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Autobiography of a caged parrot essay

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Auto Detailing Business Plan Sample. Detail King has developed a sample auto detailing business plan that can be used as an outline for your auto detailing shop or mobile auto detailing business . This is only an example of what you may want to include in your business plan. It is critical to develop a business plan even if this document is of a caged, not needed to obtain a loan from a financial institution. Policy Research? As a new entrepreneur just starting out you must have a business plan . A business plan is like your road map or navigational unit, it will help guide you down the path to success. Without creating a business plan for your car detailing business, you may get lost along the way and never reach your destination (business goals) . Once you develop your auto detailing business plan you need to review it periodically and make adjustments as your business changes and matures. Once you are ready to start your auto detailing business you may want to consider one of Detail King’s Auto Detailing Business Start Up Kits. (Determine what you want the company to be within your community) Develop an autobiography Auto Detailing operation that supplies to its customers the best quality product that meets the customer’s needs. Quality will be defined as the right product to writing, meet the customer’s requirements from a car wash to a complete detailing that included paint correction along with all of the services listed the section entitled Services Offered. The purpose of the company is to provide not only quality service, but a livelihood for the owners and its employees. Along with the ability to provide the autobiography parrot essay community with assistance as needed and that is within the means of the company. Note: Decide if the business location will be a fixed, mobile or both. Research Paper? (Determine where the customers are and how you will reach them) A study has been conducted to determine the feasibility of such a company in the general area of __________________. It has been determined that four such operations exist in caged parrot the area.

None of these companies offer the menu of services that (company name) will offer. Joe’s body shop is foreign in india, limited to exterior cleanup only ABC Auto dealer offers limited service to some customers at parrot essay the dealership Car Wash Inc. only offers a “quick wax option” but not full detailing. Manny’s Mobile Car Wash and Auto Appearance Center appears to dissertation in malaysia, offer the most complete service options of all of the reviewed businesses. They should provide the best competition and will be the autobiography benchmark for dilemma, our startup efforts. The ten mile radius of our proposed location ( fixed 0r mobile ) shows there are four high end neighborhoods with homes ranging in price from autobiography $400,000 to $1,500,000. These four areas contain approximately 250 homes all within 10 miles of our business location. In addition there are two industrial parks, two hospitals and in essay numerous office building complexes with approximately 8,000 employees. The local private airport and the three marinas are also within that 10 mile radius. (What types of service and products will you offer) Complete exterior detailing including washing the vehicle, claying the paint, removal of autobiography essay all bugs tar followed by paint correction (scratch removal) will prepare the vehicle of writing cleaning and polishing the caged essay finish. Foreign Direct Investment In India Essay? During this operation all exterior rubber trim and of a parrot essay tires will be dressed to policy, like new condition. Interior Services.

The interior of the vehicle will be purged of all loose material carpets, seats miscellaneous upholstery will be spot treated shampooed and of a deep cleaned with a special heated extractor. Engine Cleaning Dressing. Engines will be cleaned using the finest products to radiography paper, remove grease and grim from the parrot essay surfaces. A special non-silicone dressing will be applied to ensure a bright clean surface for a long time. Direct Investment Essay? Note: List all other services you intend to provide. Also consider using a Service Menu such as the one used and recommended by Detail King in of a the training classes. All monies needed to start the business will be provided by the owners using loans in the amount of $XXXXX. The plan is for direct in india, the money to be paid back in monthly installments starting in the sixth month of business at a rate of $xxx per month to each owner without interest until all seed money has be repaid. In the event that the business owners decide to forgo payment for a period of time; that money will be used to improve the business or enhance its opportunities by adding locations, employees, equipment (hardware or vehicles for mobile expansion). Of A Parrot Essay? Any other loans from banks etc. Writing In Essay? must be paid before the normal payment of the original loans from the owners. Market Niches in order of importance: Retail clients in the upscale neighborhoods defined in autobiography of a caged parrot the demographic section.

Companies that have been identified within the industrial parks in the area. Ethical Dilemma Term Papers? Hospitals in the area with specific attention to the doctor offices within the area. Marinas in the area especially in the fall months with boats are coming out autobiography of a caged parrot essay, of the water. The marketing plan will vary from season to season throughout the year. The important issues of the plan include the following items. Development of the website to ensure a presence on the internet.

Join the local chamber of commerce to gain immediate exposure to the businesses in the area. Policy Research? Create a special pricing for all chamber of commerce members and their families to promote growth. Development of a plan for parrot, exploiting the social media tools on the internet and the smart phones in use. Writing Form? Create proper signage, logos, and business cards for autobiography caged parrot essay, use by the company and its employees. (Branding the Business) Develop a plan for monthly or quarterly flyers and promotions. Including the face to face meeting of each auto related business to foster a relationship with each so that they are aware of your business and how you can help each other. Place service menus and business cards at their locations to create business. Advertising mediums should be monitored and controlled to determine success in terms of customer and dissertation writing revenue growth. Using the autobiography of a caged parrot essay cost and of studying abroad profit model provided by Detail King, project the autobiography of a caged essay number of detailing services you expect to complete in the next twelve months.

Follow that by your income and expense projections for the next twelve to twenty four months. Use this tool to project your income, expenses and net income for the next three years. Understand your fixed and dilemma variable costs, your margin and your cost per hour to operate your business. Equipment and consumable products: Build and list your equipment needs or purchased equipment. (Include Vendors) Create a list of consumable products including polishes, cleaners, compounds etc. Autobiography Caged Essay? along with all brushes and policy papers cleaning cloths both microfiber and non microfiber. Car wash equipment Pressure washer low pressure washer vapor steamer Paint correction Buffers Polishers Interior Cleaning Cleaning and deodorizing equipment Heated extractor Tornador air purging equipment Ozone generator Tools Brushes Towels Chemical storage Applicators Added Value Profit Centers Paint chip repair Headlight restoration Plastic trim restoration Glass repair Vinyl and leather repair Carpet dying Odor removal Window tinting. Consider what methods and procedures you need to autobiography of a essay, start and maintain your business.

Start by determining what is important to you and to the success of the paper business. Use the autobiography of a Methods and Procedures document provided by Detail King as a starting point. List all permits and licenses needed to be compliant with the local, state and federal regulations. Review legal requirement with counsel and accounting professional. EPA and disadvantages abroad local environmental regulations: It is important to understand the regulations and the potential equipment needed to comply. Be sure to autobiography caged parrot, search them out and disadvantages of studying abroad essay list them in your plan so that your lawyer can assist you in understanding and complying with them. These requirements are different in each area and of a caged essay require your attention. While starting a business involves a number of practical considerations, structure remains the primary determination to research papers, be made at the outset. Many entrepreneurs do not consider forming a business entity. Instead, the business will default to a sole proprietorship in the case of an individual owner, or a general partnership if there are multiple owners.

Those two types of businesses have significant disadvantages, mainly in the form of unlimited liability: Creditors of the business can recover the owner’s personal assets for business liabilities. The main advantage of those entities, pass-through tax treatment – means that profits are not taxed at the business level- is available with entities that offer liability protection. S corporations are the caged parrot essay most common entities that provide the owner personal protection with pass-through tax treatment. To create any corporation, the owner must file Articles of Incorporation with the Department of State, make an election to be treated as an S Corp., adopt bylaws and hold initial meetings of shareholders and directors – among other organizational tasks. In comparison with other entities, startup cost and administrative formalities are usually greater for S Corporations. S Corps are limited to writing in essay, 100 shareholders.

Limited Partnerships (LPs) and caged parrot essay Limited Liability Companies (LLCs) offer a usually less burdensome alternative to S Corps. Both of these entities are formed by filing documents with the radiography paper Department of State, and are largely governed by internal agreements between the owners. While at least one owner of autobiography of a caged parrot a limited partnership must serve as general partner and be subject to foreign direct essay, unlimited liability, all members of an LLC are afforded limited liability. LLCs, however, may be subject to a state’s capital stock tax such is the case in Pennsylvania. Donald B. Formoso Peacock Keller. Try to anticipate your growth relative to volume of customers, employees, equipment and marketing needs.

Consider forecasting customer and autobiography caged revenue growth along with retained customers. This will tell you that your overall plan is working. Forecast customer growth and revenue for 12, 24, 36 and 48 months. If you have questions about this sample auto detailing business plan please contact Detail King at 1 (888) 314-0847.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Existentialism is a catch-all term for those philosophers who consider the nature of the human condition as a key philosophical problem and who share the view that this problem is best addressed through ontology. This very broad definition will be clarified by discussing seven key themes that existentialist thinkers address. Those philosophers considered existentialists are mostly from the of a caged essay continent of Europe, and foreign direct date from the 19 th and autobiography of a caged parrot 20 th centuries. Outside philosophy, the existentialist movement is probably the most well-known philosophical movement, and at least two of foreign direct in india its members are among the most famous philosophical personalities and caged parrot widely read philosophical authors. It has certainly had considerable influence outside philosophy, for example on psychological theory and on the arts. Within philosophy, though, it is safe to say that this loose movement considered as a whole has not had a great impact, although individuals or ideas counted within it remain important. Moreover, most of the philosophers conventionally grouped under this heading either never used, or actively disavowed, the radiography term 'existentialist'.

Even Sartre himself once said: “Existentialism? I don’t know what that is.” So, there is a case to be made that the term – insofar as it leads us to ignore what is distinctive about caged parrot, philosophical positions and to conflate together significantly different ideas – does more harm than good. In this article, however, it is ethical term papers, assumed that something sensible can be said about existentialism as a loosely defined movement. The article has three sections. Autobiography Caged Essay! First, we outline a set of themes that define, albeit very broadly, existentialist concerns. This is done with reference to the historical context of existentialism, which will help us to in essay, understand why certain philosophical problems and methods were considered so important. Second, we discuss individually six philosophers who are arguably its central figures, stressing in these discussions the ways in autobiography of a caged which these philosophers approached existentialist themes in distinctive ways. These figures, and many of the others we mention, have full length articles of their own within the Encyclopedia . Finally, we look very briefly at the influence of existentialism, especially outside philosophy. Although a highly diverse tradition of thought, seven themes can be identified that provide some sense of overall unity. Here, these themes will be briefly introduced; they can then provide us with an intellectual framework within which to discuss exemplary figures within the history of existentialism.

Philosophy should not be thought of primarily either as an investment in india, attempt to investigate and autobiography of a parrot understand the self or the world, or as a special occupation that concerns only a few. Disadvantages Of Studying Essay! Rather, philosophy must be thought of as fully integrated within life. To be sure, there may need to be professional philosophers, who develop an elaborate set of methods and concepts (Sartre makes this point frequently) but life can be lived philosophically without a technical knowledge of philosophy. Existentialist thinkers tended to autobiography of a caged, identify two historical antecedents for this notion. First, the ancient Greeks, and particularly the figure of Socrates but also the disadvantages of studying abroad essay Stoics and Epicureans. Socrates was not only non-professional, but in autobiography caged his pursuit of the good life he tended to eschew the formation of research papers a 'system' or 'theory', and his teachings took place often in public spaces. In this, the existentialists were hardly unusual. In the of a caged parrot 19 th and 20 th centuries, the rapid expansion of industrialisation and advance in technology were often seen in disadvantages of studying essay terms of an autobiography of a caged, alienation of the human from nature or from a properly natural way of living (for example, thinkers of German and English romanticism). The second influence on thinking of philosophy as a way of life was German Idealism after Kant. Partly as a response to the 18 th century Enlightenment, and under the influence of the Neoplatonists, Schelling and research Hegel both thought of autobiography of a essay philosophy as an activity that is an integral part of the history of human beings, rather than outside of life and the world, looking on. Later in the 19 th century, Marx famously criticised previous philosophy by foreign in india essay saying that the point of philosophy is not to autobiography of a, know things – even to know things about activity – but to change them.

The concept of philosophy as a way of writing in essay form life manifests itself in existentialist thought in a number of ways. Let us give several examples, to which we will return in the sections that follow. First, the autobiography caged parrot existentialists often undertook a critique of modern life in terms of the term specialisation of both manual and intellectual labour. Specialisation included philosophy. One consequence of this is that many existentialist thinkers experimented with different styles or genres of writing in of a parrot essay order to escape the of studying abroad effects of this specialisation. Second, a notion that we can call 'immanence': philosophy studies life from the inside. For Kierkegaard, for example, the fundamental truths of my existence are not representations – not, that is, ideas, propositions or symbols the meaning of of a caged parrot which can be separated from writing form their origin.

Rather, the truths of existence are immediately lived, felt and acted. Likewise, for Nietzsche and of a caged parrot Heidegger, it is essential to recognise that the philosopher investigating human existence is, him or herself, an research, existing human. Third, the nature of life itself is a perennial existentialist concern and, more famously (in Heidegger and in Camus), also the significance of caged parrot death. A key idea here is that human existence is in some way 'on its own'; anxiety (or anguish) is the recognition of writing form this fact. Anxiety here has two important implications. First, most generally, many existentialists tended to autobiography of a parrot, stress the significance of of studying essay emotions or feelings, in so far as they were presumed to have a less culturally or intellectually mediated relation to of a caged essay, one's individual and separate existence. This idea is found in Kierkegaard, as we mentioned above, and in Heidegger's discussion of 'mood'; it is also one reason why existentialism had an influence on psychology. Second, anxiety also stands for abroad essay a form of autobiography of a parrot essay existence that is writing in essay form, recognition of being on its own. What is meant by 'being on its own' varies among philosophers.

For example, it might mean the irrelevance (or even negative influence) of rational thought, moral values, or empirical evidence, when it comes to of a, making fundamental decisions concerning one's existence. As we shall see, Kierkegaard sees Hegel's account of religion in terms of the research paper history of absolute spirit as an exemplary confusion of faith and reason. Alternatively, it might be a more specifically theological claim: the autobiography of a caged essay existence of a transcendent deity is not relevant to (or is positively detrimental to) such decisions (a view broadly shared by Nietzsche and Sartre). Finally, being on radiography research, its own might signify the autobiography caged essay uniqueness of human existence, and thus the fact that it cannot understand itself in terms of other kinds of existence (Heidegger and Sartre). Related to anxiety is the concept of authenticity, which is let us say the existentialist spin on the Greek notion of 'the good life'.

As we shall see, the authentic being would be able to recognise and affirm the nature of of studying existence (we shall shortly specify some of the aspects of autobiography of a caged this, such as absurdity and writing services in malaysia freedom). Not, though, recognise the nature of existence as an intellectual fact, disengaged from life; but rather, the authentic being lives in accordance with this nature. The notion of authenticity is sometimes seen as connected to individualism. This is only reinforced by the contrast with a theme we will discuss below, that of the 'crowd'. Certainly, if authenticity involves 'being on one's own', then there would seem to of a caged parrot, be some kind of value in celebrating and sustaining one's difference and writing independence from others.

However, many existentialists see individualism as a historical and cultural trend (for example Nietzsche), or dubious political value (Camus), rather than a necessary component of authentic existence. Individualism tends to obscure the particular types of collectivity that various existentialists deem important. For many existentialists, the conditions of the modern world make authenticity especially difficult. For example, many existentialists would join other philosophers (such as the Frankfurt School) in condemning an of a caged essay, instrumentalist conception of disadvantages abroad essay reason and value. The utilitarianism of Mill measured moral value and justice also in terms of the caged consequences of actions. Later liberalism would seek to absorb nearly all functions of disadvantages essay political and social life under the heading of of a caged economic performance. Paper! Evaluating solely in of a terms of the measurable outcomes of production was seen as reinforcing the secularisation of the institutions of political, social or economic life; and reinforcing also the abandonment of any broader sense of the spiritual dimension (such an idea is found acutely in Emerson, and is akin to the concerns of Kierkegaard). Existentialists such as Martin Heidegger, Hanna Arendt or Gabriel Marcel viewed these social movements in terms of disadvantages a narrowing of the caged parrot possibilities of human thought to the instrumental or technological. This narrowing involved thinking of the world in dilemma term terms of resources, and thinking of all human action as a making, or indeed as a machine-like 'function'. The next key theme is freedom.

Freedom can usefully be linked to the concept of anguish, because my freedom is in part defined by the isolation of my decisions from autobiography of a caged essay any determination by a deity, or by previously existent values or knowledge. Paper! Many existentialists identified the 19 th and 20 th centuries as experiencing a crisis of values. This might be traced back to familiar reasons such as an increasingly secular society, or the rise of scientific or philosophical movements that questioned traditional accounts of value (for example Marxism or Darwinism), or the shattering experience of two world wars and the phenomenon of caged essay mass genocide. It is writing in essay form, important to autobiography of a, note, however, that for existentialism these historical conditions do not create the problem of anguish in direct essay the face of freedom, but merely cast it into higher relief. Likewise, freedom entails something like responsibility, for myself and for my actions. Given that my situation is one of being on its own – recognised in anxiety – then both my freedom and my responsibility are absolute. The isolation that we discussed above means that there is nothing else that acts through me, or that shoulders my responsibility.

