaches, drowsiness or twitching (asterixis).

A complication of advanced COPD is cor pulmonale, a strain on the heart due to the extra work required by write cover chef the heart to pump blood through the study and answers affected lungs. Should Abortion Outline! Symptoms of cor pulmonale are peripheral edema, seen as swelling of the ankles, and dyspnea. There are a few signs of COPD that a healthcare worker may detect although they can be seen in other diseases. Some people have COPD and have none of these signs. Common signs are: tachypnea, a rapid breathing rate wheezing sounds or crackles in the lungs heard through a stethoscope breathing out taking a longer time than breathing in enlargement of the chest, particularly the front-to-back distance (hyperinflation) active use of muscles in the neck to help with breathing breathing through pursed lips increased anteroposterior to lateral ratio of the chest (i.e. barrel chest). Emphysema is a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, as it is otherwise known, formerly termed a chronic obstructive lung disease). Questions And Answers! It is often caused by exposure to toxic chemicals, including long-term exposure to write cover letter executive, tobacco smoke. Emphysema is characterized by zara case and answers loss of elasticity (increased pulmonary compliance) of the lung tissue caused by short essays of virginia woolf destruction of structures feeding the alveoli, owing to the action of alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency. This causes the small airways to case, collapse during forced exhalation, as alveolar collapsibility has decreased. Research! As a result, airflow is impeded and air becomes trapped in the lungs, in case questions, the same way as other obstructive lung diseases.

Symptoms include shortness of breath on exertion, and an expanded chest. However, the should be legal constriction of air passages isn’t always immediately deadly, and treatment is available. Signs of emphysema include pursed-lipped breathing, central cyanosis and finger clubbing. The chest has hyper resonant percussion notes, particularly just above the liver, and a difficult to palpate apex beat, both due to hyperinflation. Zara! There may be decreased breath sounds and write executive chef, audible expiratory wheeze. In advanced disease, there are signs of fluid overload such as pitting peripheral edema. The face has a ruddy complexion if there is zara case questions a secondary polycythemia. Sufferers who retain carbon dioxide have asterixis (metabolic flap) at the wrist.

PFTs demonstrative airflow obstruction – reduced forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1, FEV1 to FVC ration; increased residual volume to total lung capacity (TLC) ratio, possibly increased TLC. ABG levels- decreased PaO2, pH, and increased CO2. Chest X-ray – in late stages, hyperinflation, flattened diaphragm, increased rettrosternal space, decreased vascular markings, possible bullae. Alpa1-antitrypsin assay useful in identifying genetically determined deficiency in be legal, emphysema. The goals of COPD treatment are 1) to prevent further deterioration in lung function, 2) to questions, alleviate symptoms, 3) to improve performance of daily activities and quality of life. The treatment strategies include 1) quitting cigarette smoking, 2) taking medications to dilate airways (bronchodilators) and decrease airway inflammation, 3) vaccinating against flu influenza and pneumonia and honors kerr, 4) regular oxygen supplementation and 5) pulmonary rehabilitation. Quitting cigarette smoking. The most important treatment for COPD is quitting cigarette smoking. Patients who continue to smoke have a more rapid deterioration in lung function when compared to others who quit. Aging itself can cause a very slow decline in and answers, lung function.

In susceptible individuals, cigarette smoking can result in a much more dramatic loss of lung function. It is important to honors thesis, note that when one stops smoking the decline in lung function eventually reverts to study and answers, that of a non-smoker. Nicotine in cigarettes is addictive, and, therefore, cessation of smoking can cause symptoms of nicotine withdrawal including anxiety, irritability, anger, depression, fatigue, difficulty concentrating or sleeping, and intense craving for cigarettes. Patients likely to hidden faces coursework, develop withdrawal symptoms typically smoke more than 20 cigarettes a day, need to smoke shortly after waking up in the morning, and have difficulty refraining from smoking in non-smoking areas. However, some 25% of smokers can stop smoking without developing these symptoms. Even in those smokers who develop symptoms of withdrawal, the questions symptoms will decrease after several weeks of abstinence. Treating airway obstruction in COPD with bronchodilators is similar but not identical to treating bronchospasm in essays, asthma. Case Study Questions! Bronchodilators are medications that relax the muscles surrounding the custom writing small airways thereby opening the airways. Bronchodilators can be inhaled, taken orally or administered intravenously.

Inhaled bronchodilators are popular because they go directly to the airways where they work. Questions! As compared with bronchodilators given orally, less medication reaches the rest of the body, and, therefore, there are fewer side effects. Metered dose inhalers (MDIs) are used to deliver bronchodilators. An MDI is a pressurized canister containing a medication that is released when the canister is compressed. A standard amount of medication is honors cornell released with each compression of the MDI. To maximize the delivery of the medications to study and answers, the airways, the patient has to learn to coordinate inhalation with each compression.

Incorrect use of the MDI can lead to deposition of much of the medication on the tongue and the back of the throat instead of on the airways. To decrease the deposition of medications on coursework the throat and increase the amount reaching the zara study questions airways, spacers can be helpful. Spacers are tube-like chambers attached to the outlet of the MDI canister. Spacer devices can hold the released medications long enough for patients to inhale them slowly and deeply into the lungs. Proper use of spacer devices can greatly increase the proportion of medication reaching the airways.

Pulmonary rehabilitation has become a cornerstone in the management of thesis moderate to severe COPD. Pulmonary rehabilitation is a program of education regarding lung function and dysfunction, proper breathing techniques (diaphragmatic breathing, pursed lip breathing), and proper use of respiratory equipment and medications. An essential ingredient in this program is the use of increasing physical exercise to overcome the reduced physical capacity that usually has developed over time. In addition, occupational and zara case questions, physical therapy are used to teach optimal and efficient body mechanics. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) has received much fanfare in the lay press. LVRS is a surgical procedure used to treat some patients with COPD. The premise behind this surgery is that the custom writing over-inflated, poorly-functioning upper parts of the zara lung compress and impair function of the better-functioning lung elsewhere. Thus, if the over-inflated portions of lung are removed surgically, the compressed lung may expand and function better. In addition, the diaphragm and honors cornell, the chest cavity achieve more optimal positioning following the surgery, and case questions, this improves breathing further. Research Paper And Technology! The best criteria for zara study and answers choosing patients for paper and technology LVRS are still uncertain.

A national study was completed in 2003. Patients primarily with emphysema at the top of study questions their lungs, whose exercise tolerance was low even after pulmonary rehabilitation, seemed to do the best with this procedure. On average, lung function and exercise capacity among surviving surgical patients improved significantly following LVRS, but after two years returned to about the same levels as before the procedure. Patients with forced expiratory volume in FEVI of less than 20% of predicted and either diffuse disease on woolf the CAT scan or lower than 20% diffusing capacity or elevated carbon dioxide levels had higher mortality. The role of LVRS is at present is very limited. Beta-agonists Beta-2 agonists have the bronchodilating effects of adrenaline without many of its unwanted side effects. Beta-2 agonists can be administered by MDI inhalers or orally. They are called “agonists” because they activate the beta-2 receptor on the muscles surrounding the airways. Activation of beta-2 receptors relaxes the muscles surrounding the airways and opens the airways. Dilating airways helps to relieve the symptoms of dyspnea (shortness of zara case study questions breath).

Beta-2 agonists have been shown to relieve dyspnea in many COPD patients, even among those without demonstrable reversibility in airway obstruction. The action of essay outline beta-2 agonists starts within minutes after inhalation and lasts for about 4 hours. Zara Case! Because of their quick onset of action, beta-2 agonists are especially helpful for patients who are acutely short of custom breath. Because of their short duration of action, these medications should be used for symptoms as they develop rather than as maintenance. Evidence suggests that when these drugs are used routinely, their effectiveness is case diminished. These are referred to as rescue inhalers. Examples of beta-2 agonists include albuterol (Ventolin, Proventil), metaproterenol (Alupent), pirbuterol (Maxair), terbutaline (Brethaire), and isoetharine (Bronkosol). Levalbuterol (Xopenex) is a recently approved Beta-2 agonist. In contrast, Beta-2 agonists with a slower onset of action but a longer period of on education and technology activity, such as salmeterol xinafoate (Serevent) and formoterol fumarate (Foradil) may be used routinely as maintenance medications. These drugs last twelve hours and should be taken twice daily and zara study questions and answers, no more.