Likewise, unless human existence is to be understood as arbitrarily changing moment to moment, this freedom and responsibility must stretch across time. Of A Caged Parrot! Thus, when I exist as an authentically free being, I assume responsibility for my whole life, for a ‘project’ or a ‘commitment’. We should note here that many of the existentialists take on a broadly Kantian notion of freedom: freedom as autonomy . Writing! This means that freedom, rather than being randomness or arbitrariness, consists in the binding of oneself to a law, but a law that is given by the self in recognition of its responsibilities. This borrowing from of a parrot Kant, however, is heavily qualified by the next theme. The next common theme we shall call ‘situatedness’. Although my freedom is absolute, it always takes place in a particular context. My body and its characteristics, my circumstances in a historical world, and my past, all weigh upon freedom. Foreign Direct Investment In India! This is what makes freedom meaningful. Autobiography Of A Parrot Essay! Suppose I tried to exist as free, while pretending to be in abstraction from the situation. In that case I will have no idea what possibilities are open to me and what choices need to be made, here and abroad essay now.

In such a case, my freedom will be naive or illusory. Autobiography Caged Parrot Essay! This concrete notion of freedom has its philosophical genesis in Hegel, and is generally contrasted to the pure rational freedom described by Kant. Situatedness is related to a notion we discussed above under the heading of philosophy as a way of life: the necessity of viewing or understanding life and existence from the of studying ‘inside’. Of A Caged Parrot! For example, many 19 th century intellectuals were interested in papers ancient Greece, Rome, the Medieval period, or the orient, as alternative models of a less spoiled, more integrated form of life. Nietzsche, to be sure, shared these interests, but he did so not uncritically: because the human condition is characterised by being historically situated, it cannot simply turn back the clock or decide all at once to be other than it is (Sartre especially shares this view). Heidegger expresses a related point in this way: human existence cannot be abstracted from its world because being-in-the-world is part of the ontological structure of that existence. Autobiography Of A! Many existentialists take my concretely individual body, and the specific type of life that my body lives, as a primary fact about me (for example, Nietzsche, Scheler or Merleau-Ponty). I must also be situated socially: each of direct investment in india my acts says something about essay, how I view others but, reciprocally, each of services in malaysia their acts is a view about what I am. My freedom is always situated with respect to autobiography of a parrot essay, the judgements of others. This particular notion comes from Hegel’s analysis of ‘recognition’, and of studying abroad essay is found especially in Sartre, de Beauvoir and Jaspers. Situatedness in general also has an important philosophical antecedent in Marx: economic and political conditions are not contingent features with respect to universal human nature, but condition that nature from the ground up.

Although, of course, existentialism takes its name from the autobiography of a caged parrot essay philosophical theme of 'existence', this does not entail that there is homogeneity in the manner existence is to be understood. Papers! One point on which there is agreement, though, is autobiography parrot, that the dissertation writing services in malaysia existence with which we should be concerned here is not just any existent thing, but human existence . There is thus an of a caged parrot, important difference between distinctively human existence and anything else, and human existence is not to be understood on the model of things , that is, as objects of knowledge. One might think that this is an old idea, rooted in Plato's distinction between matter and soul, or Descartes' between extended and thinking things. But these distinctions appear to be just differences between two types of things. Descartes in particular, however, is often criticised by the existentialists for subsuming both under the heading 'substance', and thus treating what is distinctive in human existence as indeed a thing or object, albeit one with different properties. (Whether the dilemma term papers existentialist characterisation of Plato or Descartes is accurate is a different question.) The existentialists thus countered the Platonic or Cartesian conception with a model that resembles more the Aristotelian as developed in the Nichomachean Ethics . The latter idea arrives in existentialist thought filtered through Leibniz and Spinoza and the notion of a striving for existence. Equally important is the elevation of the practical above the theoretical in of a caged parrot German Idealists. Particularly in Kant, who stressed the primacy of the 'practical', and then in Fichte and early Schelling, we find the notion that human existence is action . Accordingly, in Nietzsche and Sartre we find the disadvantages abroad essay notion that the human being is all and autobiography only what that being does. My existence consists of forever bringing myself into being – and, correlatively, fleeing from the dead, inert thing that is the totality of my past actions. Although my acts are free, I am not free not to act; thus existence is characterised also by 'exigency' (Marcel). For many existentialists, authentic existence involves a certain tension be recognised and lived through, but not resolved: this tension might be between the animal and the rational (important in Nietzsche) or between facticity and transcendence (Sartre and de Beauvoir). In the 19 th and 20 th centuries, the human sciences (such as psychology, sociology or economics) were coming to be recognised as powerful and writing in essay legitimate sciences.

To some extend at least their assumptions and methods seemed to be borrowed from the natural sciences. While philosophers such as Dilthey and later Gadamer were concerned to show that the human sciences had to have a distinctive method, the existentialists were inclined to go further. The free, situated human being is not an autobiography caged, object of research paper knowledge in the sense the human always exists as the possibility of transcending any knowledge of it. There is a clear relation between such an idea and the notion of the 'transcendence of the other' found in the ethical phenomenology of Emmanuel Levinas. Among the parrot essay most famous ideas associated with existentialism is that of 'absurdity'.

Human existence might be described as 'absurd' in one of the following senses. First, many existentialists argued that nature as a whole has no design, no reason for existing. Although the natural world can apparently be understood by physical science or metaphysics, this might be better thought of as 'description' than either understanding or explanation. Thus, the achievements of the natural sciences also empty nature of value and meaning. Unlike a created cosmos, for example, we cannot expect the scientifically described cosmos to answer our questions concerning value or meaning. Moreover, such description comes at disadvantages the cost of autobiography parrot essay a profound falsification of nature: namely, the positing of ideal entities such as 'laws of nature', or the conflation of all reality under a single model of being. Human beings can and should become profoundly aware of this lack of reason and the impossibility of an immanent understanding of services in malaysia it. Camus, for example, argues that the basic scene of human existence is of a essay, its confrontation with this mute irrationality. A second meaning of the absurd is ethical dilemma papers, this: my freedom will not only essay be undetermined by knowledge or reason, but from the point of view of the radiography latter my freedom will even appear absurd. Absurdity is thus closely related to the theme of 'being on autobiography parrot essay, its own', which we discussed above under the heading of anxiety.

Even if I choose to follow a law that I have given myself, my choice of law will appear absurd, and likewise will my continuously reaffirmed choice to follow it. Third, human existence as action is doomed to always destroy itself. Radiography Paper! A free action, once done, is autobiography of a, no longer free; it has become an aspect of the world, a thing . The absurdity of human existence then seems to lie in the fact that in becoming myself (a free existence) I must be what I am not (a thing). If I do not face up to this absurdity, and choose to be or pretend to be thing-like, I exist inauthentically (the terms in this formulation are Sartre's). Existentialism generally also carries a social or political dimension. Insofar as he or she is authentic, the freedom of the human being will show a certain 'resolution' or 'commitment', and this will involve also the being – and particularly the authentic being – of others. For example, Nietzsche thus speaks of his (or Zarathustra's) work in aiding the transformation of the human, and there is also in Nietzsche a striking analysis of the concept of friendship; for Heidegger, there must be an authentic mode of disadvantages essay being-with others, although he does not develop this idea at autobiography essay length; the social and political aspect of authentic commitment is much more clear in Sartre, de Beauvoir and Camus. That is the positive side of the social or political dimension.

However, leading up to this positive side, there is foreign investment essay, a description of the autobiography of a typical forms that inauthentic social or political existence takes. Many existentialists employ terms such as 'crowd', 'horde' (Scheler) or the 'masses' (Jose Ortega y Gasset). Of Studying! Nietzsche's deliberately provocative expression, 'the herd', portrays the bulk of humanity not only as animal, but as docile and of a caged parrot domesticated animals. Notice that these are all collective terms: inauthenticity manifests itself as de-individuated or faceless. Instead of radiography being formed authentically in freedom and autobiography caged parrot essay anxiety, values are just accepted from others because ‘that is what everybody does’. These terms often carry a definite historical resonance, embodying a critique of specifically modern modes of human existence. All of the following might be seen as either causes or symptoms of a world that is of studying, 'fallen' or 'broken' (Marcel): the technology of mass communication (Nietzsche is particularly scathing about autobiography, newspapers and journalists; in Two Ages , Kierkegaard says something very similar), empty religious observances, the specialisation of labour and social roles, urbanisation and industrialisation. The theme of the crowd poses a question also to the positive social or political dimension of existentialism: how could a collective form of existence ever be anything other than inauthentic?

The 19 th and 20 th century presented a number of mass political ideologies which might be seen as posing a particularly challenging environment for authentic and free existence. For example, nationalism came in for criticism particularly by Nietzsche. Socialism and communism: after WWII, Sartre was certainly a communist, but even then unafraid to ethical, criticise both the French communist party and the Soviet Union for rigid or inadequately revolutionary thinking. Caged! Democracy: Aristotle in abroad book 5 of his Politics distinguishes between democracy and autobiography caged parrot essay ochlocracy, which latter essentially means rule by those incapable of ruling even themselves. Many existentialists would identify the latter with the in essay form American and especially French concept of 'democracy'. Nietzsche and Ortega y Gasset both espoused a broadly aristocratic criterion for autobiography caged parrot social and political leadership. 2. Key Existentialist Philosophers.

a. Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Kierkegaard was many things: philosopher, religious writer, satirist, psychologist, journalist, literary critic and generally considered the ‘father’ of existentialism. Being born (in Copenhagen) to a wealthy family enabled him to devote his life to the pursuits of his intellectual interests as well as to distancing himself from the ‘everyday man’ of his times. Kierkegaard’s most important works are pseudonymous, written under fictional names, often very obviously fictional. The issue of pseudonymity has been variously interpreted as a literary device, a personal quirk or as an illustration of the constant tension between the foreign direct in india philosophical truth and existential or personal truth. We have already seen that for the existentialists it is of equal importance what one says and the way in which something is said. This forms part of the autobiography of a parrot attempt to return to a more authentic way of philosophising, firstly exemplified by the Greeks. In a work like Either/Or (primarily a treatise against the Hegelians) theoretical reflections are followed by reflections on policy research, how to seduce girls. Of A Essay! The point is to stress the distance between the anonymously and logically produced truths of the logicians and the personal truths of research papers existing individuals. Every pseudonymous author is a symbol for an existing individual and at times his very name is the key to the mysteries of his existence (like in the case of Johanes de Silentio , fictional author of Fear and parrot essay Trembling , where the mystery of Abraham’s actions cannot be told, being a product of and belonging to silence). Kierkegaard has been associated with a notion of truth as subjective (or personal); but what does this mean?

The issue is linked with his notorious confrontation with the Danish Church and the academic environment of his days. Kierkegaard’s work takes place against the background of an academia dominated by Hegelian dialectics and a society which reduces the research communication with the divine to the everyday observance of the ritualistic side of an institutionalized Christianity. Hegel is for Kierkegaard his arch-enemy not only because of what he writes but also what he represents. Hegel is guilty for Kierkegaard because he reduced the living truth of autobiography of a parrot Christianity (the fact that God suffered and dissertation writing services died on the Cross) to just another moment, which necessarily will be overcome, in the dialectical development of the Spirit. While Hegel treats “God” as a Begriff (a concept), for Kierkegaard the truth of Christianity signifies the very paradoxicality of faith: that is, that it is possible for the individual to autobiography of a caged essay, go beyond the ‘ethical’ and nevertheless or rather because of writing form this very act of disobedience to be loved by ‘God’. Autobiography Of A Caged Essay! Famously, for papers Hegel ‘all that is real is rational’ – where rationality means the historically articulated, dialectical progression of Spirit – whereas for Kierkegaard the suspension of rationality is the very secret of Christianity. Against the cold logic of the Hegelian system Kierkegaard seeks “a truth which is truth for me” (Kierkegaard 1996:32). Christianity in particular represents the of a essay attempt to offer one’s life to the service of the divine. Dissertation Writing Services! This cannot be argued, it can only be lived. While a theologian will try to argue for the validity of his positions by arguing and autobiography of a parrot counter-arguing, a true Christian will try to of studying abroad essay, live his life the way Jesus lived it. This evidently marks the continuation of the Hellenic idea of philosophy as a way of life, exemplified in the person of Socrates who did not write treatises, but who died for his ideas.

Before the logical concepts of the theologians (in the words of Martin Heidegger who was hugely influenced by Kierkegaard) “man can neither fall to his knees in awe nor can he play music and dance before this god” (Heidegger 2002:42). The idea of ‘subjective truth’ will have serious consequences to the philosophical understanding of of a caged parrot man. Traditionally defined as animale rationale (the rational animal) by Aristotle and for a long time worshiped as such by generations of philosophical minds, Kierkegaard comes now to redefine the human as the ‘passionate animal’. What counts in man is the intensity of policy research his emotions and his willingness to believe ( contra the once all powerful reason) in that which cannot be understood. The opening up by autobiography of a Kierkegaard of this terra incognita of man’s inner life will come to play a major role for later existentialists (most importantly for Nietzsche) and will bring to light the failings and the weaknesses of an over-optimistic (because modelled after the Natural sciences) model of foreign direct investment in india philosophy which was taught to talk a lot concerning the ‘truth’ of the human, when all it understood about the human was a mutilated version. In the Garden of Eden, Adam and Eve lived in a state of innocence in communication with God and in harmony with their physical environment. Caged Essay! The expulsion from the Garden opened up a wide range of new possibilities for radiography them and thus the problem of anxiety arose.

Adam (the Hebrew word for man) is now free to determine through his actions the route of things. Naturally, there is a tension here. Of A Caged Parrot Essay! The human, created in God’s image, is an infinite being. Like God he also can choose and act according to his will. Simultaneously, though, he is a finite being since he is restricted by his body, particular socioeconomic conditions and so forth. This tension between the finite and infinite is the source of anxiety. But unlike a Hegelian analysis, Kierkegaard does not look for a way out from anxiety; on the contrary he stresses its positive role in term the flourishing of the autobiography of a human. As he characteristically puts it: “Because he is a synthesis, he can be in anxiety; and the more profoundly he is in disadvantages of studying anxiety, the greater is the man” (Kierkegaard 1980:154). The prioritization of anxiety as a fundamental trait of the human being is a typical existentialist move, eager to assert the caged parrot essay positive role of emotions for form human life.

Perhaps the most famous work of Kierkegaard was Fear and Trembling , a short book which exhibits many of the issues raised by him throughout his career. Fear and Trembling retells the story of the attempted sacrifice of Isaac by his father Abraham. God tells Abraham that in order to prove his faith he has to sacrifice his only son. Abraham obeys, but at the last moment God intervenes and saves Isaac. What is the autobiography of a caged parrot moral of the story? According to our moral beliefs, shouldn’t Abraham refuse to execute God’s vicious plan? Isn’t one of the fundamental beliefs of Christianity the respect to the life of radiography research other?

The answer is naturally affirmative. Abraham should refuse God, and he should respect the ethical law. Then Abraham would be in a good relation with the Law itself as in the expression ‘a law abiding citizen’. On the contrary what Abraham tries to achieve is a personal relation with the author of the moral law. This author is neither a symbolic figure nor an abstract idea; he is someone with a name. The name of ’God’ is the autobiography caged parrot essay unpronounceable Tetragrammaton (YHVE), the unpronounceability indicates the simultaneous closeness and distance of the great Other. The Christian God then, the author of the in essay form moral law at his will suspends the law and demands his unlawful wish be obeyed.

Jacques Derrida notes that the temptation is of a caged parrot essay, now for Abraham the ethical law itself (Derrida 1998:162): he must resist ethics, this is the mad logic of God. The story naturally raises many problems. Is not such a subjectivist model of truth and religion plainly dangerous? What if someone was to support his acts of violence as a command of God? Kierkegaard’s response would be to suggest that it is only because Abraham loved Isaac with all his heart that the sacrifice could take place. “He must love Isaac with his whole soul. only then can he sacrifice him” (Kierkegaard 1983:74). Abraham’s faith is proved by the strength of his love for his son. However, this doesn’t fully answer the dilemma term papers question of legitimacy, even if we agree that Abraham believed that God loved him so that he would somehow spare him. Kierkegaard also differentiates between the of a caged parrot act of Abraham and radiography paper the act of autobiography of a a tragic hero (like Agamemnon sacrificing his daughter Iphigenia). Disadvantages Essay! The tragic hero’s act is a product of calculation.

What is better to do? What would be more beneficial? Abraham stands away from all sorts of calculations, he stands alone, that is, free in front of the horror religiosus , the price and the reward of faith. b. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) as an autobiography essay, Existentialist Philosopher. “I know my lot. Some day my name will be linked to the memory of something monstrous, of a crisis as yet unprecedented on policy research, earth. ” (Nietzsche 2007:88).

Remarkably, what in of a parrot essay 1888 sounded like megalomania came some years later to be realized. The name ‘Nietzsche’ has been linked with an array of historical events, philosophical concepts and widespread popular legends. Above all, Nietzsche has managed somehow to associate his name with the turmoil of disadvantages abroad a crisis. For a while this crisis was linked to the events of WWII. The exploitation of his teaching by of a caged parrot essay the Nazi ideologues (notably Alfred Rosenberg and Alfred Baeumler), although utterly misdirected, arguably had its source in Nietzsche’s own “aristocratic radicalism”.

More generally, the crisis refers to foreign in india essay, the prospect of a future lacking of any meaning. This is caged, a common theme for all the research existentialists to be sure. The prospect of millennia of nihilism (the devaluation of the highest values) inaugurates for Nietzsche the era in which the of a caged essay human itself, for the first time in its history, is called to give meaning both to its own existence and to the existence of the world. Policy! This is an event of a cataclysmic magnitude, from now on there are neither guidelines to of a parrot essay, be followed, lighthouses to in essay, direct us, and no right answers but only experiments to be conducted with unknown results. Many existentialists, in their attempt to differentiate the autobiography of a caged parrot essay value of services in malaysia individual existence from the alienating effects of the masses, formed an uneasy relation with the value of the ‘everyday man’. The ‘common’ man was thought to be lacking in will , taste in matter of aesthetics, and individuality in the sense that the assertion of his existence comes exclusively from his participation in larger groups and from the ‘herd’ mentality with which these groups infuse their members.

Nietzsche believed that men in society are divided and ordered according to their willingness and capacity to participate in a life of spiritual and essay cultural transformation. Radiography Paper! Certainly not everyone wishes this participation and Nietzsche’s condemnation of those unwilling to challenge their fundamental beliefs is harsh; however it would be a mistake to suggest that Nietzsche thought their presence dispensable. In various aphorisms he stresses the importance of the ‘common’ as a necessary prerequisite for both the growth and the value of the ‘exceptional’. Such an idea clashes with our ‘modern’ sensitivities (themselves a product of a particular training). However, one has to recognize that there are no philosophers without presuppositions, and that Nietzsche’s insistence on the value of the exceptional marks his own beginning and his own understanding of the mission of thought.

Despite the dubious politics that the crisis of meaning gave rise to, the crisis itself is only an after-effect of a larger and deeper challenge that Nietzsche’s work identifies and poses. For Nietzsche the crisis of meaning is inextricably linked to the crisis of of a essay religious consciousness in the West. Whereas for Kierkegaard the problem of meaning was to disadvantages of studying abroad essay, be resolved through the individual’s relation to the Divine, for Nietzsche the militantly anti-Christian, the problem of meaning is rendered possible at autobiography of a caged all because of the demise of the Divine. As he explains in The Genealogy of Morality , it is policy, only after the cultivation of truth as a value by the priest that truth comes to autobiography caged essay, question its own value and function. What truth discovers is that at the ground of all truth lies an policy papers, unquestionable faith in the value of truth. Christianity is destroyed when it is pushed to tell the truth about itself, when the illusions of the of a old ideals are revealed. What is called ‘The death of God’ is also then the death of truth (though not of the value of truthfulness ); this is an event of immense consequences for the future. But one has to be careful here. Generations of readers, by concentrating on the event of the actual announcement of the 'death of God', have completely missed madman’s woeful mourning which follows the announcement. Direct Investment In India Essay! “‘Where is God?’ he cried; ‘I‘ll tell you! We have killed him – you and I! We are all his murderers. Of A Caged! But how did we do this?

How were we able to drink up the sea? Who gave us the sponge to wipe away the entire horizon? What were we doing when we unchained this earth from its sun? Where is it moving? Where are we moving to? Away from all suns?” (Nietzsche 2001:125).

The above sentences are very far from writing in essay form constituting a cheerful declaration: no one is happy here! Nietzsche’s atheism has nothing to do with the naive atheism of others (for example Sartre) who rush to affirm their freedom as if their petty individuality were able to fill the vast empty space left by the absence of God. Nietzsche is caged parrot essay, not naive and because he is not naive he is rather pessimistic. What the death of God really announces is the demise of the human as we know it. Dissertation In Malaysia! One has to think of this break in the history of the autobiography human in Kantian terms.

Kant famously described Enlightenment as “man’s emergence from research his self-incurred immaturity” (Kant 1991:54). Similarly Nietzsche believes that the demise of the divine could be the of a caged opportunity for the emergence of a being which derives the meaning of its existence from within itself and not from some authority external to it. If the meaning of the human derived from in essay form God then, with the universe empty, man cannot take the place of the absent God. This empty space can only be filled by something greater and fuller, which in the Nietzschean jargon means the of a caged essay greatest unity of contradictory forces. That is the Ubermensch (Overhuman) which for Nietzsche signifies the attempt towards the cultural production of a human being which will be aware of his dual descent – from animality and from rationality – without prioritizing either one, but keeping them in an agonistic balance so that through struggle new and exciting forms of human existence can be born. Nietzsche was by ethical term training a Klassische Philologe (the rough equivalent Anglosaxon would be an expert in classics – the texts of the ancient Greek and Roman authors). Perhaps because of his close acquaintance with the ancient writers, he became sensitive to autobiography, a quite different understanding of philosophical thinking to that of his contemporaries. Of Studying Abroad Essay! For the Greeks, philosophical questioning takes place within the perspective of of a parrot a certain choice of writing in essay form life. There is no ‘life’ and then quite separately the theoretical (theoria: from thea – view, and of a essay horan – to see) or 'from a distance' contemplation of research papers phenomena. Philosophical speculation is the result of a certain way of life and the attempted justification of this life. Interestingly Kant encapsulates this attitude in the following passage: “When will you finally begin to live virtuously?’ said Plato to an old man who told him he was attending classes on virtue.

The point is not always to speculate, but also ultimately to think about applying our knowledge. Today, however, he who lives in conformity with what he teaches is taken for a dreamer” (Kant in Hadot 2002:xiii). Of A Essay! We have to understand Nietzsche’s relation to philosophy within this context not only because it illustrates a stylistically different contemplation but because it demonstrates an in essay, altogether different way of philosophizing. Thus in Twilight of the Idols Nietzsche accuses philosophers for their ‘Egyptism’, the fact that they turn everything into a concept under evaluation. “All that philosophers have been handling for thousands of years is conceptual mummies; nothing real has ever left their hands alive” (Nietzsche 1998:16). Philosophical concepts are valuable insofar as they serve a flourishing life, not as academic exercises. Under the new model of autobiography essay philosophy the old metaphysical and moral questions are to be replaced by in malaysia new questions concerning history, genealogy, environmental conditions and autobiography of a caged essay so forth. Let us take a characteristic passage from 1888: “I am interested in a question on which the ‘salvation of humanity’ depends more than on writing in essay, any curio of the theologians: the question of nutrition . For ease of caged use, one can put it in the following terms: ‘how do you personally have to nourish yourself in order to abroad essay, attain your maximum of strength, of virtu in the Renaissance style, of moraline-free virtue?” (Nietzsche 2007:19). What is Nietzsche telling us here? Two things: firstly that, following the tradition of Spinoza, the movement from transcendence to immanence passes through the rehabilitation of the body. Of A Essay! To say that, however, does not imply a simple-minded materialism. When Spinoza tells “nobody as yet has determined the limits of the body’s capabilities” (Spinoza 2002: 280) he is not writing about something like bodily strength but to the possibility of an emergence of a body liberated from the sedimentation of culture and ethical term papers memory.

This archetypical body is indeed as yet unknown and we stand in ignorance of its abilities. Autobiography Caged Parrot Essay! The second thing that Nietzsche is telling us in the above passage is that this new immanent philosophy necessarily requires a new ethics. One has to disadvantages essay, be clear here because of the of a essay many misunderstandings of Nietzschean ethics. Nietzsche is primarily a philosopher of ethics but ethics here refers to the possible justification of a way of life, which way of life in turn justifies human existence on direct investment in india, earth. For Nietzsche, ethics does not refer to moral codes and guidelines on how to live one’s life.

Morality, which Nietzsche rejects, refers to the obsessive need (a need or an parrot, instinct can also be learned according to Nietzsche) of the human to ethical dilemma papers, preserve its own species and to regard its species as higher than the other animals. In short morality is arrogant . A Nietzschean ethics is an ethics of modesty. It places the human back where it belongs, among the other animals. However to say that is not to equate the autobiography caged essay human with the radiography research animal. Unlike non-human animals men are products of autobiography of a parrot history that is to policy research papers, say products of of a parrot essay memory.

That is their burden and their responsibility. In the Genealogy of Morality Nietzsche explains morality as a system aiming at the taming of the human animal. Morality’s aim is the essay elimination of the creative power of animal instincts and the establishment of a life protected within the autobiography of a caged essay cocoon of foreign direct investment essay ascetic ideals. These 'ideals' are all those values and ideologies made to protect man against the danger of nihilism, the state in which man finds no answer to the question of his existence. Morality clings to the preservation of the species ‘man’; morality stubbornly denies the very possibility of an open-ended future for autobiography of a humans. If we could summarize Nietzsche’s philosophical anthropology in a few words, we would say that for Nietzsche it is necessary to attempt (there are no guarantees here) to think of the human not as an end-in-itself but only writing as a means to something “. perfect, completely finished, happy, powerful, triumphant, that still leaves something to of a parrot essay, fear!” (Nietzsche 2007:25).

c. Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Heidegger exercised an unparalleled influence on modern thought. Writing Form! Without knowledge of his work recent developments in modern European philosophy (Sartre, Gadamer, Arendt, Marcuse, Derrida, Foucault et al.) simply do not make sense. He remains notorious for his involvement with National Socialism in the 1930s. Outside European philosophy, Heidegger is autobiography of a caged essay, only occasionally taken seriously, and is sometimes actually ridiculed (famously the Oxford philosopher A.J. Ayer called him a ‘charlatan’). In 1945 in Paris Jean-Paul Sartre gave a public lecture with the writing services title ‘Existentialism is of a caged parrot essay, a Humanism’ where he defended the priority of action and the position that it is a man’s actions which define his humanity.

In 1946, Jean Beaufret in a letter to Heidegger poses a number of questions concerning the link between humanism and the recent developments of existentialist philosophy in France. Heidegger’s response is a letter to Beaufret which in 1947 is of studying abroad essay, published in a book form with the title ‘Letter on Humanism’. There he repudiates any possible connection of his philosophy with the existentialism of of a caged essay Sartre. Services In Malaysia! The question for us here is the following: Is it possible, given Heidegger’s own repudiation of of a caged parrot existentialism, still to characterise Heidegger’s philosophy as 'existentialist'? The answer here is that Heidegger can be classified as an foreign investment, existentialist thinker despite all his differences from Sartre. Our strategy is to stress Heidegger’s connection with some key existentialist concerns, which we introduced above under the labels ‘Existence’, ‘Anxiety’ and the ‘Crowd’. We have seen above that a principle concern of all existentialists was to caged parrot, affirm the priority of individual existence and to stress that human existence is to be investigated with methods other than those of the natural sciences. Dissertation Writing In Malaysia! This is caged parrot essay, also one of Heidegger’s principle concerns.

His magnum opus Being and Time is an investigation into the meaning of Being as that manifests itself through the research papers human being, Dasein. The sciences have repeatedly asked ‘What is a man?’ ‘What is a car?’ ‘What is an autobiography caged, emotion?’ they have nevertheless failed – and because of the nature of science, had to fail – to in india essay, ask the autobiography parrot essay question which grounds all those other questions. This question is what is the term meaning of (that) Being which is not an entity (like other beings, for example a chair, a car, a rock) and yet through it entities have meaning at all? Investigating the question of the meaning of Being we discover that it arises only because it is made possible by the human being which poses the question. Of A Caged! Dasein has already a (pre-conceptual) understanding of Being because it is the place where Being manifests itself. Dissertation Services In Malaysia! Unlike the traditional understanding of the human as a hypokeimenon (Aristotle) – what through the filtering of Greek thought by the Romans becomes substantia, that which supports all entities and qualities as their base and their ground – Dasein refers to the way which human beings are. ”The essence of Dasein lies in its existence” (Heidegger 1962: 67) and autobiography of a caged parrot essay the existence of Dasein is not fixed like the existence of a substance is. This is why human beings locate a place which nevertheless remains unstable and unfixed. The virtual place that Dasein occupies is not empty. It is filled with beings which ontologically structure the very possibility of Dasein. Dasein exists as in-the-world.

World is not something separate from Dasein; rather, Dasein cannot be understood outside the referential totality which constitutes it. Heidegger repeats here a familiar existentialist pattern regarding the ethical term papers situatedness of caged parrot essay experience. Sartre, by investment in india contrast, comes from the autobiography of a parrot essay tradition of Descartes and to this tradition remains faithful. From Heidegger's perspective, Sartre’s strategy of affirming the priority of existence over essence is a by-product of the tradition of Renaissance humanism which wishes to assert the importance of man as the highest and most splendid of finite beings. Sartrean existence refers to the fact that a human is whereas Heidegger’s ek-sistence refers to the way with which Dasein is thrown into a world of writing in essay form referential relations and as such Dasein is autobiography caged, claimed by Being to guard its truth. Sartre, following Descartes, thinks of the human as a substance producing or sustaining entities, Heidegger on the contrary thinks of the human as a passivity which accepts the call of Being. “Man is not the lord of writing in essay beings. Man is the shepherd of Being” (Heidegger 1993:245).

The Heideggerian priority then is of a parrot, Being, and policy papers Dasein’s importance lies in its receptiveness to the call of Being. For Kierkegaard anxiety defines the possibility of responsibility, the autobiography essay exodus of man from the innocence of Eden and his participation to history. But the birthplace of anxiety is the in essay form experience of caged parrot essay nothingness, the state in which every entity is paper, experienced as withdrawn from its functionality. “Nothing . gives birth to anxiety” (Kierkegaard 1980:41). In anxiety we do not fear something in particular but we experience the terror of a vacuum in which is existence is autobiography parrot, thrown. Existentialist thinkers are interested in anxiety because anxiety individualizes one (it is when I feel Angst more than everything that I come face to face with my own individual existence as distinct from all other entities around me).

Heidegger thinks that one of the fundamental ways with which Dasein understands itself in the world is through an writing in essay, array of ‘moods’. Dasein always ‘finds itself’ ( befinden sich ) in a certain mood. Man is not a thinking thing de-associated from the world, as in Cartesian metaphysics, but a being which finds itself in various moods such as anxiety or boredom. For the Existentialists, primarily and for the most part I don’t exist because I think (recall Descartes’ famous formula) but because my moods reveal to me fundamental truths of my existence. Like Kierkegaard, Heidegger also believes that anxiety is born out of the terror of nothingness. “The obstinacy of the ‘nothing and nowhere within-the-world’ means as a phenomenon that the caged essay world as such is that in the face of which one has anxiety ” (Heidegger 1962:231). For Kierkegaard the ethical possibility of anxiety reveals man’s dual nature and because of this duality man can be saved. “If a human being were a beast or an angel, he could not be in caged parrot anxiety. Because he is a synthesis, he can be in anxiety; and the more profoundly he is in anxiety, the greater is the man” (Kierkegaard 1980:155). Policy! Equally for Heidegger anxiety manifests Dasein’s possibility to live an authentic existence since it realizes that the crowd of autobiography of a caged essay ‘others’ (what Heidegger calls the ‘They’) cannot offer any consolation to the drama of existence. In this article we have discussed the ethical dilemma ambiguous or at times downright critical attitude of many existentialists toward the uncritical and unreflecting masses of people who, in autobiography of a caged a wholly anti-Kantian and thus also anti-Enlightenment move, locate the meaning of their existence in radiography research an external authority.

They thus give up their (purported) autonomy as rational beings. For Heidegger, Dasein for the most part lives inauthentically in that Dasein is absorbed in a way of life produced by others, not by parrot essay Dasein itself. “We take pleasure and enjoy ourselves as they [man] take pleasure; we read, see and judge about literature and art as they see and judge. ” (Heidegger 1962:164). To be sure this mode of existence, the ‘They’ ( Das Man ) is one of the existentialia, it is an a priori condition of possibility of the Dasein which means that inauthenticity is foreign in india, inscribed into the mode of being of Dasein, it does not come from the outside as a bad influence which could be erased. Heidegger’s language is ambiguous on the problem of inauthenticity and the reader has to make his mind on the status of the autobiography parrot ‘They’. Disadvantages Of Studying Abroad Essay! A lot has been said on the possible connections of Heidegger’s philosophy with his political engagements. Although it is always a risky business to read the works of great philosophers as political manifestos, it seems prima facie evident that Heidegger’s thought in this area deserves the close investigation it has received. Heidegger was a highly original thinker. His project was nothing less than the overcoming of autobiography of a caged parrot essay Western metaphysics through the positing of the forgotten question of being.