Along with some of these inhalers to be mentioned, these are often referred to writing services for dissertation, as maintenance inhalers. Side effects of beta-2 agonists include anxiety, tremor, palpitations or fast heart rate, and and answers, low blood potassium. Anti-cholinergic Agents Acetylcholine is a chemical released by nerves that attaches to receptors on the muscles surrounding the airway causing the muscles to contract and the airways to narrow. Anti-cholinergic drugs such as ipratropium bromide (Atrovent) dilate airways by blocking the receptors for acetylcholine on the muscles of the cornell airways and study questions, preventing them from narrowing. Ipratropium bromide (Atrovent) usually is administered via a MDI.

In patients with COPD, ipratropium has been shown to alleviate dyspnea, improve exercise tolerance and custom writing services, improve FEV1. Ipratropium has a slower onset of case action but longer duration of action than the shorter-acting beta-2 agonists. Ipratropium usually is well tolerated with minimal side effects even when used in higher doses. Tiotropium (SPIRIVA) is research and technology a long acting and zara and answers, more powerful version of Ipratropium and has been shown to be more effective. In comparing ipratropium with beta-2 agonists in the treatment of patients with COPD, studies suggest that ipratropium may be more effective in dilating airways and improving symptoms with fewer side effects. Ipratropium is especially suitable for paper on education use by elderly patients who may have difficulty with fast heart rate and tremor from the beta-2 agonists. In patients who respond poorly to either beta-2 agonists or ipratropium alone, a combination of the two drugs sometimes results in a better response than to either drug alone without additional side effects. Methylxanthines Theophylline (Theo-Dur, Theolair, Slo-Bid, Uniphyl, Theo-24) and aminophylline are examples of methylxanthines.

Methylxanthines are administered orally or intravenously. Long acting theophylline preparations can be given orally once or twice a day. Theophylline, like a beta agonist, relaxes the muscles surrounding the airways but also prevents mast cells around the airways from releasing bronchoconstricting chemicals such as histamine. Theophylline also can act as a mild diuretic and increase urination. Theophylline also may increase the force of contraction of the zara and answers heart and honors cornell kerr, lower pressure in the pulmonary arteries. Thus, theophylline can help patients with COPD who have heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. Patients who have difficulty using inhaled bronchodilators but no difficulty taking oral medications find theophylline particularly useful.

The disadvantage of case methylxanthines is their side effects. Dosage and blood levels of on education and technology theophylline or aminophylline have to be closely monitored. Excessively high levels in the blood can lead to case questions and answers, nausea, vomiting, heart rhythm problems, and even seizures. In patients with heart failure or cirrhosis, dosages of methylxanthines are lowered to avoid high blood levels. Interactions with other medications, such as cimetidine (Tagamet), calcium channel blockers (Procardia), quinolones (Cipro), and short woolf, allopurinol (Zyloprim) also can alter blood levels of zara case methylxanthines. Corticosteroids When airway inflammation (which causes swelling) contributes to airflow obstruction, anti-inflammatory medications (more specifically, corticosteroids) may be beneficial. Examples of corticosteroids include Prednisone and Prednisolone. Twenty to thirty percent of patients with COPD show improvement in lung function when given corticosteroids by be legal mouth. Unfortunately, high doses of oral corticosteroids over questions and answers, prolonged periods can have serious side effects, including osteoporosis, bone fractures, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, thinning of the skin and easy bruising, insomnia, emotional changes, and weight gain. Therefore, many doctors use oral corticosteroids as the honors thesis cornell kerr treatment of zara case and answers last resort. When oral corticosteroids are used, they are prescribed at the lowest possible doses for essays of virginia woolf the shortest period of time to minimize side effects.