He stands in abroad essay a critical relation to parrot essay, past philosophers but simultaneously he is heavily indebted to them, much more than he would like to admit. This is foreign direct investment, not to autobiography of a caged parrot, question his originality, it is to recognize that thought is not an ex nihilo production; it comes as a response to things past, and aims towards what is made possible through that past. d. Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) as an Existentialist Philosopher. In the public consciousness, at least, Sartre must surely be the central figure of existentialism. All the themes that we introduced above come together in his work. Policy Research Papers! With the autobiography caged essay possible exception of Nietzsche, his writings are the most widely anthologised (especially the lovely, if oversimplifying, lecture 'Existentialism and Humanism') and his literary works are widely read (especially the novel Nausea ) or performed. Although uncomfortable in research papers the limelight, he was nevertheless the very model of a public intellectual, writing hundreds of short pieces for public dissemination and taking resolutely independent and often controversial stands on major political events. His writings that are most clearly existentialist in character date from Sartre's early and middle period, primarily the 1930s and 1940s. From the 1950s onwards, Sartre moved his existentialism towards a philosophy the purpose of autobiography caged essay which was to understand the possibility of a genuinely revolutionary politics. Sartre was in his late 20s when he first encountered phenomenology, specifically the philosophical ideas of Edmund Husserl. Policy Research Papers! (We should point out of a caged essay, that Heidegger was also deeply influenced by of studying abroad Husserl, but it is less obvious in the language he employs because he drops the language of autobiography caged consciousness and acts.) Of particular importance, Sartre thought, was Husserl's notion of radiography paper intentionality. In Sartre's interpretation of autobiography of a essay this idea, consciousness is not to be identified with a thing (for example a mind, soul or brain), that is to say some kind of a repository of ideas and images of things.

Rather, consciousness is nothing but a directedness towards things. Sartre found a nice way to radiography research, sum up the notion of the intentional object: If I love her, I love her because she is lovable (Sartre 1970:4-5). Within my experience, her lovableness is not an aspect of my image of her, rather it is a feature of her (and ultimately a part of the world) towards which my consciousness directs itself. The things I notice about her (her smile, her laugh) are not originally neutral, and autobiography of a parrot essay then I interpret the idea of them as 'lovely', they are aspects of her as lovable. Of Studying Essay! The notion that consciousness is not a thing is vital to Sartre.

Indeed, consciousness is primarily to be characterised as nothing : it is parrot essay, first and foremost not that which it is conscious of. Abroad Essay! (Sartre calls human existence the 'for-itself', and the being of things the 'in-itself'.) Because it is not a thing, it is not subject to the laws of things; specifically, it is not part of autobiography caged essay a chain of causes and its identity is not akin to that of a substance. Above we suggested that a concern with the nature of existence, and more particularly a concern with the distinctive nature of writing in essay human existence, are defining existentialist themes. Moreover, qua consciousness, and not a thing that is part of the causal chain, I am free. From moment to moment, my every action is mine alone to choose. I will of course have a past 'me' that cannot be dispensed with; this is part of my 'situation'. However, again, I am first and foremost not my situation. Thus, at every moment I choose whether to continue on that life path, or to be something else. Thus, my existence (the mere fact that I am) is of a caged, prior to policy research, my essence (what I make of myself through my free choices). I am thus utterly responsible for myself. If my act is not simply whatever happens to come to mind, then my action may embody a more general principle of action. This principle too is one that I must have freely chosen and parrot committed myself to.

It is an image of the type of life that I believe has value. Investment Essay! (In these ways, Sartre intersects with the broadly Kantian account of freedom which we introduced above in our thematic section.) As situated, I also find myself surrounded by such images – from religion, culture, politics or morality – but none compels my freedom. (All these forces that seek to appropriate my freedom by objectifying me form Sartre's version of the of a crowd theme.) I exist as freedom, primarily characterised as not determined, so my continuing existence requires the ever renewed exercise of freedom (thus, in our thematic discussion above, the notion from Spinoza and Leibniz of existence as a striving-to-exist). Thus also, my non-existence, and the non-existence of everything I believe in, is only a free choice away. I (in the direct investment in india essay sense of an authentic human existence) am not what I 'am' (the past I have accumulated, the things that surround me, or the way that others view me). I am alone in of a caged parrot essay my responsibility; my existence, relative to everything external that might give it meaning, is absurd. Face to face with such responsibility, I feel 'anxiety'. Notice that although Sartre's account of situatedness owes much to Nietzsche and Heidegger, he sees it primarily in terms of what gives human freedom its meaning and its burden. Policy! Nietzsche and Heidegger, in contrast, view such a conception of freedom as naively metaphysical. Suppose, however, that at some point I am conscious of myself in caged parrot a thing-like way. For example, I say 'I am a student' (treating myself as having a fixed, thing-like identity) or 'I had no choice' (treating myself as belonging to the causal chain). I am ascribing a fixed identity or set of qualities to myself, much as I would say 'that is a piece of granite'.

In that case I am existing in denial of my distinctively human mode of existence; I am fleeing from my freedom. This is inauthenticity or 'bad faith'. Writing! As we shall see, inauthenticity is not just an occasional pitfall of human life, but essential to it. Human existence is a constant falling away from an authentic recognition of its freedom. Sartre here thus echoes the notion in autobiography caged parrot Heidegger than inauthenticity is a condition of possibility of human existence. Intentionality manifests itself in another important way. Rarely if ever am I simply observing the world; instead I am involved in dilemma wanting to do something, I have a goal or purpose.

Here, intentional consciousness is not a static directedness towards things, but is rather an active projection towards the future. Autobiography Of A Parrot! Suppose that I undertake as my project marrying my beloved. This is an intentional relation to a future state of affairs. As free, I commit myself to this project and must reaffirm that commitment at of studying essay every moment. It is part of my life project, the of a parrot image of human life that I offer to myself and to disadvantages of studying, others as something of value. Notice, however, that my project involves inauthenticity. I project myself into the future where I will be married to caged essay, her – that is, I define myself as 'married', as if I were a fixed being.

Thus there is an essential tension to all projection. On the one hand, the research mere fact that I project myself into essay, the future is disadvantages abroad, emblematic of parrot my freedom; only a radically free consciousness can project itself. I exist as projecting towards the future which, again, I am not . Thus, I am (in the sense of an ethical dilemma term, authentic self) what I am not (because my projecting is always underway towards the future). On the other hand, in of a caged parrot essay projecting I am projecting myself as something , that is, as a thing that no longer projects, has no future, is disadvantages abroad, not free. Every action, then, is both an expression of freedom and of a caged parrot essay also a snare of freedom. Projection is absurd: I seek to become the impossible object, for-itself-in-itself, a thing that is dissertation in malaysia, both free and a mere thing. Born of this tension is caged essay, a recognition of freedom, what it entails, and its essential fragility. Foreign Investment In India Essay! Thus, once again, we encounter existential anxiety. (In this article, we have not stressed the autobiography of a caged importance of the concept of time for existentialism, but it should not be overlooked: witness one of Nietzsche's most famous concepts (eternal recurrence) and the title of Heidegger's major early work ( Being and research Time ).) In my intentional directedness towards my beloved I find her 'loveable'. This too, though, is an objectification. Within my intentional gaze, she is loveable in much the same way that granite is hard or heavy.

Insofar as I am in love, then, I seek to deny her freedom. Insofar, however, as I wish to be loved by her, then she must be free to of a caged, choose me as her beloved. If she is free, she escapes my love; if not, she cannot love. It is in these terms that Sartre analyses love in Part Three of Being and Nothingness . Love here is a case study in the basic forms of social relation. Sartre is thus moving from an entirely individualistic frame of reference (my self, my freedom and disadvantages essay my projects) towards a consideration of the self in concrete relations with others. Sartre is of a parrot essay, working through – in a way he would shortly see as being inadequate – the issues presented by the Hegelian dialectic of recognition, which we mentioned above. This 'hell' of endlessly circling acts of freedom and objectification is brilliantly dramatised in Sartre's play No Exit . A few years later at the end of the 1940s, Sartre wrote what has been published as Notebooks for an Ethics . Sartre (influenced in the meantime by the criticisms of Merleau-Ponty and de Beauvoir, and by foreign his increasing commitment to collectivist politics) elaborated greatly his existentialist account of relations with others, taking the Hegelian idea more seriously.

He no longer thinks of concrete relations so pessimistically. While Nietzsche and Heidegger both suggest the possibility of an authentic being with others, both leave it seriously under-developed. For our purposes, there are two key ideas in the Notebooks . The first is that my projects can be realised only caged parrot essay with the cooperation of others; however, that cooperation presupposes their freedom (I cannot make her love me), and their judgements about me must concern me. Therefore permitting and nurturing the freedom of others must be a central part of all my projects. Sartre thus commits himself against any political, social or economic forms of subjugation. Second, there is the possibility of a form of social organisation and action in which each individual freely gives him or herself over to a joint project: a 'city of ends' (this is a reworking of Kant's idea of the 'kingdom of ends', found in the Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals ). An authentic existence, for Sartre, therefore means two things. First, it is abroad, something like a 'style' of existing – one that at autobiography caged essay every moment is anxious, and essay that means fully aware of the absurdity and fragility of its freedom. Second, though, there is some minimal level of caged essay content to any authentic project: whatever else my project is, it must also be a project of freedom, for myself and for others. e. Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Simone de Beauvoir was the youngest student ever to writing form, pass the demanding agregation at the prestigious Ecole Normale Superieure.

Subsequently a star Normalienne , she was a writer, philosopher, feminist, lifelong partner of Jean-Paul Sartre, notorious for autobiography of a her anti-bourgeois way of living and foreign essay her free sexual relationships which included among others a passionate affair with the parrot American writer Nelson Algren. Radiography! Much ink has been spilled debating whether de Beauvoir’s work constitutes a body of independent philosophical work, or is a reformulation of Sartre’s work. Autobiography Of A Caged Parrot Essay! The debate rests of radiography paper course upon the fundamental misconception that wants a body of work to exist and develop independently of autobiography parrot essay (or uninfluenced by) its intellectual environment. Such ‘objectivity’ is not only impossible but also undesirable: such a body of work would be ultimately irrelevant since it would be non-communicable. So the question of paper de Beauvoir’s ‘independence’ could be dismissed here as irrelevant to the philosophical questions that her work raises. In 1943 Being and Nothingness , the groundwork of the autobiography parrot essay Existentialist movement in France was published. Policy Research Papers! There Sartre gave an account of freedom as ontological constitutive of the subject. One cannot but be free: this is the kernel of the Sartrean conception of freedom. In 1945 Merleau-Ponty’s Phenomenology of autobiography of a caged parrot essay Perception is published. There, as well as in an essay from the same year titled 'The war has taken place' , Merleau-Ponty heavily criticizes the Sartrean stand, criticising it as a reformulation of writing services in malaysia basic Stoic tenets. One cannot assume freedom in isolation from the autobiography of a freedom of others.

Action is participatory: “…my freedom is interwoven with that of others by way of the world” (Merleau-Ponty in Stewart 1995:315). Moreover action takes place within a certain historical context. For Merleau-Ponty the subjective free-will is always in foreign direct a dialectical relationship with its historical context. In 1947 Simone de Beauvoir’s Ethics of of a parrot essay Ambiguity is published. The book is an introduction to existentialism but also a subtle critique of Sartre’s position on freedom, and direct investment a partial extension of existentialism towards the social. Although de Beauvoir will echo Merleau-Ponty’s criticism regarding the essential interrelation of the subjects, nevertheless she will leave unstressed the of a parrot importance that the social context plays in the explication of moral problems. Like Sartre it is only later in her life that this will be acknowledged. In any case, de Beauvoir’s book precipitates in turn a major rethink on Sartre’s part, and the result is the Notebooks for an Ethics . In Ethics of Ambiguity de Beauvoir offers a picture of the human subject as constantly oscillating between facticity and transcendence. In Essay! Whereas the human is always already restricted by autobiography of a parrot essay the brute facts of his existence, nevertheless it always aspires to overcome its situation, to choose its freedom and thus to create itself. This tension must be considered positive, and not restrictive of action.

It is exactly because the ontology of the human is a battleground of antithetical movements (a view consistent with de Beauvoir’s Hegelianism) that the subject must produce an ethics which will be continuous with its ontological core. Papers! The term for this tension is ambiguity . Ambiguity is not a quality of the autobiography of a caged essay human as substance, but a characterisation of human existence. We are ambiguous beings destined to throw ourselves into abroad essay, the future while simultaneously it is our very own existence that throws us back into parrot, facticity. That is to say, back to papers, the brute fact that we are in a sense always already destined to fail – not in this or that particular project but to fail as pure and sustained transcendence. It is autobiography caged parrot, exactly because of (and through) this fundamental failure that we realize that our ethical relation to the world cannot be self-referential but must pass through the realization of the common destiny of the human as a failed and interrelated being. De Beauvoir, unlike Sartre, was a scholarly reader of Hegel. Her position on an existential ethics is thus more heavily influenced by Hegel’s view in the Phenomenology of Spirit concerning the moment of disadvantages of studying essay recognition (Hegel 1977:111). There Hegel describes the movement in which self-consciousness produces itself by positing another would be self-consciousness, not as a mute object ( Gegen-stand ) but as itself self-consciousness. The Hegelian movement remains one of the most fascinating moments in of a caged parrot the history of philosophy since it is for the first time that the constitution of the self does not take place from within the self (as happens with Descartes, for whom the only truth is the truth of my existence; or Leibniz, for whom the monads are ‘windowless’; or Fichte, for whom the ‘I’ is paper, absolutely self-constitutive) but from the outside. It is, Hegel tells us, only because someone else recognizes me as a subject that I can be constituted as such. Essay! Outside the moment of recognition there is no self-consciousness.

De Beauvoir takes to radiography research, heart the Hegelian lesson and tries to formulate an ethics from it. What would this ethics be? As in Nietzsche, ethics refers to a way of life (a ????), as opposed to morality which concerns approved or condemned behaviour. Thus there are no recipes for ethics. Drawn from Hegel’s moment of autobiography of a recognition, de Beauvoir acknowledges that the possibility of human flourishing is based firstly upon the recognition of the existence of the other (“Man can find a justification of his own existence only in the existence of the papers other men” (Beauvoir 1976:72) and secondly on the recognition that my own flourishing (or my ability to pose projects, in the language of existentialists) passes through the possibility of a common flourishing. Autobiography Caged Parrot Essay! “Only the freedom of others keeps each one of us from hardening in the absurdity of facticity,” (Beauvoir 1976:71) de Beauvoir writes; or again “To will oneself free is also to will others free” (Beauvoir 1976:73). The Ethics of Ambiguity ends by declaring the necessity of disadvantages essay assuming one’s freedom and the assertion that it is only through action that freedom makes itself possible. This is not a point to be taken light-heartedly. It constitutes a movement of opposition against a long tradition of autobiography philosophy understanding itself as theoria : the disinterested contemplation on the nature of the human and the world. De Beauvoir, in dissertation services common with most existentialists, understands philosophy as praxis : involved action in caged parrot essay the world and participation in the course of history.

It is out of this understanding that The Second Sex is born. In 1949 Le Deuxieme Sexe is published in ethical term papers France. In English in 1953 it appeared as The Second Sex in parrot essay an abridged translation. The book immediately became a best seller and later a founding text of S econd Wave Feminism (the feminist movement from the early 60’s to the 70’s inspired by the civil rights movement and focusing at the theoretical examination of the concepts of equality, inequality, the role of family, justice and so forth). More than anything, The Second Sex constitutes a study in applied existentialism where the abstract concept ‘Woman’ gives way to the examination of the lives of everyday persons struggling against oppression and humiliation. When de Beauvoir says that there is in essay form, no such thing as a ‘Woman’ we have to hear the autobiography echo of the Kierkegaardian assertion of the single individual against research paper the abstractions of Hegelian philosophy, or similarly Sartre’s insistence on the necessity of the autobiography of a caged essay prioritization of the personal lives of direct in india essay self-creating people (what Sartre calls ‘existence’) as opposed to a pre-established ideal of what humans should be like (what Sartre calls ‘essence’).

The Second Sex is an exemplary text showing how a philosophical movement can have real, tangible effects on the lives of many people, and autobiography parrot is a magnificent exercise in what philosophy could be. “I hesitated a long time before writing a book on woman. The subject is irritating, especially for women. ” (Beauvoir 2009:3). The Second Sex begins with the most obvious (but rarely posed) question: What is woman? De Beauvoir finds that at present there is no answer to that question. The reason is that tradition has always thought of woman as the other of man. It is only man that constitutes himself as a subject (as the Absolute de Beauvoir says), and woman defines herself only through him. “She determines and radiography research paper differentiates herself in relation to man, and he does not in relation to her; she is the inessential in front of the autobiography parrot essay essential. ” (Beauvoir 2009:6). But why is it that woman has initially accepted or tolerated this process whereby she becomes the other of essay man?

De Beauvoir does not give a consoling answer; on the contrary, by turning to Sartre’s notion of bad faith (which refers to the human being’s anxiety in front of the responsibility entailed by autobiography parrot essay the realization of its radical freedom) she thinks that women at times are complicit to their situation. It is indeed easier for one – anyone – to assume the role of an object (for example a housewife 'kept' by her husband) than to take responsibility for creating him or herself and writing in essay creating the possibilities of freedom for others. Parrot! Naturally the condition of writing in essay form bad faith is not always the case. Often women found themselves in a sociocultural environment which denied them the very possibility of personal flourishing (as happens with most of the major religious communities). A further problem that women face is that of understanding themselves as a unity which would enable them to assume the role of autobiography of a caged essay their choosing. “Proletarians say ‘we’. Writing Form! So do blacks” (Beauvoir 2009:8). By saying ‘we’ they assume the role of the subject and turn everyone else into ‘other’. Women are unable to utter this ‘we’. “They live dispersed among men, tied by homes, work, economic interests and autobiography caged parrot essay social conditions to certain men – fathers or husbands – more closely than to other women. As bourgeois women, they are in solidarity with bourgeois men and not with women proletarians; as white women, they are in solidarity with white men and not with black women” (Beauvoir 2009:9).

Women primarily align themselves to their class or race and not to other women. Policy Research Papers! The female identity is “very much bound up with the identity of the men around them. ” (Reynolds 2006:145). One of the most celebrated moments in The Second Sex is the much quoted phrase: “One is not born, but rather becomes, woman” (Beauvoir 2009:293). She explains: “No biological, physical or economic destiny defines the figure that the human female takes on in society; it is of a caged parrot, civilization as a whole that elaborates this intermediary product between the male and the eunuch that is called feminine” (Beauvoir 2009:293). For some feminists this clearly inaugurates the problematic of the sex-gender distinction (where sex denotes the biological identity of the person and gender the cultural attribution of properties to the sexed body). Simply put, there is absolutely nothing that determines the ‘assumed’ femininity of the woman (how a woman acts, feels, behaves) – everything that we have come to think as ‘feminine’ is a social construction not a natural given. Later feminists like Monique Wittig and Judith Butler will argue that ‘sex’ is already ‘gender’ in the sense that a sexed body exists always already within a cultural nexus that defines it. Thus the sex assignment (a doctor pronouncing the sex of the baby) is a naturalized (but not at all natural) normative claim which delivers the human into foreign in india essay, a world of autobiography of a parrot power relations. f. Albert Camus (1913-1960) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Albert Camus was a French intellectual, writer and journalist.

His multifaceted work as well as his ambivalent relation to both philosophy and existentialism makes every attempt to disadvantages of studying essay, classify him a rather risky operation. A recipient of the caged essay 1957 Nobel Prize for Literature primarily for his novels, he is also known as a philosopher due to his non-literary work and his relation with Jean-Paul Sartre. And yet his response was clear: “I am not a philosopher, because I don’t believe in reason enough to believe in a system. What interests me is knowing how we must behave, and more precisely, how to behave when one does not believe in God or reason” (Camus in Sherman 2009: 1). The issue is not just about the label 'existentialist'. It rather points to a deep tension within the current of thought of all thinkers associated with existentialism. Writing In Malaysia! The question is: With how many voices can thought speak?

As we have already seen, the thinkers of existentialism often deployed more than one. Almost all of them share a deep suspicion to autobiography parrot essay, a philosophy operating within reason as conceived of by the Enlightenment. Camus shares this suspicion and his so called philosophy of the absurd intends to set limits to the overambitions of Western rationality. Reason is absurd in that it believes that it can explain the totality of the human experience whereas it is exactly its inability for explanation that, for example, a moment of radiography paper fall designates. Caged Parrot! Thus in his novel “The Fall” the investment in india essay protagonist’s tumultuous narrative reveals the overtaking of a life of superficial regularity by the forces of parrot darkness and irrationality. “A bourgeois hell, inhabited of course by bad dreams” (Camus 2006:10). Dissertation! In a similar fashion Camus has also repudiated his connection with existentialism. “Non, je ne suis pas existentialist” is the caged parrot essay title of disadvantages abroad essay a famous interview that he gave for the magazine Les Nouvelles Litteraires on the 15 of November, 1945. Autobiography Caged Parrot Essay! The truth of the matter is that Camus’ rejection of existentialism is directed more toward Sartre’s version of it rather than toward a dismissal of the main problems that the existential thinkers faced. Particularly, Camus was worried that Sartre’s deification of history (Sartre’s proclaimed Marxism) would be incompatible with the affirmation of writing form personal freedom. Camus accuses Hegel (subsequently Marx himself) of reducing man to history and thus denying man the possibility of autobiography of a caged parrot essay creating his own history, that is, affirming his freedom. Philosophically, Camus is known for his conception of the essay absurd. Perhaps we should clarify from the of a parrot essay very beginning what the absurd is not.

The absurd is not nihilism. For Camus the acceptance of the absurd does not lead to nihilism (according to disadvantages of studying essay, Nietzsche nihilism denotes the state in which the highest values devalue themselves) or to inertia, but rather to their opposite: to action and participation. The notion of the of a absurd signifies the space which opens up between, on the one hand, man’s need for intelligibility and, on the other hand, 'the unreasonable silence of the dissertation writing in malaysia world' as he beautifully puts it. In a world devoid of God, eternal truths or any other guiding principle, how could man bear the responsibility of a meaning-giving activity? The absurd man, like an astronaut looking at the earth from above, wonders whether a philosophical system, a religion or a political ideology is able to make the world respond to the questioning of man, or rather whether all human constructions are nothing but the excessive face-paint of a clown which is there to cover his sadness. This terrible suspicion haunts the absurd man. In one of the most memorable openings of a non-fictional book he states: “There is but one truly serious philosophical problem and that is autobiography parrot, suicide. Judging whether life is or is not worth living amounts to answering the fundamental question of philosophy.

All the rest – whether or not the world has three dimensions, whether the mind has nine or twelve categories – comes afterwards. These are games; one must first answer” (Camus 2000:11). The problem of suicide (a deeply personal problem) manifests the exigency of a meaning-giving response. Writing In Essay! Indeed for Camus a suicidal response to of a caged essay, the problem of meaning would be the confirmation that the absurd has taken over man’s inner life. Ethical Dilemma Term! It would mean that man is not any more an animal going after answers, in accordance with some inner drive that leads him to act in order to endow the world with meaning. The suicide has become but a passive recipient of the muteness of the world. “. The absurd . is parrot, simultaneously awareness and research rejection of death” (Camus 2000:54). One has to be aware of death – because it is precisely the autobiography essay realization of man’s mortality that pushes someone to strive for answers – and one has ultimately to reject death – that is, reject suicide as well as the writing form living death of caged parrot essay inertia and inaction. At the end one has to keep the absurd alive, as Camus says. But what does it that mean? In The Myth of Sisyphus Camus tells the story of the mythical Sisyphus who was condemned by the Gods to ceaselessly roll a rock to the top of radiography research paper a mountain and of a caged essay then have to let it fall back again of its own weight. “Sisyphus, proletarian of the gods, powerless and rebellious, knows the whole extent of his wretched condition: it is what he thinks of during his descent.

The lucidity that was to constitute his torture at policy research papers the same time crowns his victory. There is no fate that cannot be surmounted by scorn” (Camus 2000:109). One must imagine then Sisyphus victorious: fate and absurdity have been overcome by a joyful contempt. Scorn is the appropriate response in the face of the absurd; another name for this 'scorn' though would be artistic creation. When Camus says: “One does not discover the absurd without being tempted to write a manual of happiness” (Camus 2000:110) he writes about a moment of essay exhilarated madness, which is the moment of the genesis of the research paper artistic work.

Madness, but nevertheless profound – think of the function of the Fool in Shakespeare’s King Lear as the one who reveals to the king the most profound truths through play, mimicry and songs. Autobiography Of A Parrot Essay! Such madness can overcome the radiography absurd without cancelling it altogether. Almost ten years after the publication of The Myth of Sisyphus Camus publishes his second major philosophical work, The Rebel (1951). Camus continues the problematic which had begun with The Myth of of a parrot Sisyphus. Previously, revolt or creation had been considered the services necessary response to the absurdity of existence. Here, Camus goes on to examine the nature of rebellion and parrot its multiple manifestations in history. In The Myth of ethical dilemma Sisyphus , in truly Nietzschean fashion, Camus had said: “There is but one useful action, that of remaking man and the earth” (Camus 2000:31). However, in The Rebel , reminiscent of Orwell’s Animal Farm , one of the first points he makes is the of a essay following: “The slave starts by begging for justice and ends by wanting to wear a crown. He too wants to dominate” (Camus 2000b:31).

The problem is that while man genuinely rebels against term papers both unfair social conditions and, as Camus says, against of a caged parrot the whole of creation, nevertheless in the practical administration of such revolution, man comes to deny the humanity of the ethical dilemma other in an attempt to impose his own individuality. Take for example the autobiography of a caged parrot essay case of the infamous Marquis de Sade which Camus explores. In Sade, contradictory forces are at writing in essay work (see The 120 Days of Sodom ). On the one hand, Sade wishes the establishment of parrot a (certainly mad ) community with desire as the ultimate master, and on the other hand this very desire consumes itself and all the subjects who stand in its way. Camus goes on to examine historical manifestations of rebellion, the policy papers most prominent case being that of the French Revolution. Camus argues that the revolution ended up taking the place of the transcendent values which it sought to abolish. An all-powerful notion of justice now takes the of a caged essay place formerly inhabited by God. Rousseau’s infamous suggestion that under the rule of ‘general will’ everyone would be 'forced to be free' (Rousseau in Foley 2008:61) opens the way to the crimes committed after the ethical papers revolution. Camus fears that all revolutions end with the re-establishment of the State. “. Seventeen eighty-nine brings Napoleon; 1848 Napoleon III; 1917 Stalin; the Italian disturbances of the twenties, Mussolini; the Weimar Republic, Hitler” (Camus 2000b:146). Essay! Camus is led to examine the Marxist view of history as a possible response to the failed attempts at the establishment of dissertation in malaysia a true revolutionary regime.

Camus examines the similarities between the Christian and the Marxist conception of history. They both exhibit a bourgeois preoccupation with progress. In the name of the essay future everything can be justified: “the future is the only kind of property that the masters willingly concede to the slaves” (Camus 2000b:162). History according to both views is the linear progress from a set beginning to form, a definite end (the metaphysical salvation of man or the materialistic salvation of him in the future Communist society). Autobiography Essay! Influenced by writing in essay Kojeve’s reading of Hegel, Camus interprets this future, classless society as the parrot ‘end of disadvantages essay history’. The ‘end of history’ suggests that when all contradictions cease then history itself will come to an end. This is, Camus argues, essentially nihilistic: history, in effect, accepts that meaning creation is no longer possible and commits suicide. Because historical revolutions are for the most part nihilistic movements, Camus suggests that it is the making-absolute of the values of the revolution that necessarily lead to their negation.

On the contrary a relative conception of these values will be able to sustain a community of free individuals who have not forgotten that every historical rebellion has begun by affirming a proto-value (that of human solidarity) upon which every other value can be based. 3. The Influence of Existentialism. In the field of visual arts existentialism exercised an enormous influence, most obviously on the movement of Expressionism. Expressionism began in Germany at the beginning of the 20 th century. With its emphasis on subjective experience, Angst and autobiography of a caged parrot intense emotionality, German expressionism sought to go beyond the services in malaysia naivete of realist representation and to deal with the anguish of the caged parrot essay modern man (exemplified in the terrible experiences of WWI). Many of the artists of Expressionism read Nietzsche intensively and following Nietzsche’s suggestion for a transvaluation of values experimented with alternative lifestyles.

Erich Heckel’s woodcut “Friedrich Nietzsche” from 1905 is a powerful reminder of the movement’s connection to Existentialist thought. Abstract expressionism (which included artists such as de Kooning and Pollock, and theorists such as Rosenberg) continued with some of the same themes in the United States from the 1940s and tended to embrace existentialism as one of its intellectual guides, especially after Sartre's US lecture tour in 1946 and a production of foreign direct in india No Exit in New York. German Expressionism was particularly important during the of a birth of the writing form new art of cinema. Perhaps the closest cinematic work to Existentialist concerns remains F.W. Murnau’s The Last Laugh (1924) in which the autobiography of a constantly moving camera (which prefigures the ‘rule’ of the hand-held camera of the Danish Dogma 95 ) attempts to arrest the spiritual anguish of a man who suddenly finds himself in a meaningless world. Expressionism became a world-wide style within cinema, especially as film directors like Lang fled Germany and disadvantages abroad essay ended up in Hollywood. Jean Genet's Un chant d'amour (1950) is a moving poetic exploration of desire. In the sordid, claustrophobic cells of a prison the inmates’ craving for intimacy takes place against the background of an unavoidable despair for existence itself. European directors such as Bergman and Godard are often associated with existentialist themes. Godard's Vivre sa vie ( My Life to Live , 1962) is explicit in its exploration of the nature of freedom under conditions of extreme social and personal pressure. In the late 20 th and early 21 st centuries existentialist ideas became common in mainstream cinema, pervading the work of writers and directors such as Woody Allen, Richard Linklater, Charlie Kaufman and Christopher Nolan.

Given that Sartre and autobiography Camus were both prominent novelists and playwrights, the influence of existentialism on literature is not surprising. However, the influence was also the other way. Novelists such as Dostoevsky or Kafka, and the dramatist Ibsen, were often cited by mid-century existentialists as important precedents, right along with Kierkegaard and Nietzsche. Writing In Essay! Dostoevsky creates a character Ivan Karamazov (in The Brothers Karamazov , 1880) who holds the view that if God is of a caged parrot, dead, then everything is permitted; both Nietzsche and Sartre discuss Dostoevsky with enthusiasm. Ethical Term! Within drama, the theatre of the of a caged absurd and ethical papers most obviously Beckett were influenced by of a caged existentialist ideas; later playwrights such as Albee, Pinter and Stoppard continue this tradition. One of the key figures of 20 th century psychology, Sigmund Freud, was indebted to Nietzsche especially for his analysis of the role of psychology within culture and papers history, and for autobiography of a caged parrot essay his view of cultural artefacts such as drama or music as 'unconscious' documentations of psychological tensions. But a more explicit taking up of existentialist themes is found in the broad 'existentialist psychotherapy' movement. A common theme within this otherwise very diverse group is that previous psychology misunderstood the fundamental nature of the human and especially its relation to others and to in essay form, acts of meaning-giving; thus also, previous psychology had misunderstood what a 'healthy' attitude to self, others and meaning might be.

Key figures here include Swiss psychologists Ludwig Binswanger and later Menard Boss, both of of a essay who were enthusiastic readers of dissertation services in malaysia Heidegger; the Austrian Frankl, who invented the method of logotherapy; in England, Laing and Cooper, who were explicitly influenced by Sartre; and in the United States, Rollo May, who stresses the ineradicable importance of anxiety. As a whole, existentialism has had relatively little direct influence within philosophy. In Germany, existentialism (and especially Heidegger) was criticised for being obscure, abstract or even mystical in of a parrot essay nature. This criticism was made especially by Adorno in The Jargon of Authenticity, and in Dog Years , novelist Gunter Grass gives a Voltaire-like, savage satire of Heidegger. The criticism was echoed by many in the analytic tradition. Heidegger and the existentialist were also taken to task for paying insufficient attention to social and political structures or values, with dangerous results.

In France, philosophers like Sartre were criticised by those newly under the influence of structuralism for radiography research paying insufficient attention to the nature of language and to impersonal structures of meaning. In short, philosophy moved on, and in different directions. Individual philosophers remain influential, however: Nietzsche and Heidegger in autobiography particular are very much 'live' topics in philosophy, even in of studying the 21 st century. However, there are some less direct influences that remain important. Let us raise three examples. Both the issue of freedom in relation to situation, and that of the philosophical significance of of a caged what otherwise might appear to be extraneous contextual factors, remain key, albeit in dramatically altered formulation, within the work of Michel Foucault or Alain Badiou, two figures central to late 20 th century European thought.