When it is necessary to use long term oral steroids, medications are often prescribed to help reduce the zara case study questions and answers development of the above side effects. Honors Kerr! Corticosteroids also can be inhaled. Zara Questions! Inhaled corticosteroids have many fewer side effects than long term oral corticosteroids. Examples of inhaled corticosteroids include beclomethasone dipropionate (Beclovent, Beconase, Vancenase, and for dissertation, Vanceril), triamcinolone acetonide (Azmacort), fluticasone (Flovent), budesonide (Pulmicort), mometasone furoate (Asmanex) and flunisolide (Aerobid). Inhaled corticosteroids have been useful in treating patients with asthma, but in patients with COPD, it is not clear whether inhaled corticosteroid have the same benefit as oral corticosteroids. Nevertheless, doctors are less concerned about using inhaled corticosteroids because of their safety.

The side effects of inhaled corticosteroids include hoarseness, loss of voice, and zara study and answers, oral yeast infections. A spacing device placed between the mouth and the MDI can improve medication delivery and reduce the side effects on the mouth and throat. Rinsing out the mouth after use of a steroid inhaler also can decrease these side effects. Treatment of Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency Emphysema can develop at a very young age in some patients with severe alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AAT). Replacement of the missing or inactive AAT by injection can help prevent progression of the honors cornell kerr associated emphysema. This therapy is of no benefit in other types of COPD. Respiratory failure Pneumonia, overwhelming respiratory infection Right-sided heart failure, dysrhythmias Depression Skeletal muscle dysfunction. Monitor for adverse effects of bronchodilators – tremulousness, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias, central nervous system stimulation, hypertension.

Monitor condition after administration of aerosol bronchodilators to assess for improved aeration, reduced adventitious sounds, reduced dyspnea. And Answers! Monitor serum theophylline level, as ordered, to ensure therapeutic level and prevent toxicity. Monitor oxygen saturation at rest and with activity. Eliminate all pulmonary irritants, particularly cigarette smoke. Smoking cessation usually reduces pulmonary irritation, sputum production, and cough. Keep the patient’s room as dust-free as possible. Use postural drainage positions to help clear secretions responsible for write airway obstructions. Teach controlled coughing. Encourage high level of fluid intake ( 8 to 10 glasses; 2 to 2.5 liters daily) within level of cardiac reserve.

Give inhalations of nebulized saline to humidify bronchial tree and liquefy sputum. Add moisture (humidifier, vaporizer) to indoor air. Avoid dairy products if these increases sputum production. Encourage the patient to assume comfortable position to decrease dyspnea. Instruct and supervise patient’s breathing retraining exercises.

Use pursed lip breathing at intervals and during periods of dyspnea to control rate and case questions, depth of respiration and improve respiratory muscle coordination. Discuss and woolf, demonstrate relaxation exercises to reduce stress, tension, and anxiety. Maintain the patient’s nutritional status. Reemphasize the importance of study questions and answers graded exercise and physical conditioning programs. Encourage use of portable oxygen system for kerr ambulation for patients with hypoxemia and marked disability. Train the patient in energy conservation technique.

Assess the patient for reactive-behaviors such as anger, depression and zara questions and answers, acceptance. Education and write executive, health maintenance. Review with the patient the objectives of treatment and nursing management. Advise the patient to zara case study, avoid respiratory irritants. Suggest that high efficiency particulate air filter may have some benefit. Warn patient to stay out of honors cornell extremely hot or cold weather and to avoid aggravating bronchial obstruction and sputum obstruction. Warn patient to avoid persons with respiratory infections, and to avoid crowds and areas with poor ventilation. Case Questions! Teach the patient how to recognize and report evidence of respiratory infection promptly such as chest pain, changes in character of sputum (amount, color and consistency), increasing difficulty in paper on education and technology, raising sputum, increasing coughing and wheezing, increasing of shortness of breath. Medical and Surgical Nursing by Brunner and zara study questions and answers, Suddarth’s.

Medical Surgical Nursing by write cover executive chef Josie Quiambao Udan. Manuals of Nursing Practice by Lippincott. Mosby’s Medical Surgical Nursing. Daisy Jane Antipuesto RN MN. Currently a Nursing Local Board Examination Reviewer. Subjects handled are Pediatric, Obstetric and Psychiatric Nursing. Previous work experiences include: Clinical instructor/lecturer, clinical coordinator (Level II), caregiver instructor/lecturer, NC2 examination reviewer and staff/clinic nurse.

Areas of case questions and answers specialization: Emergency room, Orthopedic Ward and Delivery Room. Also an should outline, IELTS passer.