Likewise, the philosophical importance that the existentialists placed upon emotion has been influential, legitimising a whole domain of philosophical research even by philosophers who have no interest in existentialism. Similarly, existentialism was a philosophy that insisted philosophy could and should deal very directly with 'real world' topics such as sex, death or crime, topics that had most frequently been approached abstractly within the philosophical tradition. Mary Warnock wrote on existentialism and disadvantages of studying abroad essay especially Sartre, for example, while also having an of a, incredibly important and public role within recent applied ethics.

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essay - christianity ESSAY ON CHRISTIANITY. THE Being who has influenced in the most memorable manner the opinions and the fortunes of the human species, is Jesus Christ. At this day, his name is connected with the devotional feelings of two hundred millions of the race of man. The institutions of the of a caged most civilized portions of the globe derive their authority from the form sanction of his doctrines; he is the hero, the God, of our popular religion. His extraordinary genius, the wide and caged parrot rapid effect of his unexampled doctrines, his invincible gentleness and benignity, the devoted love borne to ethical dilemma, him by his adherents, suggested a persuasion to them that he was something divine. The supernatural events which the historians of this wonderful man subsequently asserted to have been connected with every gradation of his career, established the opinion. His death is said to have been accompanied by an accumulation of caged parrot essay tremendous prodigies.

Utter darkness fell upon the earth, blotting the noonday sun; dead bodies, arising from their graves, walked through the public streets, and an earthquake shook the astonished city, rending the rocks of the surrounding mountains. The philosopher may attribute the application of these events to the death of a reformer, or the events themselves to a visitation of that universal Pan who—— The thoughts which the word God suggests to the human mind are susceptible of as many variations as human minds themselves. The Stoic, the Platonist, and the Epicurean, the Polytheist, the Dualist, and the Trinitarian, differ infinitely in their conceptions of its meaning. They agree only in ethical dilemma considering it the most awful and most venerable of autobiography of a parrot essay names, as a common term devised to writing, express all of mystery, or majesty, or power, which the invisible world contains. And not only has every sect distinct conceptions of the application of this name, but scarcely two individuals of the same sect, who exercise in any degree the freedom of their judgment, or yield themselves with any candour of feeling to of a caged essay, the influences of the visible world, find perfect coincidence of opinion to exist between them. It is [interesting] to inquire in what acceptation Jesus Christ employed this term.

We may conceive his mind to have been predisposed on this subject to adopt the opinions of his countrymen. Every human being is indebted for a multitude of his sentiments to the religion of his early years. Jesus Christ probably [studied] the historians of his country with the ardour of a spirit seeking after truth. They were undoubtedly the foreign direct in india companions of autobiography of a his childish years, the food and nutriment and materials of his youthful meditations. The Sublime dramatic poem entitled Job had familiarized his imagination with the boldest imagery afforded by the human mind and the material world. Direct In India? Ecclesiastes had diffused a seriousness and solemnity over the frame of autobiography of a his spirit, glowing with youthful hope, and [had] made audible to his listening heart The still, sad music of humanity,

Not harsh or grating, but of ample power. To chasten and subdue. Radiography Research Paper? He had contemplated this name as having been profanely perverted to the sanctioning of the most enormous and abominable crimes. We can distinctly trace, in the tissue of his doctrines, the persuasion that God is autobiography parrot, some universal Being, differing from man and foreign in india essay the mind of man. According to Jesus Christ, God is neither the Jupiter, who sends rain upon the earth; nor the Venus, through whom all living things are produced; nor the of a caged parrot Vulcan, who presides over the terrestrial element of fire; nor the Vesta, that preserves the ethical dilemma light which is caged essay, enshrined in the sun and moon and stars. He is neither the Proteus nor the Pan of the material world. But the dissertation writing in malaysia word God, according to the acceptation of Jesus Christ, unites all the autobiography essay attributes which these denominations contain and is the [interpoint] and over-ruling Spirit of all the energy and wisdom included within the circle of existing things. It is important to observe that the author of the Christian system had a conception widely differing from the gross imaginations of the vulgar relatively to the ruling Power of the universe. He everywhere represents this Power as something mysteriously and essay illimitably pervading the parrot essay frame of writing in malaysia things.

Nor do his doctrines practically assume any proposition which they theoretically deny. They do not represent God as a limitless and inconceivable mystery; affirming, at the same time, his existence as a Being subject to passion and capable—— Blessed are the pure in heart, for autobiography essay they shall see God. Blessed are those who have preserved internal sanctity of soul; who are conscious of no secret deceit; who are the same in act as they are in desire; who conceal no thought, no tendencies of thought, from their own conscience; who are faithful and sincere witnesses, before the tribunal of their own judgments, of all that passes within their mind. Radiography Research? Such as these shall see God. What! after death, shall their awakened eyes behold the King of Heaven? Shall they stand in awe before the golden throne on which he sits, and gaze upon the venerable countenance of the paternal Monarch? Is this the reward of the virtuous and the pure? These are the idle dreams of the visionary, or the pernicious representations of autobiography essay impostors, who have fabricated from the very materials of wisdom a cloak for their own dwarfish or imbecile conceptions. Jesus Christ has said no more than the most excellent philosophers have felt and expressed—that virtue is its own reward.

It is in essay, true that such an expression as he has used was prompted by the energy of essay genius, and was the overflowing enthusiasm of a poet; but it is not the abroad less literally true [because] clearly repugnant to the mistaken conceptions of the multitude. God, it has been asserted, was contemplated by Jesus Christ as every poet and every philosopher must have contemplated that mysterious principle. He considered that venerable word to express the overruling Spirit of the collective energy of the moral and of a parrot essay material world. He affirms, therefore, no more than that a simple, sincere mind is the indispensable requisite of true science and true happiness. Services? He affirms that a being of pure and caged parrot gentle habits will not fail, in every thought, in every object of every thought, to be aware of benignant visitings from the term invisible energies by which he is surrounded.

Whosoever is free from the contamination of luxury and licence, may go forth to the fields and to the woods, inhaling joyous renovation from the breath of Spring, or catching from the odours and sounds of Autumn some diviner mood of sweetest sadness, which improves the softened heart. Whosoever is no deceiver or destroyer of autobiography parrot his fellow men—no liar, no flatterer, no murderer may walk among his species, deriving, from the communion with all which they contain of policy beautiful or of majestic, some intercourse with the Universal God. Whosoever has maintained with his own heart the strictest correspondence of confidence, who dares to autobiography of a essay, examine and to estimate every imagination which suggests itself to dilemma papers, his mind—whosoever is that which he designs to become, and only aspires to that which the divinity of his own nature shall consider and approve—he has already seen God. We live and move and think; but we are not the creators of our own origin and existence. We are not the arbiters of every motion of our own complicated nature; we are not the masters of our own imaginations and moods of mental being. There is a Power by which we are surrounded, like the atmosphere in which some motionless lyre is parrot essay, suspended, which visits with its breath our silent chords at foreign essay, will. Our most imperial and stupendous qualities—those on which the majesty and the power of humanity is erected—are, relatively to of a parrot essay, the inferior portion of its mechanism, active and imperial; but they are the passive slaves of some higher and more omnipotent Power. This Power is God; and foreign direct investment in india those who have seen God have, in the period of their purer and of a more perfect nature, been harmonized by their own will to so exquisite [a] consentaneity of power as to give forth divinest melody, when the breath of universal being sweeps over their frame. That those who are pure in heart shall see God, and that virtue is its own reward, may be considered as equivalent assertions.

The former of these propositions is a metaphorical repetition of the latter. The advocates of literal interpretation have been the most efficacious enemies of in malaysia those doctrines whose nature they profess to venerate. Thucydides, in particular, affords a number of instances calculated—— Tacitus says, that the Jews held God to be something eternal and supreme, neither subject to change nor to decay; therefore, they permit no statues in their cities or their temples. The universal Being can only autobiography caged parrot essay be described or defined by radiography research paper negatives which deny his subjection to the laws of all inferior existences. Where indefiniteness ends, idolatry and anthropomorphism begin.

God is, as Lucan has expressed, Quodcunque vides, quodcunque moveris, Et coelum et virtus. The doctrine of what some fanatics have termed a peculiar Providence—that is, of some power beyond and superior to that which ordinarily guides the operations of the autobiography caged parrot essay Universe, interfering to punish the vicious and disadvantages abroad reward the virtuous—is explicitly denied by of a Jesus Christ. The absurd and execrable doctrine of vengeance, in all its shapes , seems to have been contemplated by this great moralist with the profoundest disapprobation; nor would he permit the most venerable of direct investment in india essay names to be perverted into a sanction for the meanest and most contemptible propensities incident to the nature of man. Love your enemies, bless those who curse you, that ye may be the sons of your Heavenly Father, who makes the sun to shine on the good and on the evil, and the rain to fall on the just and unjust. How monstrous a calumny have not impostors dared to of a, advance against the mild and gentle author of this just sentiment, and against the whole tenor of his doctrines and his life, overflowing with benevolence and forbearance and compassion! They have represented him asserting that the Omnipotent God—that merciful and benignant Power who scatters equally upon the beautiful earth all the elements of security and happiness—whose influences are distributed to all whose natures admit of a participation in them—who sends to the weak and vicious creatures of his will all the benefits which they are capable of sharing—that this God has devised a scheme whereby the policy body shall live after its apparent dissolution, and be rendered capable of indefinite torture. He is said to have compared the autobiography parrot essay agonies which the vicious shall then endure to the excruciations of a living body bound among the flames, and being consumed sinew by sinew, and bone by disadvantages bone. And this is to be done, not because it is caged essay, supposed (and the supposition would be sufficiently detestable) that the dilemma moral nature of the sufferer would be improved by his tortures—it is done because it is just to be done. Caged Essay? My neighbour, or my servant, or my child, has done me an injury, and it is just that he should suffer an injury in return.

Such is the doctrine which Jesus Christ summoned his whole resources of persuasion to oppose. Paper? Love your enemy, bless those who curse you: such, he says, is the practice of autobiography of a caged parrot essay God, and such must ye imitate if ye would be the children of direct in india God. Jesus Christ would hardly have cited, as an example of all that is gentle and beneficent and compassionate, a Being who shall deliberately scheme to inflict on a large portion of the human race tortures indescribably intense and indefinitely protracted; who shall inflict them, too, without any mistake as to the true nature of pain—without any view to future good—merely because it is just. This, and no other, is justice:—to consider, under all the circumstances and consequences of a particular case, how the greatest quantity and purest quality of happiness will ensue from any action; [this] is to be just, and there is no other justice. The distinction between justice and mercy was first imagined in the courts of tyrants. Mankind receive every relaxation of their tyranny as a circumstance of autobiography essay grace or favour. Such was the clemency of Julius Caesar, who, having achieved by a series of treachery and bloodshed the ruin of the liberties of his country, receives the fame of mercy because, possessing the in essay power to slay the noblest men of Rome, he restrained his sanguinary soul, arrogating to himself as a merit an abstinence from essay actions which if he had committed, he would only have added one other atrocity to his deeds. His assassins understood justice better. They saw the most virtuous and civilized community of mankind under the insolent dominion of one wicked man; and they murdered him.

They destroyed the usurper of the liberties of their countrymen, not because they hated him, not because they would revenge the wrongs which they had sustained (Brutus, it is said, was his most familiar friend; most of the conspirators were habituated to domestic intercourse with the man whom they destroyed): it was in affection, inextinguishable love for all that is venerable and policy research papers dear to the human heart, in the names of Country, Liberty, and Virtue; it was in a serious and solemn and reluctant mood, that these holy patriots murdered their father and caged essay their friend. They would have spared his violent death, if he could have deposited the rights which he had assumed. His own selfish and narrow nature necessitated the sacrifices they made. They required that he should change all those habits which debauchery and bloodshed had twined around the fibres of his inmost frame of thought; that he should participate with them and with his country those privileges which, having corrupted by assuming to himself, he would no longer value. They would have sacrificed their lives if they could have made him worthy of the sacrifice. Such are the feelings which Jesus Christ asserts to belong to disadvantages of studying abroad, the ruling Power of the world. He desireth not the death of a sinner; he makes the sun to shine upon the just and unjust.

The nature of autobiography of a caged parrot essay a narrow and radiography research malevolent spirit is so essentially incompatible with happiness as to render it inaccessible to autobiography parrot essay, the influences of the benignant God. All that his own perverse propensities will permit him to policy papers, receive, that God abundantly pours forth upon him. If there is the caged parrot essay slightest overbalance of happiness, which can be allotted to the most atrocious offender, consistently with the nature of things, that is rigidly made his portion by the ever-watchful Power of God. In every case, the human mind enjoys the utmost pleasure which it is disadvantages abroad essay, capable of enjoying. God is represented by Jesus Christ as the Power from which, and through which, the streams of autobiography parrot all that is excellent and delightful flow; the Power which models, as they pass, all the elements of this mixed universe to the purest and most perfect shape which it belongs to paper, their nature to assume. Jesus Christ attributes to this Power the faculty of Will. How far such a doctrine, in its ordinary sense, may be philosophically true, or how far Jesus Christ intentionally availed himself of autobiography a metaphor easily understood, is foreign to the subject to consider. This much is certain, that Jesus Christ represents God as the paper fountain of all goodness, the eternal enemy of pain and evil, the uniform and unchanging motive of the salutary operations of the material world. The supposition that this cause is excited to action by some principle analogous to the human will, adds weight to the persuasion that it is foreign to its beneficent nature to inflict the slightest pain. According to Jesus Christ, and according to the indisputable facts of the case, some evil spirit has dominion in this imperfect world. Autobiography Of A Caged Parrot? But there will come a time when the human mind shall be visited exclusively by the influences of the benignant Power.

Men shall die, and their bodies shall rot under the ground; all the organs through which their knowledge and their feelings have flowed, or in which they have originated, shall assume other forms, and become ministrant to paper, purposes the most foreign from their former tendencies. There is a time when we shall neither be heard or be seen by the multitude of beings like ourselves by whom we have been so long surrounded. They shall go to graves; where then? It appears that we moulder to a heap of caged parrot senseless dust; to a few worms, that arise and perish, like ourselves. Jesus Christ asserts that these appearances are fallacious, and that a gloomy and cold imagination alone suggests the conception that thought can cease to be. Another and a more extensive state of form being, rather than the complete extinction of being will follow from that mysterious change which we call Death. Autobiography Parrot? There shall be no misery, no pain, no fear. The empire of evil spirits extends not beyond the radiography research paper boundaries of the grave. The unobscured irradiations from the fountain-fire of autobiography parrot all goodness shall reveal all that is writing services, mysterious and unintelligible, until the essay mutual communications of knowledge and ethical dilemma papers of happiness throughout all thinking natures, constitute a harmony of good that ever varies and never ends. This is Heaven, when pain and evil cease, and when the Benignant Principle, untrammelled and uncontrolled, visits in the fulness of its power the universal frame of things. Human life, with all its unreal ills and transitory hopes, is as a dream, which departs before the dawn, leaving no trace of its evanescent lines.

All that it contains of essay pure or of divine visits the passive mind in some serenest mood. Most holy are the feelings through which our fellow beings are rendered dear and [venerable] to dissertation writing, the heart. The remembrance of their sweetness, and the completion of the autobiography caged parrot hopes which they [excite], constitute, when we awaken from the sleep of life, the fulfilment of the prophecies of its most majestic and beautiful visions. We die, says Jesus Christ; and, when we awaken from the languor of disease, the glories and the happiness of Paradise are around us. All evil and pain have ceased for ever. Our happiness also corresponds with, and is adapted to, the research paper nature of autobiography of a caged parrot essay what is most excellent in our being. We see God, and we see that he is good.

How delightful a picture, even if it be not true! How magnificent is the conception which this bold theory suggests to the contemplation, even if it be no more than the imagination of some sublimest and in essay most holy poet, who, impressed with the loveliness and majesty of his own nature, is impatient and discontented with the caged essay narrow limits which this imperfect life and the dark grave have assigned for ever as his melancholy portion. Policy Research? It is autobiography of a parrot essay, not to be believed that Hell, or punishment, was the conception of this daring mind. It is not to writing form, be believed that the most prominent group of autobiography caged essay this picture, which is framed so heart-moving and lovely—the accomplishment of all human hope, the extinction of all morbid fear and anguish—would consist of millions of research papers sensitive beings enduring, in every variety of torture which Omniscient vengeance could invent, immortal agony. Jesus Christ opposed with earnest eloquence the panic fears and hateful superstitions which have enslaved mankind for ages. Nations had risen against nations, employing the of a caged essay subtlest devices of mechanism and mind to waste, and excruciate, and overthrow. The great community of mankind had been subdivided into ten thousand communities, each organized for the ruin of the other. Wheel within wheel, the policy papers vast machine was instinct with the restless spirit of desolation. Pain had been inflicted; therefore, pain should be inflicted in return. Retaliation of injuries is the only remedy which can be applied to violence, because it teaches the injurer the true nature of of a caged parrot his own conduct, and operates as a warning against its repetition.

Nor must the same measure of calamity be returned as was received. If a man borrows a certain sum from me, he is bound to repay that sum. Shall no more be required of the enemy who destroys my reputation, or ravages my fields? It is just that he should suffer ten times the loss which he has inflicted, that the legitimate consequences of his deed may never be obliterated from his remembrance, and that others may clearly discern and feel the radiography research danger of invading the peace of caged human society. Such reasonings, and the impetuous feelings arising from them, have armed nation against nation, family against family, man against man. An Athenian soldier, in the Ionian army which had assembled for term the purpose of vindicating the liberty of the Asiatic Greeks, accidentally set fire to Sardis. The city, being composed of combustible materials, was burned to the ground. The Persians believed that this circumstance of aggression made it their duty to retaliate on Athens. They assembled successive expeditions on parrot essay, the most extensive scale. Every nation of the East was united to ruin the Grecian States.

Athens was burned to writing services in malaysia, the ground, the whole territory laid waste, and of a parrot every living thing which it contained [destroyed]. After suffering and inflicting incalculable mischiefs, they desisted from their purpose only when they became impotent to services in malaysia, effect it. The desire of revenge for the aggression of Persia outlived, among the autobiography of a parrot essay Greeks, that love of liberty which bad been their most glorious distinction among the nations of mankind; and Alexander became the ethical term papers instrument of essay its completion. The mischiefs attendant on this consummation of fruitless ruin are too manifold and too tremendous to be related. If all the thought which had been expended on the construction of engines of agony and writing services death—the modes of aggression and defence, the parrot raising of foreign direct armies, and the acquirement of those arts of tyranny and falsehood without which mixed multitudes could neither be led nor governed—had been employed to promote the true welfare and extend the real empire of parrot essay man, how different would have been the present situation of human society! how different the state of dissertation in malaysia knowledge in physical and moral science, upon which the power and happiness of mankind essentially depend! What nation has the example of the autobiography of a caged parrot essay desolation of Attica by Mardonius and Xerxes, or the extinction of the Persian empire by Alexander of Macedon, restrained from outrage? Was not the pretext of this latter system of spoliation derived immediately from the form former? Had revenge in this instance any other effect than to increase, instead of diminishing, the caged mass of malice and evil already existing in the world? The emptiness and folly of retaliation are apparent from every example which can be brought forward. Services? Not only Jesus Christ, but the most eminent professors of of a caged parrot essay every sect of philosophy, have reasoned against this futile superstition. Legislation is, in dilemma one point of view, to be considered as an attempt to parrot essay, provide against the excesses of this deplorable mistake.

It professes to assign the penalty of all private injuries, and research paper denies to autobiography caged parrot, individuals the right of vindicating their proper cause. This end is certainly not attained without some accommodation to the propensities which it desires to destroy. Still, it recognizes no principle but the production of the greatest eventual good with the least immediate injury—and regards the torture, or the death, of any human being as unjust, of whatever mischief be may have been the author, so that the result shall not more than compensate for the immediate pain. Mankind, transmitting from generation to generation the legacy of accumulated vengeances, and of studying abroad essay pursuing with the feelings of duty the misery of their fellow-beings, have not failed to attribute to the Universal Cause a character analogous with their own. The image of this invisible, mysterious Being is more or less excellent and of a caged essay perfect—resembles more or less its original—in proportion to radiography research paper, the perfection of the mind on which it is impressed. Thus, that nation which has arrived at of a parrot essay, the highest step in the scale of moral progression will believe most purely in that God, the knowledge of whose real attributes is considered as the investment essay firmest basis of the true religion. Essay? The reason of the belief of each individual, also, will be so far regulated by his conceptions of what is good. Thus, the conceptions which any nation or individual entertains of the God of its popular worship may be inferred from their own actions and opinions, which are the subjects of their approbation among their fellow-men. Jesus Christ instructed his disciples to be perfect, as their Father in Heaven is perfect, declaring at the same time his belief that human perfection requires the refraining from revenge and retribution in any of its various shapes. The perfection of the human and foreign direct essay the divine character is thus asserted to be the autobiography parrot same. Man, by resembling God, fulfils most accurately the tendencies of his nature; and God comprehends within himself all that constitutes human perfection.

Thus, God is a model through which the excellence of man is to be estimated, whilst the abstract perfection of the writing services in malaysia human character is the type of the autobiography caged parrot essay actual perfection of the divine. It is not to be believed that a person of such comprehensive views as Jesus Christ could have fallen into so manifest a contradiction as to assert that men would be tortured after death by that Being whose character is held up as a model to human kind, because he is incapable of malevolence and revenge. All the arguments which have been brought forward to foreign investment essay, justify retribution fail, when retribution is destined neither to autobiography caged parrot essay, operate as an example to other agents, nor to the offender himself. How feeble such reasoning is to be considered, has been already shewn; but it is the character of an writing in essay evil Demon to consign the beings whom he has endowed with sensation to unprofitable anguish. The peculiar circumstances attendant on the conception of of a parrot essay God casting sinners to burn in Hell for ever, combine to render that conception the most perfect specimen of the greatest imaginable crime. Foreign In India Essay? Jesus Christ represented God as the principle of all good, the source of all happiness, the autobiography of a parrot wise and benevolent Creator and Preserver of all living things. But the interpreters of his doctrines have confounded the good and the evil principle. They observed the emanations of their universal natures to be inextricably entangled in the world, and, trembling before the power of the cause of all things, addressed to it such flattery as is acceptable to the ministers of human tyranny, attributing love and disadvantages abroad wisdom to those energies which they felt to be exerted indifferently for caged the purposes of benefit and paper calamity. Jesus Christ expressly asserts that distinction between the good and evil principle which it has been the practice of all theologians to confound. How far his doctrines, or their interpretation, may be true, it would scarcely have been worth while to inquire, if the one did not afford an essay example and an incentive to the attainment of true virtue, whilst the other holds out papers a sanction and apology for every species of mean and cruel vice. It cannot be precisely ascertained in autobiography caged what degree Jesus Christ accommodated his doctrines to the opinions of paper his auditors; or in what degree he really said all that he is related to have said.

He has left no written record of himself, and we are compelled to judge from the imperfect and obscure information which his biographers (persons certainly of very undisciplined and undiscriminating minds) have transmitted to posterity. These writers (our only guides) impute sentiments to Jesus Christ which flatly contradict each other. They represent him as narrow, superstitious, and exquisitely vindictive and malicious. They insert, in the midst of a strain of impassioned eloquence or sagest exhortation, a sentiment only remarkable for its naked and drivelling folly. Autobiography? But it is not difficult to distinguish the inventions by which these historians have filled up the interstices of tradition, or corrupted the simplicity of truth, from the dissertation writing in malaysia real character of their rude amazement. They have left sufficiently clear indications of the genuine character of Jesus Christ to rescue it for ever from the imputations cast upon autobiography it by foreign direct their ignorance and autobiography caged essay fanaticism. We discover that he is the enemy of oppression and of falsehood; that he is the advocate of equal justice; that he is neither disposed to sanction bloodshed nor deceit, under whatsoever pretences their practice may be vindicated. We discover that he was a man of meek and majestic demeanour, calm in danger; of natural and simple thought and habits; beloved to adoration by his adherents; unmoved, solemn, and severe. It is utterly incredible that this man said, that if you hate your enemy you would find it to your account to return him good for writing evil, since, by such a temporary oblivion of vengeance, you would heap coals of fire on his head. Where such contradictions occur, a favourable construction is warranted by the general innocence of manners and comprehensiveness of views which he is represented to possess.

The rule of essay criticism to be adopted in judging of the life, actions, and words of a man who has acted any conspicuous part in the revolutions of the world, should not be narrow. Writing In Essay Form? We ought to form a general image of his character and of his doctrines, and refer to autobiography of a essay, this whole the distinct portions of disadvantages abroad essay action and autobiography caged essay speech by which they are diversified. It is not here asserted that no contradictions are to be admitted to have taken place in the system of Jesus Christ, between doctrines promulgated in different states of feeling or information, or even such as are implied in the enunciation of a scheme of thought, various and obscure through its immensity and depth. It is not asserted that no degree of human indignation ever hurried him beyond the limits which his calmer mood had placed to disapprobation against vice and folly. Those deviations from the history of his life are alone to be vindicated which represent his own essential character in contradiction with itself.

Every human mind has what Bacon calls its idola specus—peculiar images which reside in the inner cave of disadvantages of studying essay thought. These constitute the essential and distinctive character of every human being; to which every action and every word have intimate relation; and by which, in depicting a character, the genuineness and meaning of these words and actions are to be determined. Every fanatic or enemy of virtue is not at liberty to misrepresent the greatest geniuses and of a caged parrot essay most heroic defenders of all that is valuable in this mortal world. History, to term papers, gain any credit, must contain some truth, and that truth shall thus be made a sufficient indication of prejudice and deceit. With respect to the miracles which these biographers have related, I have already declined to enter into any discussion on their nature or their existence. The supposition of autobiography of a caged essay their falsehood or their truth would modify in no degree the hues of the picture which is attempted to be delineated. To judge truly of the moral and philosophical character of Socrates, it is not necessary to determine the question of the familiar Spirit which [it] is supposed that he believed to attend on him. The power of the human mind, relatively to intercourse with or dominion over the invisible world, is doubtless an interesting theme of discussion; but the in essay form connexion of the instance of Jesus Christ with the established religion of the country in which I write, renders it dangerous to subject oneself to autobiography caged parrot essay, the imputation of introducing new Gods or abolishing old ones; nor is the duty of research paper mutual forbearance sufficiently understood to render it certain that the metaphysician and the moralist, even though he carefully sacrifice a cock to ?sculapius, may not receive something analogous to the bowl of hemlock for the reward of his labours. Much, however, of what his biographers have asserted is not to caged, be rejected merely because inferences inconsistent with the general spirit of his system are to be adduced from its admission. Jesus Christ did what every other reformer who has produced any considerable effect upon dissertation the world has done.

He accommodated his doctrines to the prepossessions of essay those whom he addressed. He used a language for this view sufficiently familiar to our comprehensions. He said,—However new or strange my doctrines may appear to you, they are in fact only the restoration and re-establishment of those original institutions and ancient customs of direct investment essay your own law and religion. The constitutions of of a caged essay your faith and policy, although perfect in their origin, have become corrupt and altered, and dilemma have fallen into decay. I profess to restore them to their pristine authority and splendour. Think not that I am come to destroy the autobiography of a caged Law and the Prophets. I am come not to destroy, but to fulfil. Till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle shall in nowise pass away from the Law, till all be fulfilled. Foreign Direct In India Essay? Thus, like a skilful orator (see Cicero, De Oratore ), he secures the prejudices of his auditors, and induces them, by essay his professions of paper sympathy with their feelings, to enter with a willing mind into the exposition of his own.

The art of persuasion differs from that of of a caged reasoning; and radiography paper it is of no small moment, to the success even of a true cause, that the judges who are to determine on its merits should be free from those national and religious predilections which render the of a parrot multitude both deaf and blind. Let not this practice be considered as an unworthy artifice. It were best for the cause of reason that mankind should acknowledge no authority but its own; but it is useful, to a certain extent, that they should not consider those institutions which they have been habituated to reverence as opposing an obstacle to its admission. All reformers have been compelled to practise this misrepresentation of their own true feelings and opinions. It is deeply to be lamented that a word should ever issue from human lips which contains the minutest alloy of dissimulation, or simulation, or hypocrisy, or exaggeration, or anything but the precise and rigid image which is present to the mind, and which ought to writing in essay, dictate the expression. But the practice of utter sincerity towards other men would avail to no good end, if they were incapable of practising it towards their own minds. In fact, truth cannot be communicated until it is perceived. The interests, therefore, of truth require that an autobiography of a parrot orator should, as far as possible, produce in his hearers that state of mind on which alone his exhortations could fairly be contemplated and examined. Having produced this favourable disposition of ethical term papers mind, Jesus Christ proceeds to qualify, and finally to parrot, abrogate, the system of the foreign investment in india essay Jewish law. He descants upon its insufficiency as a code of moral conduct, which it professed to be, and absolutely selects the law of retaliation as an instance of the absurdity and immorality of its institutions.

The conclusion of the autobiography speech is in a strain of the most daring and most impassioned speculation. He seems emboldened by the success of his exculpation to the multitude, to declare in public the utmost singularity of his faith. He tramples upon all received opinions, on all the cherished luxuries and superstitions of mankind. He bids them cast aside the chains of custom and blind faith by which they have been encompassed from the very cradle of their being, and in essay receive the imitator and minister of the autobiography of a caged parrot essay Universal God. EQUALITY OF MANKIND. The spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath chosen me to preach the gospel to the poor: he hath sent me to heal the writing broken-hearted, to preach deliverance to the captives and recovering of of a caged essay sight to the blind, and to disadvantages of studying, set at liberty them that are bruised. (Luke, Ch. IV. Autobiography Essay? v. 18.) This is an enunciation of all that Plato and Diogenes have speculated upon the equality of mankind. They saw that the great majority of the human species were reduced to the situation of squalid ignorance and direct investment in india essay moral imbecility, for the purpose of purveying for the luxury of a few, and contributing to the satisfaction of their thirst for power. Too mean-spirited and too feeble in of a resolve to attempt the conquest of their own evil passions, and of the difficulties of the material world, men sought dominion over their fellow-men, as an easy method to gain that apparent majesty and power which the instinct of research paper their nature requires.

Plato wrote the scheme of autobiography a republic, in which law should watch over the equal distribution of the external instruments of unequal power—honours, property, c. Diogenes devised a nobler and ethical dilemma papers a more worthy system of autobiography caged opposition to the system of the slave and tyrant. He said: It is in research papers the power of each individual to level the inequality which is the topic of the complaint of autobiography of a mankind. Let him be aware of his own worth, and the station which he occupies in the scale of moral beings. Diamonds and gold, palaces and investment sceptres, derive their value from the opinion of mankind. Autobiography Parrot? The only sumptuary law which can be imposed on the use and fabrication of these instruments of mischief and deceit, these symbols of successful injustice, is the foreign direct law of opinion. Every man possesses the power, in this respect, to legislate for himself. Let him be well aware of autobiography of a essay his own worth and paper moral dignity. Let him yield in meek reverence to any wiser or worthier than he, so long as he accords no veneration to the splendour of his apparel, the luxury of his food, the of a parrot multitude of in essay his flatterers and autobiography of a caged essay slaves.

It is because, mankind, ye value and seek the empty pageantry of wealth and social power, that ye are enslaved to its possessions. Decrease your physical wants; learn to live, so far as nourishment arid shelter are concerned, like the beast of the forest and the birds of the air; ye will need not to complain, that other individuals of your species are surrounded by the diseases of luxury and the vices of subserviency and oppression. With all those who are truly wise, there will be an entire community, not only of thoughts and feelings, but also of external possessions. Insomuch, therefore, as ye live [wisely], ye may enjoy the community of form whatsoever benefits arise from the inventions of civilized life.—They are of value only for purposes of mental power; they are of value only as they are capable of autobiography essay being shared and applied to the common advantage of philosophy; and, if there be, no love among men, whatever institutions they may frame must be subservient to the same purpose—to the continuance of inequality. If there be no love among men, it is ethical, best that he who sees through the hollowness of their professions should fly from their society, and suffice to his own soul.

In wisdom, be will thus lose nothing in power, he will gain everything. In proportion to parrot essay, the love existing among men, so will be the community of in essay form property and power. Among true and real friends, all is common; and, were ignorance and envy and superstition banished from the world, all mankind would be friends. The only perfect and genuine republic is that which comprehends every living being. Those distinctions which have been artificially set up, of nations, societies, families, and religions, are only general names, expressing the abhorrence and contempt with which men blindly consider their fellowmen.

I love my country; I love the city in which I was born, my parents, my wife, and the children of my care; and to this city, this woman, and this nation, it is incumbent on autobiography caged parrot, me to do all the benefit in my power. To what do these distinctions point, but to an evident denial of the duty which humanity imposes on you, of doing every possible good to investment essay, every individual, under whatever denomination he may be comprehended, to whom you have the power of doing it? You ought to caged, love all mankind; nay, every individual of mankind. You ought not to love the ethical term individuals of your domestic circles less, but to love those who exist beyond it more. Once make the feelings of confidence and of a parrot of affection universal, and the distinctions of property and power will vanish; nor are they to be abolished without substituting something equivalent in dissertation writing services in malaysia mischief to them, until all mankind shall acknowledge an entire community of rights. But, as the caged parrot essay shades of night are dispelled by the faintest glimmerings of dawn, so shall the minutest progress of the benevolent feelings disperse, in some degree, the gloom of research paper tyranny, and [curb the] ministers of mutual suspicion and abhorrence.

Your physical wants are few, whilst those of your mind and heart cannot be numbered or described, from their multitude and complication. To secure the gratification of the former, you have made yourselves the bond-slaves of each other. They have cultivated these meaner wants to so great an excess as to judge nothing so valuable or desirable [as] what relates to their gratification. Hence has arisen a system of passions which loses sight of the end they were originally awakened to attain. Fame, power, and gold, are loved for their own sakes—are worshipped with a blind, habitual idolatry. The pageantry of of a caged parrot empire, and the fame of irresistible might, are contemplated by the possessor with unmeaning complacency, without a retrospect to the properties which first made him consider them of value. It is from the cultivation of the most contemptible properties of human nature that discord and torpor and indifference, by which the moral universe is disordered, essentially depend. So long as these are the ties by which human society is ethical term papers, connected, let it not be admitted that they are fragile.

Before man can be free, and equal, and truly wise, he must cast aside the chains of habit and superstition; he must strip sensuality of its pomp, and of a caged parrot selfishness of its excuses, and papers contemplate actions and objects as they really are. He will discover the wisdom of universal love; he will feel the meanness and parrot essay the injustice of sacrificing the services in malaysia reason and the liberty of his fellow-men to the indulgence of his physical appetites, and becoming a party to autobiography caged, their degradation by the consummation of his own. Such, with those differences only disadvantages of studying essay incidental to the age and state of society in of a caged which they were promulgated, appear to have been the doctrines of Jesus Christ. It is not too much to assert that they have been the doctrines of every just and compassionate mind that ever speculated on the social nature of man. The dogma of the equality of mankind has been advocated with various success, in different ages of the world. It was imperfectly understood, but a kind of instinct in its favour influenced considerably the practice of ancient Greece and Rome. Attempts to establish usages founded on this dogma have been made in modern Europe, in several instances, since the revival of literature and the arts. Rousseau has vindicated this opinion with all the eloquence of radiography research sincere and earnest faith; and is, perhaps, the philosopher among the moderns who, in the structure of his feelings and understanding resembles most nearly the mysterious sage of Judea. It is impossible to read those passionate words in which Jesus Christ upbraids the pusillanimity and sensuality of mankind, without being strongly reminded of the more connected and systematic enthusiasm of parrot essay Rousseau. No man, says Jesus Christ, can serve two masters.

Take, therefore, no thought for to-morrow, for the morrow shall take thought for the things of itself. Sufficient unto the dilemma term day is the evil thereof. If we would profit by the wisdom of a sublime and poetical mind, we must beware of the vulgar error of interpreting literally every expression it employs. Nothing can well be more remote from truth than the literal and strict construction of such expressions as Jesus Christ delivers, or than [to imagine that] it were best for man that he should abandon all his acquirements in physical and intellectual science, and depend on the spontaneous productions of nature for his subsistence. Nothing is more obviously false than that the remedy for essay the inequality among men consists in their return to research papers, the condition of savages and beasts. Philosophy will never be understood if we approach the study of its mysteries with so narrow and illiberal conceptions of its universality. Rousseau certainly did not mean to persuade the immense population of his country to abandon all the arts of autobiography essay life, destroy their habitations and their temples, and become the inhabitants of the woods. He addressed the most enlightened of his compatriots, and endeavoured to ethical dilemma, persuade them to set the example of a pure and simple life, by placing in the strongest point of view his conceptions of the calamitous and diseased aspect which, overgrown as it is with the vices of sensuality and selfishness, is exhibited by civilized society. Nor can it be believed that Jesus Christ endeavoured to prevail on the inhabitants of Jerusalem neither to till their fields, nor to frame a shelter against the sky, nor to of a essay, provide food for papers the morrow. He simply exposes, with the passionate rhetoric of enthusiastic love towards all human beings, the miseries and mischiefs of that system which makes all things subservient to the subsistence of the material frame of man. He warns them that no man can serve two masters—God and Mammon; that it is impossible at once to be highminded and just and caged wise, and to comply with the accustomed forms of human society, seek power, wealth, or empire, either from the idolatry of habit, or as the direct instruments of sensual gratification.

He instructs them that clothing and food and shelter are not, as they suppose, the true end of human life, but only certain means, to be valued in proportion to their subserviency to that end. These means it is the right of every human being to research paper, possess, and of a caged parrot that in the same degree. In this respect, the fowls of the air and the lilies of the field are examples for the imitation of mankind. They are clothed and form fed by of a parrot essay the Universal God. Permit, therefore, the Spirit of this benignant Principle to visit your intellectual frame, or, in other words, become just and foreign in india essay pure. When you understand the degree of caged parrot essay attention which the requisitions of disadvantages abroad your physical nature demand, you will perceive how little labour suffices for their satisfaction.

Your Heavenly Father knoweth you have need of these things. The universal Harmony, or Reason, which makes your passive frame of autobiography of a essay thought its dwelling, in proportion to the purity and majesty of its nature will instruct you, if ye are willing to attain that exalted condition, in what manner to possess all the objects necessary for your material subsistence. All men are [impelled] to become thus pure and happy. All men are called to participate in the community of Nature's gifts. The man who has fewest bodily wants approaches nearest to the Divine Nature. Satisfy these wants at the cheapest rate, and expend the remaining energies of your nature in the attainment of virtue and knowledge. The mighty frame of the writing services wonderful and lovely world is the food of of a your contemplation, and essay living beings who resemble your own nature, and are bound to you by similarity of sensations, are destined to be the nutriment of your affection; united, they are the consummation of the autobiography caged essay widest hopes your mind can contain. Writing Form? Ye can expend thus no labour on mechanism consecrated to luxury and pride. How abundant will not be your progress in all that truly ennobles and extends human nature!

By rendering yourselves thus worthy, ye will be as free in your imaginations as the autobiography caged swift and many-coloured fowls of the air, and as beautiful in pure simplicity as the lilies of the field. In proportion as mankind becomes wise—yes, in exact proportion to direct essay, that wisdom—should be the extinction of the unequal system under which they now subsist. Government is, in fact, the mere badge of their depravity. They are so little aware of the inestimable benefits of caged parrot mutual love as to indulge, without thought, and almost without motive, in the worst excesses of selfishness and malice. Hence, without graduating human society into a scale of empire and subjection, its very existence has become impossible. It is necessary that universal benevolence should supersede the regulations of precedent and prescription, before these regulations can safely be abolished. Meanwhile, their very subsistence depends on the system of injustice and violence, which they have been devised to palliate. They suppose men endowed with the power of deliberating and determining for their equals; whilst these men, as frail and as ignorant as the multitude whom they rule, possess, as a practical consequence of writing form this power, the right which they of necessity exercise to prevent (together with their own) the of a essay physical and moral and policy intellectual nature, of all mankind. It is the object of wisdom to equalize the distinctions on which this power depends, by exhibiting in their proper worthlessness the objects, a contention concerning which renders its existence a necessary evil. The evil, in fact, is virtually abolished wherever justice is practised; and it is abolished in precise proportion to the prevalence of true virtue.

The whole frame of human things is infected by an insidious poison. Hence it is that man is blind in his understanding, corrupt in his moral sense, and diseased in his physical functions. The wisest and most sublime of the ancient poets saw this truth, and of a parrot essay embodied their conception of its value in retrospect to the earliest ages of disadvantages abroad mankind. They represented equality as the reign of Saturn, and taught that mankind had gradually degenerated from the virtue which enabled them to enjoy or maintain this happy state. Their doctrine was philosophically false. Later and more correct observations have instructed us that uncivilized man is the most pernicious and miserable of beings, and that the violence and injustice, which are the genuine indications of autobiography parrot real inequality, obtain in the society of these beings without palliation. Their imaginations of a happier state of human society were referred, in truth, to the Saturnian period; they ministered, indeed, to thoughts of despondency and sorrow. But they were the children of airy hope—the prophets and parents of writing services man's futurity. Alan was once as a wild beast; he has become a moralist, a metaphysician, a poet, and an astronomer. Caged Parrot? Lueretius or Viril might have referred the comparison to themselves and, as a proof of the progress of the nature of man, challenged a comparison with the cannibals of policy papers Scythia. The experience of the ages which have intervened between the present period and that in which Jesus Christ taught, tends to prove his doctrine, and to illustrate theirs.

There is more equality because there is more justice, and there is more justice because there is more universal knowledge. To the caged parrot accomplishment of such mighty hopes were the views of Jesus Christ extended; such did he believe to be the tendency of his doctrines—the abolition of artificial distinctions among mankind, so far as the love which it becomes all human beings to bear towards each other, and dissertation services the knowledge of truth from which that love will never fail to be produced, avail to their destruction. A young man came to Jesus Christ, struck by the miraculous dignity and simplicity of his character, and attracted by the words of power which he uttered. He demanded to be considered as one of the of a followers of his creed. Sell all that thou hast, replied the philosopher; give it to the poor, and follow me. But the young man had large possessions, and he went away sorrowing.

The system of equality was attempted, after Jesus Christ's death, to radiography, be carried into effect by his followers. They that believed had all things in common; they sold their possessions and goods, and parted them to all men, as every man had need; and they, continuing daily with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread from house to house, did eat their meat with gladness and singleness of heart. ( Acts , Ch. II.) The practical application of the doctrines of strict justice to a state of society established in its contempt, was such as might have been expected. After the transitory glow of enthusiasm had faded from the minds of men, precedent and habit resumed their empire; they broke like an universal deluge on autobiography of a caged parrot, one shrinking and solitary island. Men to whom birth had allotted ample possession looked with complacency on sumptuous apartments and luxurious food, and policy those ceremonials of parrot essay delusive majesty which surround the throne of power and the court of research wealth.

Men, from whom these things were withheld by their condition, began again to gaze with stupid envy on pernicious splendour; and, by desiring the false greatness of another's state, to sacrifice the intrinsic dignity of their own. The demagogues of the infant republic of the Christian sect, attaining through eloquence or artifice, to influence amongst its members, first violated (under the pretence of watching over their integrity) the institutions established for the common and equal benefit of all. These demagogues artfully silenced the voice of the moral sense among them by engaging them to attend, not so much to autobiography caged, the cultivation of a virtuous and happy life in services this mortal scene, as to the attainment of a fortunate condition after death; not so much to the consideration of those means by which the state of man is adorned and improved, as an inquiry into the secrets of the connexion between God and the world—things which, they well knew, were not to be explained, or even to be conceived. The system of equality which they established necessarily fell to the ground, because it is a system that must result from, rather than precede, the moral improvement of human kind. It was a circumstance of no moment that the autobiography of a parrot essay first adherents of the system of Jesus Christ cast their property into a common stock. The same degree of real community of property could have subsisted without this formality, which served only to extend a temptation of dishonesty to the treasurers of so considerable a patrimony. Every man, in proportion to his virtue, considers himself, with respect to the great community of mankind, as the steward and guardian of their interests in the property which he chances to possess.

Every man, in proportion to his wisdom, sees the manner in which it is his duty to employ the ethical dilemma term papers resources which the autobiography of a caged parrot essay consent of mankind has intrusted to his discretion. Such is the [annihilation] of the unjust inequality of dilemma powers and conditions. existing in the world; and so gradually and inevitably is the progress of equality accommodated to the progress of wisdom and of virtue among mankind. Meanwhile, some benefit has not failed to flow from the autobiography of a caged imperfect attempts which have been made to erect a system of equal rights to property and power upon the basis of arbitrary institutions. They have undoubtedly, in every case, from the instability of foreign direct their foundation, failed. Still, they constitute a record of those epochs at which a trite sense of justice suggested itself to of a caged parrot essay, the understandings of men, so that they consented to forego all the radiography paper cherished delights of luxury, all the habitual gratifications arising out of the possession or the expectation of power, all the superstitions with which the autobiography of a caged essay accumulated authority of ages had made them dear and venerable. They are so many trophies erected in the enemy's land, to mark the limits of the victorious progress of truth and dissertation justice. No mistake is more to be deplored than the conception that a system of morals and religion should derive any portion of its authority either from the circumstance of its novelty or its antiquity, that it should be judged excellent, not because it is reasonable or true, but because no person has ever thought of it before, or because it has been thought of from the beginning of time. The vulgar mind delights to [abstract?] from the most useful maxims or institutions the trite reasons of caged parrot essay their preferableness, and to essay, accommodate to the loose inductions of their own indisciplinable minds. Thus mankind is of a essay, governed by precedents for actions which were never, or are no longer, useful and deluded by the pretensions of disadvantages of studying any bold impostor.

Such has been, most unfortunately, the process of the human mind relatively to the doctrines of Jesus Christ. Their original promulgation was authorized by an appeal to the antiquity of the of a caged parrot essay institutions of Judaea; and in vindication of superstitious professing to be founded on them, it is asserted that nothing analogous to their tenor was ever before produced. The doctrines of Jesus Christ have scarcely the smallest resemblance to the Jewish law: nor have wisdom and benevolence and pity failed in whatsoever age of the world to generate such persuasions as those which are the basis of the moral system he announced. Policy? The most eminent philosophers of Greece had long been familiarized to the boldest and most sublime speculations on God, on the visible world, and on the moral and intellectual Nature of Man. The universality and unity of God, the omnipotence of the mind of man, the equality of human beings and the duty of internal purity, is either asserted by Pythagoras, Plato, Diogenes, Zeno, and their followers, or may be directly inferred from their assertions. Nothing would be gained by the establishment of the originality of Jesus Christ's doctrines but the casting a suspicion upon its practicability. Let us beware therefore what we admit lest, as some have made a trade of of a caged parrot its imagined mysteries, we lose the inestimable advantages of its simplicity. Let us beware, if we love liberty and of studying truth, if we loathe tyranny and imposture, if, imperfect ourselves, we still aspire to the freedom of internal purity, and cherish the elevated hope that mankind may not be everlastingly condemned to the bondage of their own passions and autobiography of a parrot the passions of their fellow beings, let us beware. An established religion turns to deathlike apathy the sublimest ebullitions of most exalted genius, and the spirit-stirring truths of a mind inflamed with the desire of benefiting mankind.

It is the characteristic of a cold and tame spirit to imagine that such doctrines as Jesus Christ promulgated are destined to follow the fortunes and share the extinction of a popular religion. Forman's Editorial Preface: The Essay on Christianity was first given by Lady Shelley, in policy research papers the Shelley Memorials (1859), where it is accompanied by autobiography the following note:—The reader will observe some unfinished sentences in the course of this Essay; but it has been thought advisable to print it exactly as it was found, with the exception of a few conjectural words inserted between brackets. In this and other respects the text of the Memorials is here followed; but I have added from the St. James's Magazine for March, 1876, what appears to be a part of a recapitulation and dissertation in malaysia conclusion. It is reasonable to think that this would have been further developed; but the final sentences are peculiarly weighty, and likely to be the of a conclusion of the whole matter. Mr. Rossetti assigns this Essay, not very confidently, to direct investment, the year 1815: if that be not the date, I should incline to place it a little later rather than earlier.—H.B.F. calculated——: It seems likely that it was a part of the autobiography caged parrot essay scheme of ethical dilemma this Essay to examine and illustrate the Beatitudes seriatim . The passage now printed as the essay conclusion of the Essay occupies a page and a half of a sheet of in essay form foolscap paper: on the other leaf of the sheet, and not continuously with the rest are written and autobiography of a caged parrot essay cancelled the following passages:— I, the Redeemer of mankind; I who dare to.

Lament no more ye meek and gentle beings: bear on against the papers oppressions of the of a caged parrot essay hard and unfeeling world—with resolute and tranquil mind; for in the calmness of your own spirit shall be your reward, and the. him: See Note on this subject, Vol. III, p. Ethical? 312. Scythia: Jesus Christ foresaw what the poets retrospectively imagined. [Shelley's Note.] Jesus Christ did not. It is at this point that the Essay ends in the Shelley Memorials . Autobiography Parrot? The rest is from the St. James's Magazine . superstitions professing. Cancelled reading, a system professing to radiography research paper, be founded on these doctrines . produced: Cancelled reading, Let us proceed to vindicate . law: There is another erasure here, The Philosophers of Greece, and their imitators, the Romans, bear.

The: Cancelled reading, The doctrines were speculations of the most eminent, c. Plato: In the MS., The Platonists and Stoics is here struck out. practicability: Cancelled passage, It promises , and again, would persuade man not to be tyrant of man . liberty and truth: In the MS., our fellow men is here struck out in parrot essay favour of liberty and truth . It is the characteristic. In India? Cancelled reading, It is a cold and palsying tame thought . follow the fortunes: In the MS. the words share the fate originally stood here.